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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 Table 1 - Composition of control...
 Table 2 - Performance of growing-finishing...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1981-4
Title: Performance of growing-finishing swine as influenced by choline andor pantothenic acid omission from supplemental vitamin premix
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073125/00001
 Material Information
Title: Performance of growing-finishing swine as influenced by choline andor pantothenic acid omission from supplemental vitamin premix
Series Title: Department of Animal Sience research report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bryant, Kenneth Lee, 1951-
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vitamins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Choline   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 2).
Statement of Responsibility: K.L. Bryant, G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1981."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073125
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80909360

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 2
    Literature cited
        Page 2
    Table 1 - Composition of control diets
        Page 3
    Table 2 - Performance of growing-finishing swine as influenced by choline and/or pantothenic acid omission from supplemental vitamin premix
        Page 3
Full Text

Department of Animal Science -1 -Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1981-4 Experiment Station
L july, 1981 Gainesville, Florida

S( C1

PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE AS INFLUENCED BY CHOLINE AND/OR
PANTOTHENIC ACID OMISSION FROM SUPPLEMENTAL VITAMIN PREMIX1

K. L. Bryant2, G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace3


As production costs rise and profit margins decrease, swine producers look
for alternate feeding programs to reduce feed costs. Although not recommended,
some producers achieve this reduction by decreasing dietary nutrient levels or
removing dietary ingredients from the diet. If the diet modification does not
significantly decrease animal performance, more economic gains may be acquired.
However, if the animal's performance is significantly decreased, the producer
may actually increase his production cost per unit of gain.

In a previous experiment (1), the omission of choline from corn-soybean
meal diets for growing-finishing swine had no effect (P<.05) on daily gain or
feed conversion. The recent NRC guidelines (2) suggest supplementing diets for
35-100 kg growing-finishing swine with 400-550 mg of choline per kg of diet.

A deficiency of pantothenic acid can lead to poor appetite, reduced growth,
leg stiffness and locomotor incoordination. The NRC suggests supplementing diets
for 35-100 kg growing-finishing pigs with 11 mg pantothenic acid per kg of diet.
Most swine diets fed today are supplemented with pantothenic acid.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of omitting supplemental
choline and pantothenic acid from corn-soybean meal diets for growing-finishing
swine. The additive effect of omitting both vitamins was also tested.


Experimental

One hundred and twelve crossbred pigs, averaging 42 kg, were divided on
the basis of weight, breeding and sex into eight pens of barrows and eight pens
of gilts. Two pens of each sex (14 pigs) were randomly allotted to the follow-
ing dietary treatments:

1) Control diet
2) Control minus supplemental choline
3) Control minus supplemental pantothenic acid
4) Control minus supplemental choline and pantothenic acid

The control diets (table 1) contained corn, soybean meal, minerals and
vitamins (including choline and pantothenic acid) above NRC guidelines. The
remaining dietary treatments were obtained by omitting either choline and/or



Data taken from Swine Unit Experiment 236B.
2Bryant, graduate student, present Address: Animal Science Department, Agnew
Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
3Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Wallace, Department Chairman, Animal Science
Department, Gainesville.






- 2 -


pantothenic acid from the vitamin premix. The diets contained 14% and 16%
crude protein, respectively, for barrows and gilts. All animals were fed ad
libitum in a partially-slotted aluminum floored finishing barn for 69 days.
Feedlot performance data were collected every 14 days.

Data were analyzed by the analysis of variance procedure and dietary
treatment comparisons made using orthoganol contrasts.


Results and Discussion

There were no differences (P>.10) in feedlot performance between barrows
and gilts across all dietary treatments. The barrows consumed slightly more
feed; however, the gilts were more efficient. There were no sex x dietary
treatment interactions, therefore, the data were combined for barrows and gilts
and summarized in table 2.

The omission of pantothenic acid from the supplemental vitamin premix pro-
duced no significant (P>.10) changes in feedlot performance when compared to the
control groups. When choline was omitted from the vitamin premix, there was a
reduction (P<.05) in both average daily gain and average daily feed intake com-
pared to the control diet. Feed to gain ratios were similar for both control
and no choline treatment groups. The omission of both supplemental choline and
pantothenic acid significantly (P<.05) reduced average daily gain and average
daily feed intake when compared to the control diet. The responses of the non-
supplemented choline groups were similar to that of the non-supplemented choline and
pantothenic acid groups indicating that the decreases in performance of these
two dietary treatments were primarily a result of a lack of choline. Comparing
the responses of the non-supplemented choline and the non-supplemented choline
and pantothenic groups, the effects do not appear to be additive. However, the
response is additive if you compare the pantothenic acid group with the no
pantothenic acid and choline group. Data from this study indicate that the
omission of supplemental choline from the diet of growing-finishing swine will
result in a significant reduction in feedlot performance. The omission of
pantothenic acid did not alter performance.


Summary

One hundred twelve crossbred swine were utilized to evaluate the performance
of growing-finishing swine as influenced by choline and/or pantothenic acid
omission from the supplemental vitamin premix. Daily gain and daily feed in-
take were depressed (P<.05) when choline or choline and pantothenic acid were
omitted from the vitamin premix. Omission of pantothenic acid alone did not
alter performance.


Literature Cited

1. Bryant, K. L., G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace. 1977. Supplemental choline
for young and growing-finishing swine. University of Florida, Dept. of
Animal Science, Research Report AL-1977-1.

2. NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. No. 2. Nutrient
Requirements of Swine. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.






- 2 -


pantothenic acid from the vitamin premix. The diets contained 14% and 16%
crude protein, respectively, for barrows and gilts. All animals were fed ad
libitum in a partially-slotted aluminum floored finishing barn for 69 days.
Feedlot performance data were collected every 14 days.

Data were analyzed by the analysis of variance procedure and dietary
treatment comparisons made using orthoganol contrasts.


Results and Discussion

There were no differences (P>.10) in feedlot performance between barrows
and gilts across all dietary treatments. The barrows consumed slightly more
feed; however, the gilts were more efficient. There were no sex x dietary
treatment interactions, therefore, the data were combined for barrows and gilts
and summarized in table 2.

The omission of pantothenic acid from the supplemental vitamin premix pro-
duced no significant (P>.10) changes in feedlot performance when compared to the
control groups. When choline was omitted from the vitamin premix, there was a
reduction (P<.05) in both average daily gain and average daily feed intake com-
pared to the control diet. Feed to gain ratios were similar for both control
and no choline treatment groups. The omission of both supplemental choline and
pantothenic acid significantly (P<.05) reduced average daily gain and average
daily feed intake when compared to the control diet. The responses of the non-
supplemented choline groups were similar to that of the non-supplemented choline and
pantothenic acid groups indicating that the decreases in performance of these
two dietary treatments were primarily a result of a lack of choline. Comparing
the responses of the non-supplemented choline and the non-supplemented choline
and pantothenic groups, the effects do not appear to be additive. However, the
response is additive if you compare the pantothenic acid group with the no
pantothenic acid and choline group. Data from this study indicate that the
omission of supplemental choline from the diet of growing-finishing swine will
result in a significant reduction in feedlot performance. The omission of
pantothenic acid did not alter performance.


Summary

One hundred twelve crossbred swine were utilized to evaluate the performance
of growing-finishing swine as influenced by choline and/or pantothenic acid
omission from the supplemental vitamin premix. Daily gain and daily feed in-
take were depressed (P<.05) when choline or choline and pantothenic acid were
omitted from the vitamin premix. Omission of pantothenic acid alone did not
alter performance.


Literature Cited

1. Bryant, K. L., G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace. 1977. Supplemental choline
for young and growing-finishing swine. University of Florida, Dept. of
Animal Science, Research Report AL-1977-1.

2. NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. No. 2. Nutrient
Requirements of Swine. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.






- 2 -


pantothenic acid from the vitamin premix. The diets contained 14% and 16%
crude protein, respectively, for barrows and gilts. All animals were fed ad
libitum in a partially-slotted aluminum floored finishing barn for 69 days.
Feedlot performance data were collected every 14 days.

Data were analyzed by the analysis of variance procedure and dietary
treatment comparisons made using orthoganol contrasts.


Results and Discussion

There were no differences (P>.10) in feedlot performance between barrows
and gilts across all dietary treatments. The barrows consumed slightly more
feed; however, the gilts were more efficient. There were no sex x dietary
treatment interactions, therefore, the data were combined for barrows and gilts
and summarized in table 2.

The omission of pantothenic acid from the supplemental vitamin premix pro-
duced no significant (P>.10) changes in feedlot performance when compared to the
control groups. When choline was omitted from the vitamin premix, there was a
reduction (P<.05) in both average daily gain and average daily feed intake com-
pared to the control diet. Feed to gain ratios were similar for both control
and no choline treatment groups. The omission of both supplemental choline and
pantothenic acid significantly (P<.05) reduced average daily gain and average
daily feed intake when compared to the control diet. The responses of the non-
supplemented choline groups were similar to that of the non-supplemented choline and
pantothenic acid groups indicating that the decreases in performance of these
two dietary treatments were primarily a result of a lack of choline. Comparing
the responses of the non-supplemented choline and the non-supplemented choline
and pantothenic groups, the effects do not appear to be additive. However, the
response is additive if you compare the pantothenic acid group with the no
pantothenic acid and choline group. Data from this study indicate that the
omission of supplemental choline from the diet of growing-finishing swine will
result in a significant reduction in feedlot performance. The omission of
pantothenic acid did not alter performance.


Summary

One hundred twelve crossbred swine were utilized to evaluate the performance
of growing-finishing swine as influenced by choline and/or pantothenic acid
omission from the supplemental vitamin premix. Daily gain and daily feed in-
take were depressed (P<.05) when choline or choline and pantothenic acid were
omitted from the vitamin premix. Omission of pantothenic acid alone did not
alter performance.


Literature Cited

1. Bryant, K. L., G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace. 1977. Supplemental choline
for young and growing-finishing swine. University of Florida, Dept. of
Animal Science, Research Report AL-1977-1.

2. NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. No. 2. Nutrient
Requirements of Swine. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.






-3 -


TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF CONTROL DIETS


Ingredient Barrows Gilts

Ground yellow corn 83.80 78.80
Soybean meal (49%) 13.00 18.00
Bio phos1 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals (CCC)2 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)3'4 0.10 0.10

100.00 100.00
Calculated protein (%) 14.00 16.00


product of International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Skokie, IL.
2Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc, 10%
iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.1% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3Contained 13,200 mg riboflavin, 44,000 mg niacin, 26,400 mg pantothenic acid,
176,000 mg choline chloride, 22,000 mcg Vitamin B12, 5,500,000 I.U. vitamin A,
880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 I.U. vitamin E per lb of premix3.
4Choline and/or pantothenic acid were omitted from the vitamin premix when
preparing the remaining dietary treatments.








TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE AS INFLUENCED BY CHOLINE AND/OR
PANTOTHENIC ACID OMISSION FROM SUPPLEMENTAL VITAMIN PREMIX



Treatments
No No No choline
Criteria Control Choline P.A. and P.A.

No. of pigs 28 28 28 28
Initial weight, kg 41.7 41.6 41.7 41.7
Final weight, kg 98.5 95.8 97.6 95.0
Avg. daily gain, kg .82 .79a .81 .77a
Avg. daily feed intake, kg 2.69 2.58a 2.67 2.55
Feed/gain 3.27 3.29 3.29 3.30


Differs significantly from control (P<.05).






-3 -


TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF CONTROL DIETS


Ingredient Barrows Gilts

Ground yellow corn 83.80 78.80
Soybean meal (49%) 13.00 18.00
Bio phos1 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals (CCC)2 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)3'4 0.10 0.10

100.00 100.00
Calculated protein (%) 14.00 16.00


product of International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Skokie, IL.
2Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc, 10%
iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.1% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3Contained 13,200 mg riboflavin, 44,000 mg niacin, 26,400 mg pantothenic acid,
176,000 mg choline chloride, 22,000 mcg Vitamin B12, 5,500,000 I.U. vitamin A,
880,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 22,000 I.U. vitamin E per lb of premix3.
4Choline and/or pantothenic acid were omitted from the vitamin premix when
preparing the remaining dietary treatments.








TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE AS INFLUENCED BY CHOLINE AND/OR
PANTOTHENIC ACID OMISSION FROM SUPPLEMENTAL VITAMIN PREMIX



Treatments
No No No choline
Criteria Control Choline P.A. and P.A.

No. of pigs 28 28 28 28
Initial weight, kg 41.7 41.6 41.7 41.7
Final weight, kg 98.5 95.8 97.6 95.0
Avg. daily gain, kg .82 .79a .81 .77a
Avg. daily feed intake, kg 2.69 2.58a 2.67 2.55
Feed/gain 3.27 3.29 3.29 3.30


Differs significantly from control (P<.05).




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