• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Introduction
 Experimental
 Results
 Table 1 - Composition of concentrate...
 Table 2 - Trace mineral and vitamin...
 Table 3 - Influence of vitamin...
 Table 4 - Growth responses of foals...
 Table 5 - Foal birth weight, placenta...
 Table 6 - Influence of vitamin...
 Table 7 - Influence of vitamin...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1981-3
Title: Vitamin and mineral supplementation of foaling mares
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073124/00001
 Material Information
Title: Vitamin and mineral supplementation of foaling mares
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 10 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ott, E. A ( Edgar A )
Asquith, Richard L
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Mares -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vitamins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Minerals in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.A. Ott and R.L. Asquith.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April 1981."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073124
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80906661

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table 1 - Composition of concentrate fed to broodmares (Exp. 1 and 2)
        Page 4
    Table 2 - Trace mineral and vitamin supplement
        Page 5
    Table 3 - Influence of vitamin and mineral supplementation on weight, girth, condition score and feed intake of foaling mares (Exp. 1 and 2)
        Page 6
    Table 4 - Growth responses of foals from control and supplemented mares (Exp. 1 and 2)
        Page 7
    Table 5 - Foal birth weight, placenta weight and weight change of mares at foaling (Exp. 1 and 2)
        Page 8
    Table 6 - Influence of vitamin and mineral supplementation on hemaglobin and hematocrit levels in mares and their foals
        Page 9
    Table 7 - Influence of vitamin and mineral supplementation on rebreeding of foaling mares
        Page 10
Full Text




Department of Animal Science 1 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1981-3 Experiment Station
April 1981 Gainesville, Florida

VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION
OF FOALING MARES1

E. A. Ott and R. L. Asquith2


Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the addition of ele-
vated levels of trace frinerals and vitamins would have an influence on the re-
productive efficiency of the foaling mare. A basic concentrate providing
moderate levels of vitamin A, D and E and trace minerals was fed with Coastal
bermudagrass hay and/or bahiagrass pasture. The supplement provided elevated
levels of vitamin A, D, E and trace minerals and a B vitamin package. Weight
changes by the mare, growth of the foal, blood hemoglobin and hematocrit values
and rebreeding efficiency were similar for both treated groups. Results in-
dicate that the control diet was just as effective as the supplemented diet
in providing for the.basic needs of the mare.

Introduction

National Research Council (NRC 1978) dietary recommendations for mares
in late gestation and early lactation include increased levels of energy, pro-
tein, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin A. It is implied that other nutrients
will be adequate if supplied at maintenance levels in the diet since increased
feed consumption will result in a greater than maintenance intake. The pre-
sent experiments were designed to determine whether elevated levels of trace
minerals and vitamin supplementation would be of advantage to foaling mares.

Experimental

Two experiments were conducted with Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse mares
to determine whether vitamin and mineral supplementation above recommended
levels would improve reproductive performance. In both trials, conducted in
consecutive years, mares were assigned at random within breed groups to one
of two feeding programs. Group A was fed a concentrate (table 1) designed to
meet or exceed NRC (1978) recommendations when fed with Coastal bermudagrass
hay or bahiagrass pasture. Group B was fed the same concentrate plus 50 g of
a vitamin and mineral supplement (table 2). Coastal bermudagrass hay was fed
to appetite from early December until the bahiagrass pasture was adequate to
provide forage needs (late March to early April). Hay consumption averaged
about 25 lb/head/day during the winter. Plain salt was offered free choice.
The concentrate was fed according to the following schedule:

Period Concentrate level
56 days to prefoaling to 28 day prefoaling 0.75 lb/100 Ib BW
28 days to prefoaling to foaling 1.00 lb/lO0 Ib BW
foaling to foaling + 90 days 1.50 lb/100 Ib BW
foaling + 90 days to weaning (112 days) decreasing intake

Due to variations in body conditions, each mare was assigned a condition
score and an adjustment was made to the feeding schedule as follows:








Department of Animal Science 1 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1981-3 Experiment Station
April 1981 Gainesville, Florida

VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION
OF FOALING MARES1

E. A. Ott and R. L. Asquith2


Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the addition of ele-
vated levels of trace frinerals and vitamins would have an influence on the re-
productive efficiency of the foaling mare. A basic concentrate providing
moderate levels of vitamin A, D and E and trace minerals was fed with Coastal
bermudagrass hay and/or bahiagrass pasture. The supplement provided elevated
levels of vitamin A, D, E and trace minerals and a B vitamin package. Weight
changes by the mare, growth of the foal, blood hemoglobin and hematocrit values
and rebreeding efficiency were similar for both treated groups. Results in-
dicate that the control diet was just as effective as the supplemented diet
in providing for the.basic needs of the mare.

Introduction

National Research Council (NRC 1978) dietary recommendations for mares
in late gestation and early lactation include increased levels of energy, pro-
tein, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin A. It is implied that other nutrients
will be adequate if supplied at maintenance levels in the diet since increased
feed consumption will result in a greater than maintenance intake. The pre-
sent experiments were designed to determine whether elevated levels of trace
minerals and vitamin supplementation would be of advantage to foaling mares.

Experimental

Two experiments were conducted with Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse mares
to determine whether vitamin and mineral supplementation above recommended
levels would improve reproductive performance. In both trials, conducted in
consecutive years, mares were assigned at random within breed groups to one
of two feeding programs. Group A was fed a concentrate (table 1) designed to
meet or exceed NRC (1978) recommendations when fed with Coastal bermudagrass
hay or bahiagrass pasture. Group B was fed the same concentrate plus 50 g of
a vitamin and mineral supplement (table 2). Coastal bermudagrass hay was fed
to appetite from early December until the bahiagrass pasture was adequate to
provide forage needs (late March to early April). Hay consumption averaged
about 25 lb/head/day during the winter. Plain salt was offered free choice.
The concentrate was fed according to the following schedule:

Period Concentrate level
56 days to prefoaling to 28 day prefoaling 0.75 lb/100 Ib BW
28 days to prefoaling to foaling 1.00 lb/lO0 Ib BW
foaling to foaling + 90 days 1.50 lb/100 Ib BW
foaling + 90 days to weaning (112 days) decreasing intake

Due to variations in body conditions, each mare was assigned a condition
score and an adjustment was made to the feeding schedule as follows:










Condition Concentrate
Condition score adjustment
Very fat 8 -60%
Too fat 7 -40%
Excess condition 6 -20%
Desired condition 5 0
Inadequate condition 4 +20%
Thin 3 +40%
Very thin 2 +60%

Mares were weighed, measured and given a condition score at 56 days be-
fore their projected foaling date, 28 days prefoaling, the last week before
foaling, the morning after foaling and at 28 day intervals until weaning at
112 days postfoaling. Foals were weighed and measured at birth and at 28
day intervals until weaning. Blood samples were collected 28 days before
foaling, at birth and at 28 and 112 days after foaling.

The first experiment was conducted in 1977 using twenty-four foaling
mares. The second experiment was conducted in 1978 with twenty foaling mares.
Four of the mares on this experiment, two from each treatment, did not produce
viable foals, and since there seemed to be no relationship between their pro-
blems and the treatments they were deleted from the data.

Results

The Coastal bermudagrass hay fed during Exp. I contained 89.8% DM, 8.8%
crude protein (CP),39.3% crude fiber (CF), 2.4% fat, 3.8% ash, .56% calcium
(Ca) and .43% phosphorus (P) on a dry matter basis. The Coastal bermudagrass
hay fed during Exp. 2 contained 88.7% DM, 9.5% crude protein, 34.5% crude
fiber 2.1% fat, 4.2% ash, .52% calcium and .23% phosphorus on a dry matter
basis. Results of the two experiments were almost identical. Data was there-
fore combined for presentation.

Concentrate intake by the mares is shown in table 3. No significant dif-
ferences were detected due to feeding programs for either of the experiments
or a combination. The feed intake reflects the planned program adjusted for
condition score.

Mares gained 31 kg and 29 kg during the last 56 days of gestation on the
control and supplemented diets, respectively. Weight loss at foaling was 72
kg for the control groups and 67 kg for the supplemented group. Weight changes
were similar for both groups of mares. Weights at 112 days postfoaling were
similar to weights at the start of the experiment. Heart girth remained con-
stant throughout the trial.

Average condition score increased from 4.70 at the start of the experi-
ment to 5.18 and 5.28 at the end of the experiment for the control and supple-
mented groups, respectively. The probability of a mare staying at the same
condition score the following period was 66.1, 89.4 and 56.0% for scores of
4, 5 and 6, respectively.

Birth weights for the foals were 9.2 and 8.6% of the mares average weights
for the control and supplemented groups, respectively.








Foals from the control mares were slightly larger at birth (table 4), but
only length was significant (P<.05). The foals maintained this advantage to
weaning, but differences were not significant at the end of the trial. Twenty-
nine intact placentas were collected, drained of fluid and weighed. Placenta
weights averaged 5.4 and 4.5 kg and foal plus placenta weights averaged 57.0
and 42.0 kg for the control and supplemented groups, respectively. Tissue
loss accounted for 82.3% of the foaling weight loss for the control mares and
78.5% of the foaling weight loss of the supplemented mares. Results suggest
that the supplemented mares were carrying slightly more fluids than the con-
trol mares.

Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels for the mares and foals were not affect-
ed by treatment. All values were in the normal range.' Values were highest
for both mares and foals immediately after foaling. The interaction between
treatment and year was significant for foal hematocrit values at birth. The
control groups had lower hematocrit values the first year and higher values
the second year.

Rebreeding efficiency of the mares was lower than expected. Only 85% of
the control mares and 70% of the supplemented mares were found suitable for
breeding (table 7). This was due to either incomplete cycles or uterine in-
fections. Conception by bred mares was 65% in the control group and 71% in
the supplemented group. These differences were not significant and probably
reflect more the animal variability than treatment differences.

This two year study suggests that the control diet provided adequate
levels of vitamins and minerals for the foaling mare during late gestation
and lactation. Supplementation with added levels of Vitamins A, D and E
and trace minerals and the addition of B complex vitamins as used in this
study were not detrimental.
















TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF CONCENTRATE FED TO BROODMARESa (EXP. 1 and 2)

Ingredients %


Corn
Oats
Wheat bran
Soybean meal
Alfalfa, dehy
Molasses
Calcium carbonate
Bio phos
Salt
Premixb


S39.5
30.0
5.0
8.0
10.0
5.0
.50
.75
.75
.50

100.0


Analyses (as-fed):
Dig. energy Mcal/kg 2.99
Crude protein, % 13.8
Calcium, % .61
Phosphorus, % .47


aFed with Coastal bermudagrass hay and/or bahiagrass pasture.
bpremix provided the following per kg of feed: vitamin A,
11,000 IU; vitamin D, 1318 IU; vitamin E, 12 IU; manganese::
10.8 mg; iron, 40.0 mg; copper, 7.5 mg; zinc, 39.5 mg; co-
balt, 0.22 mg; and iodine, 0.22 mg.

















TABLE 2. TRACE MINERAL AND VITAMIN SUPPLEMENT

SAmount Amount
Item per Ib per 50 g

Zinc, mg 3369 371
Iron, mg 1774 195
Manganese, mg 1440 159
Copper, mg 284 31
Cobalt, mg 20 2.2
Iodine, mg 18 2.0
Vitamin A, (USP units) 416667 45888
Vitamin D, (ICU) 89716 9682
Vitamin E, (ICU) 417 46
Thiamin, mg 351 39
Riboflavin, mg 586 65
Niacin, mg 1758 194
Pantothenic acid, mg 704 78
Pyriodoxine, mg 175 19
Folic acid, mg 175 19
Choline, mg 10130 1116
Vitamin B12, mg 1758 194

























TAIILE 3. INFLUENCE


OF VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION ON WEIGHT, GIRTII, CONDITION SCORE
AND FEED INTAKE OF FOALING MARE! (EXP. I and 2)


56 days 28 days Foaling Foaling Foaling Foaling
ItLc; trea.mcnt No. prefoaling prcfoaling Prefoaling Foaling + 28 days + 56 days + 84 days + 112 days Clhange


Mare weight, kg
Control
Supplemented


Mare heart girth,cm
Control
Supplemented


583 116
581 16


20 564
20 561


20 188
20 185


595 16
590 15


189 2 189
188 2 189


522 .15 543
523 t14 541,


189 2,
187 2


188 2 189 2 190 2
188 2 188 2 188 t 2


567, 14 +3.0
551 '14 -7.0


190 2 +2.0
187 t 2 +2.0


Mare condition score
Control 20 4.70 .21 4.60 .18 4.67 .17 11.83 .19
Supplemented 20 4.70 .17 4.80 .23 5.02 .25 5.00 .19

Av. daily conc. kg
Control 4.48 .17 6.19 .24
Supplemented 4.49 .21 6.02 .32

Av. daily conc/kg BW
Control .79 1.06
Suoolemented .80 1.04


4.80 .20 5.00 .27 5.00 .23 5.18 .18 .48
5.00 .24 5.07 .26 5.25 .26 5.28 .24 .58


8.03t .27 8.45 .34 8.36i .36 8.371 .37
7.81 .40 8.08 .42 7.99 .42 7.68 .53


1.56
1.49


1.52
1.47


1.49
1.39


"











TABLE 4. GROWTH RESPONSES OF FOALS FROM CONTROL AND SUPPLEMENTED MARES (EXP. 1 and 2)
SAge (days)
Gai
Item; trcatmcnt No. Birth 28 56 84 112 Birth to I

Weight, kg
Control 20 52.1 2.2 98.3 3.6 135.5 4.1 170.2 i 5.1 207.3 5.7 155.2
Supplemented 20 18.6 2.2 96.2 3.6 130.4 4.1 163.8 5.1 196.5 5.7 147.9

Withers height, cm
Control 20' -98.0 1.5 108.2 1.5 115.14 1.5 120.3 1.6 125.9 1.2 27.9
Supplemented 20 96.9 1.5 106.41 1.5 113.6 1.5 118.3 1.6 123.1 1.2 26.2

Body length, cm
Control 20 75.5 1.la 90.5 1.5 102.2 1.2 110.9 1.6 118.3 1.4 42.8
Supplemented 20 72.4 1.1a 88.1 1.5 101.0 1.2 108.0 1.6 116.4 44.0

Heart girth, cm
Control 20 80.8 1.3 101.3 1.5 112.3 1.5 121.2 1.5 129.6 1.5 48.8
Supplemented 20 78.9 1.3 100.0 1.7 111.0 1.5 118.6 1.7 125.8 1.5 46.9
aValues with like superscripts are different (P<.10).



























TABLE 5. FOAL BIRTH WEIGHT, PLACENTA WEIGHT AND WEIGHT
CHANGE OF MARES AT FOALING (EXP. 1 and 2)


Foal Placenta
Treatment No. weight weight Total a ABVlb c

Control 15 51.6 2.2 5.4 .2 57.0 2.4 69.3 3.9 82.3

Supplemented 14 47.5 + 2.6 4.5 + .4 52.0 3.0 66.2+ 4.5 78.5

bFoal weight plus placenta weight.
Change in mares weight at foaling.
c% of mares weight loss due to foal and placenta.


O
b


















INFLUENCE OF VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION ON HEMAGLOBIN


AND HEIIATOCRIT LEVELS IN MARES AND THEIR FOALS
Foaling
Item; treatment No. Prefoaling .Postfoaling + 112 days


Mare
Hemoglobin, g/100 ml
Control
Supplemented


13.4
13.8


14.3 .4
13.2 .4


Hematocrit, %
Control
Supplemented


36.0 1.1
36.2 .8


38.2 +
37.4


1.3
1.3


35.1 1.0
33.2 1.8


Foals
Hemoglobin, g/100 ml
Control
Supplemented

Hematocrit, %
Control
Supplemented


14.8
14.7


40.2 1.2
38.3 1.4


.4 14.2
.6, 13.3


37.4 +
34.7 +


13.4
12.2


- .4
.7


.5
.4


1.3
.9


TABLE 6.


















TABLE 7. INFLUENCE OF VITAMIN AND MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION
SON REBREEDING OF FOALING MARES

Number Av. no.. Av. no. No.
Treatment Number bred periods bred services conceived

Control 20 17 1.3 2.2 11

Supplemented 20 14 1.3 2.1 10




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