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 Experimental
 Results
 Table 1 - Concentrate composition...
 Table 2 - Daily feed and nutrient...
 Table 3 - Influence of protein...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1981-2
Title: Influence of level of feeding and energy content of the concentrate on growth and development of yearling horses
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073123/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of level of feeding and energy content of the concentrate on growth and development of yearling horses
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 2, 2 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ott, E. A ( Edgar A )
Asquith, Richard L
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Horses -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Horses -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.A. Ott and R.L. Asquith.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "February 1981."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073123
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80775225

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table 1 - Concentrate composition and concentrate and hay analyses
        Page 3
    Table 2 - Daily feed and nutrient intake
        Page 3
    Table 3 - Influence of protein and energy intake on growth and feed efficiency
        Page 4
Full Text



Department of Animal Science 1 -Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1981-2 Experiment Station
February 1981 Gainesville, FLorida


INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING AND ENERGY CONTENT OF THE CONCENTRATE
ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF YEARLING HORSES

E. A. Ott and R. L. Asquith


A review of several of the experiments with yearling horses conducted at
the Horse Research'Center, Ocala, revealed that the animals consistently con-
sumed more feed and consequently more energy and protein than recommended by
NRC (1978). ,It was also observed that the growth rates from 10 to 15 months
of agewere somewhat higher than the rates shown by the NRC (1978). This ex-
periment was designed to compare a restricted feeding program, calculated to
provide NRC recommended levels of nutrients, with a program where the animals
were fed a concentrate to appetite with a restricted level of hay. A compar-
ison between concentrates with two levels of energy was also included in the
study.


Experimental

Twenty-three Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse yearlings averaging 316 days
of age and 722 pounds were allotted at random within breed and sex groups to
three treatment groups. Group A received concentrate HR-59 providing 1.44
Mcal DE/lb and 12.98% crude protein fed at a rate of 1.25 lb/100 lb body
weight/day. Group B received the same concentrate to appetite and Group C
received concentrate HR-58 providing 1.34 Mcal DE/Ib and 12.78% crude protein
fed to appetite (table 1) the concentrates were fed individually in feeding
stalls to which the yearlings were confined for 2, 1.5 hour periods each day.
Coastal bermudagrass hay was group fed at a rate of 1.0 lb/100 Ib BW/day.
Coastal bermudagrass hay fed in this experiment contained 8.27% crude protein,
.45% calcium and .16% phosphorous as-fed. The concentrate intake of the group
A horses was restricted to hold their nutrient intake close to the NRC (1978)
recommendations for energy.

The yearlings were weighed.and measured at the start of the experiment
and at 28 day intervals for 5 periods (140 days). The horses were confined
to drylot pens 30' x 115' with 555 ft2 of covered area. The feeding stalls
were 4'2" x 10'.


Results

Concentrate intake by the yearlings consuming diet A (table 2) was less
than those receiving B or C (P<.05). This difference reflected the restric-
tion imposed upon the group A animals. Hay intake was similar for all groups.
Group A yearlings consumed less total feed than the other two (P<.05). There
was no sex effect on feed intake. Concentrate intake for group A was 1.19 lb/
100 lb BW which was slightly less than the 1.25 Ib/100 lb BW projected due to
the use of the initial weight at each period to calculate feeding levels. The
animals receiving the lower energy concentrate (diet C) consumed slightly more







Department of Animal Science 1 -Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1981-2 Experiment Station
February 1981 Gainesville, FLorida


INFLUENCE OF LEVEL OF FEEDING AND ENERGY CONTENT OF THE CONCENTRATE
ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF YEARLING HORSES

E. A. Ott and R. L. Asquith


A review of several of the experiments with yearling horses conducted at
the Horse Research'Center, Ocala, revealed that the animals consistently con-
sumed more feed and consequently more energy and protein than recommended by
NRC (1978). ,It was also observed that the growth rates from 10 to 15 months
of agewere somewhat higher than the rates shown by the NRC (1978). This ex-
periment was designed to compare a restricted feeding program, calculated to
provide NRC recommended levels of nutrients, with a program where the animals
were fed a concentrate to appetite with a restricted level of hay. A compar-
ison between concentrates with two levels of energy was also included in the
study.


Experimental

Twenty-three Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse yearlings averaging 316 days
of age and 722 pounds were allotted at random within breed and sex groups to
three treatment groups. Group A received concentrate HR-59 providing 1.44
Mcal DE/lb and 12.98% crude protein fed at a rate of 1.25 lb/100 lb body
weight/day. Group B received the same concentrate to appetite and Group C
received concentrate HR-58 providing 1.34 Mcal DE/Ib and 12.78% crude protein
fed to appetite (table 1) the concentrates were fed individually in feeding
stalls to which the yearlings were confined for 2, 1.5 hour periods each day.
Coastal bermudagrass hay was group fed at a rate of 1.0 lb/100 Ib BW/day.
Coastal bermudagrass hay fed in this experiment contained 8.27% crude protein,
.45% calcium and .16% phosphorous as-fed. The concentrate intake of the group
A horses was restricted to hold their nutrient intake close to the NRC (1978)
recommendations for energy.

The yearlings were weighed.and measured at the start of the experiment
and at 28 day intervals for 5 periods (140 days). The horses were confined
to drylot pens 30' x 115' with 555 ft2 of covered area. The feeding stalls
were 4'2" x 10'.


Results

Concentrate intake by the yearlings consuming diet A (table 2) was less
than those receiving B or C (P<.05). This difference reflected the restric-
tion imposed upon the group A animals. Hay intake was similar for all groups.
Group A yearlings consumed less total feed than the other two (P<.05). There
was no sex effect on feed intake. Concentrate intake for group A was 1.19 lb/
100 lb BW which was slightly less than the 1.25 Ib/100 lb BW projected due to
the use of the initial weight at each period to calculate feeding levels. The
animals receiving the lower energy concentrate (diet C) consumed slightly more





-2 -


feed, but the difference was not significant.

Digestible energy (DE) consumption of diet A averaged 19.86 Mcal/day
which was slightly higher than the NRC recommended levels for yearlings of
16.81 Mcal for animals with an expected mature weight of 1100 Ibs and 18.85
Mcal for animals with an expected mature weight of 1320 lbs. It is estimated
that animals'on this experiment would have a mature weight of about 1200 lbs.
Group B and C animals consumed about 20% more energy than the Group A animals.
Protein, calcium and phosphorous intakes were all above the NRC (1978) recom-
mended levels.

Yearlings fed diet A had lower weight and girth gains than those fed
diets B anc C,(P<.05). Fillies gained more weight than colts (P<.05). No
difference was detected between groups fed diets A, B and C for height at
withers, length or hip height. This would suggest that the -skeletal develop-
ment of the three groups were similar. Fillies required less feed per lb of
weight gain than did the-colts (P<.05).

Results of this experiment suggest that limiting the nutrient intake of
the yearling to close to the NRC (1978) recommended levels will not reduce
the growth of the animal, but will reduce weight gain. Energy and protein
intake above the stated requirements which will occur if animals are allowed
to consume feed to appetite for two, 1.5 hour feeding periods per day pro-
duced additional weight gains by the animals. The composition of this ad-
ditional gain was not determined in this study and may be either muscle de-
velopment, fat accumulation or both. No detrimental effects of this addi-
tional weight was detected and none of the animals would have been considered
obese.

No differences were detected between diets B and C which were fed to
appetite. Diet C was lower in energy and was consumed at a slightly higher
rate giving almost the same digestible energy intake for the two groups. Re-
sults suggest that either concentrate is acceptable when fed with 1 lb/100
lb BW of good quality Coastal bermudagrass hay.





TABLE 1. CONCENTRATE COMPOSITION AND CONCENTRATE AND HAY ANALYSES

HR-58a HR-59a Hay

Corn 25.0 69.75
Oats 48.75 -- --
Wheat bran 10.00 10.0
Soybean meal (44%) 8.00 12.0
Alfalfa, dehy. 5.0 5.0
Bio Phos 1.0 1.0 -
Ca CO3 1.0 1.0 --
Ca propionate .25 .25
Salt .50 .50
Premix .50 .50 --

100.0 100.0

Calculated Analyses (NRC) As-fed

DE Mcal/lb 1.34 1.44 .77
C. Protein, % 14.60 14.82
Calcium, % .79 .81
Phosphorous, % .63 .60 --

Analyzed Composition, As-fed
C. Protein, % 12.78 12.98 8.27
Calcium, % .81 .78 .45
Phosphorous, % .59 .53 .16
a3/16 inch pellet






TABLE 2. DAILY FEED AND NUTRIENT INTAKE

Sex Diet
C F A B C

Concentrate, lb 11.89 11.78 9.50a 12.57b 13.44b
Hay, Ib 7.78 7.76 8.02 7.62 7.67
Total feed, Ib 19.67 19.54 17.52c 20.19d 21.11d

Concentrate, lb/100 Ib BW 1.48 1.44 1.19 1.55 1.64
Hay, lb/100 Ib BW .97 .95 1.01 .94 .94
Total feed, lb/100 Ib BW 2.45 2.39 2.20 2.48 2.58

Dig. Energy, Mcal 19.86 23.97 23.92
C. Protein, kg .862 1.028 1.069
Calcium, g 50 60 65
Phosphorous, g 29 36 42
a,b,c,dValues with unlike superscripts are different (P<.05).





TABLE 1. CONCENTRATE COMPOSITION AND CONCENTRATE AND HAY ANALYSES

HR-58a HR-59a Hay

Corn 25.0 69.75
Oats 48.75 -- --
Wheat bran 10.00 10.0
Soybean meal (44%) 8.00 12.0
Alfalfa, dehy. 5.0 5.0
Bio Phos 1.0 1.0 -
Ca CO3 1.0 1.0 --
Ca propionate .25 .25
Salt .50 .50
Premix .50 .50 --

100.0 100.0

Calculated Analyses (NRC) As-fed

DE Mcal/lb 1.34 1.44 .77
C. Protein, % 14.60 14.82
Calcium, % .79 .81
Phosphorous, % .63 .60 --

Analyzed Composition, As-fed
C. Protein, % 12.78 12.98 8.27
Calcium, % .81 .78 .45
Phosphorous, % .59 .53 .16
a3/16 inch pellet






TABLE 2. DAILY FEED AND NUTRIENT INTAKE

Sex Diet
C F A B C

Concentrate, lb 11.89 11.78 9.50a 12.57b 13.44b
Hay, Ib 7.78 7.76 8.02 7.62 7.67
Total feed, Ib 19.67 19.54 17.52c 20.19d 21.11d

Concentrate, lb/100 Ib BW 1.48 1.44 1.19 1.55 1.64
Hay, lb/100 Ib BW .97 .95 1.01 .94 .94
Total feed, lb/100 Ib BW 2.45 2.39 2.20 2.48 2.58

Dig. Energy, Mcal 19.86 23.97 23.92
C. Protein, kg .862 1.028 1.069
Calcium, g 50 60 65
Phosphorous, g 29 36 42
a,b,c,dValues with unlike superscripts are different (P<.05).

















TABLE 3. INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN AND ENERGY INTAKE ON
GROWTH AND FEED EFFICIENCY

Sex Ration
C F A B C

9 14 8 8 7
Initial weight, Ibs 722 722 722 722 722
Final weight, Ibs 882a 910b 873c 903d 913
Weight gain, Ibs 160a 187b 150c 180d 190d

Initial withers height, in. 55.1 55.1 55.1 55.1 55.1
Final wither height, in. 57.4 57.1 57.2 57.0 57.5
Withers height,gain in. 2.3 2.0 2.1 1.9 2.4

Initial girth, in. 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.6 60.6
Final girth, in. 65.1 65.'6 64.7e 65.6f 65.7
Girth gain, in. 4.5 5.0 4.1e 49f 5.1

Initial length, in. 55.6 55.6 55.6 55.6 55.6
Final length, in. 59.5 59.3 59.1 59.7 59.5
Length gain, in. 3.9 3.7 3.4 4.1 3.8

Initial hip height, in. 57.0 57.0 57.0 57.0 57.0
Final hip height, in. 59.2 59.3 59.0 59.5 59.4
Hip height gain, in. 2.2 2.3 1.9 2.4 2.4

Feed/weight gain 17.69 14.7h 16.7 16.1 15.6

a,b,c,d,e,f,g,hvalues with unlike superscripts are different (P<.05).




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