• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experiment
 Results
 Conclusion
 Table 1 - Mean blood values for...
 Fig. 1 - Treatment means for square...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1980-9
Title: Safety and therapeutic effects of Ivermectin as an equine anthelmintic
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073118/00001
 Material Information
Title: Safety and therapeutic effects of Ivermectin as an equine anthelmintic
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Asquith, Richard L
Kulwich, Roman, 1925-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Horses -- Parasites -- Control -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Ivermectin   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.L. Asquith and R. Kulwich.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September, 1980."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073118
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80751135

Table of Contents
    Experiment
        Page 1
    Results
        Page 1
    Conclusion
        Page 2
    Table 1 - Mean blood values for controls (group I), 0.2 mg/kg of ivermectin (group II), and 0.3 mg/kg ivermectin (group III)
        Page 3
    Fig. 1 - Treatment means for square root transformations of eggs per gram (strongylus spp) vs. days pre and post treatment
        Page 4
Full Text



Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1980-9 Experiment Station
September, 1980 Gainesville, Florida



SAFETY AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF IVERMECTIN AS AN EQUINE ANTHELMINTIC1


R. L. Asquith and R. Kulwich2


Ivermectin is a synthetic derivative of the avermectins which are a complex
of chemically related agents produced by Streptomyces avermitilis, an actinomy-
cete. The anthelmintic and ectoparasiticidal activity of the avermectins has
been reported (Blair 1978, Benz and Ernst 1979, and Wescott et al., 1980); how-
ever, there is only one report of the use of this compound in horses (Slocombe
and McGraw, 1980). The efficacy and relative safety of the use of ivermectin
in other species, would suggest that this novel compound would be a highly
desirable means of controlling both internal and external parasites in horses.
An experiment was designed to evaluate the safety and chemotherapeutic effect
of ivermectin when used as an injectable at two different concentrations in
adult mares.

Experiment

Twelve non-pregnant adult mares (6 Thoroughbred and 6 Quarter Horse) were
allocated into 2 replicates with 3 horses from each breed in a replicate.
Randomization within the replicates was performed just prior to treatment. The
three treatment groups were: Group I, the untreated controls; Group II, those
horses injected with ivermectin at 0.2 mg/kg body weight; and Group III, those
horses injected with ivermectin at 0.3 mg/kg body weight. The treated horses
were administered intramuscular injections in the left cervical region by a
non-investigator. The controls were not injected. In order to effect a blind
study, the principle investigators did not observe treatment and were not in-
formed of the animals assigned to the experiment until after the laboratory
analysis and clinical observations were made.

Blood samples were obtained before and after treatment for hematological
values and blood chemistries. Fecal samples were also collected before and
after treatment for laboratory analysis

Results

None of the treated horses in this trial exhibited signs of toxicity or
evidence of tissue reaction at the injection site. Appetites remained normal
and the consistency of the feces remained unaltered throughout the trial.
There was no significant difference (P<0.05) between the mean weight loss
SD 1.9 1.3 of the control group and the two treatment groups after 16 days.

All of the hematological values that were determined before and after
treatment were within the normal range of reference values for this population
(table 1).



1Experiment HV-802.
2Asquith, DVM&Associate Professor of Equine Health, Animal Science Department and
Kulwich, PhD,Chemist, Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University
of Florida, Gainesville.







Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1980-9 Experiment Station
September, 1980 Gainesville, Florida



SAFETY AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF IVERMECTIN AS AN EQUINE ANTHELMINTIC1


R. L. Asquith and R. Kulwich2


Ivermectin is a synthetic derivative of the avermectins which are a complex
of chemically related agents produced by Streptomyces avermitilis, an actinomy-
cete. The anthelmintic and ectoparasiticidal activity of the avermectins has
been reported (Blair 1978, Benz and Ernst 1979, and Wescott et al., 1980); how-
ever, there is only one report of the use of this compound in horses (Slocombe
and McGraw, 1980). The efficacy and relative safety of the use of ivermectin
in other species, would suggest that this novel compound would be a highly
desirable means of controlling both internal and external parasites in horses.
An experiment was designed to evaluate the safety and chemotherapeutic effect
of ivermectin when used as an injectable at two different concentrations in
adult mares.

Experiment

Twelve non-pregnant adult mares (6 Thoroughbred and 6 Quarter Horse) were
allocated into 2 replicates with 3 horses from each breed in a replicate.
Randomization within the replicates was performed just prior to treatment. The
three treatment groups were: Group I, the untreated controls; Group II, those
horses injected with ivermectin at 0.2 mg/kg body weight; and Group III, those
horses injected with ivermectin at 0.3 mg/kg body weight. The treated horses
were administered intramuscular injections in the left cervical region by a
non-investigator. The controls were not injected. In order to effect a blind
study, the principle investigators did not observe treatment and were not in-
formed of the animals assigned to the experiment until after the laboratory
analysis and clinical observations were made.

Blood samples were obtained before and after treatment for hematological
values and blood chemistries. Fecal samples were also collected before and
after treatment for laboratory analysis

Results

None of the treated horses in this trial exhibited signs of toxicity or
evidence of tissue reaction at the injection site. Appetites remained normal
and the consistency of the feces remained unaltered throughout the trial.
There was no significant difference (P<0.05) between the mean weight loss
SD 1.9 1.3 of the control group and the two treatment groups after 16 days.

All of the hematological values that were determined before and after
treatment were within the normal range of reference values for this population
(table 1).



1Experiment HV-802.
2Asquith, DVM&Associate Professor of Equine Health, Animal Science Department and
Kulwich, PhD,Chemist, Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University
of Florida, Gainesville.












Utilizing the McMaster's technique, only eggs characteristic of the
strongyles were observed during the trial. Eggs per gram (EPG) became negative
in both treatment groups one week after dosing. Reappearance of parasitic ova
in the feces did not take place until 11 weeks after treatment in those mares
receiving 0.2 mg/kg and 14 weeks after treatment in mares dosed at 0.3 mg/kg
(figure 1).

Conclusion

These results suggest that ivermectin, when used as an injectable anthel-
mintic may be safe and potent mode of treatment in non-pregnant horses. Further
research is needed to establish the safety and efficacy of ivermectin in the
pregnant mare.










TABLE 1. MEAN BLOOD VALUES* FOR CONTROLS (GROUP I), 0.2 mg/kg OF IVERMECTIN (GROUP II),
AND 0.3 mg/kg IVERMECTIN (GROUP III)


Pre-Dosing Means Range of Post-Dosing Means
Laboratory Units of Group Group Group Group Group Group
Test Measurement I II III I II III

WBC X103 cells/ul 8.7 8.7 8.3 8.0-9.0 7.9-10.7 6.6-7.4

RBC X10 /ul 8.6 9.0 8.8 7.9-8.4 7.8-8.2 7.9-8.4

Hct Percent 42 42 42 38 41 36 38 36 40

Hb gm/dl 14.4 14.5 14.7 13.1-14.6 12.5-14.0 13.0-14.2

AST IU/L serum 110 165 118 154 189 124 159 147 169

Acetyl-
Cholinesterase IU/L serum 1516 2587 1464 2453 2943 2306 2500 1678 2066

Creatinine mg/dl serum 1.52 1.62 1.50 1.52-1.60 1.52-1.75 1.50-1.6

Direct
Bilirubin mg/dl 0.34 0.27 0.30 0.28-0.40 0.36-0.52 0.29-0.48

ARS IU/L serum 1.2 1.5 0.8 0.5-1.5 0.8-1.2 0.2-1.5

ID IU/L plasma 1.7 1.8 2.5 1.9-2.2 1.7-2.4 2.6-3.2


*Four measurements made on days 1, 2, 7, and 14.

























TREATMENT MEANS FOR SQUARE ROOT TRANSFORMATIONS
OF EGGS PER GRAM (STRONGYLUS SPP) VS. DAYS PRE AND POST TREATMENT


0--0 Group I = Controls
--- Groupll = 0.2mg Aermectin/kg Body Wt.
D--- Groupll 0.3mg Avermectin / kg Body W:.


14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70

PRE(-) B POST DOSING DAYS


Fig 1 Treatment means for square root transformations


of eggs per gram (strongylus spp) vs. days pre and post


treatment.


- -_ ---=_




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