• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 Table 1 - Grower and finisher diet...
 Table 2 - Toxicity trial diet composition...
 Table 3 - Performance of growing...
 Table 4 - Performance of finishing...
 Table 5 - Performance of growing...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1980-7
Title: The feeding value of waste grown algae for growing and finishing swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073116/00001
 Material Information
Title: The feeding value of waste grown algae for growing and finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harrison, Michael Dean, 1957-
Copelin, Johnny Landon
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Algae as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: M.D. Harrison, J.L. Copelin and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1980."
General Note: Pages numbered 17-22.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073116
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80747752

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 17
    Results and discussion
        Page 18
    Summary
        Page 19
    Literature cited
        Page 19
    Table 1 - Grower and finisher diet compositions (Experiments 1 and 2)
        Page 20
    Table 2 - Toxicity trial diet composition (Experiment 3)
        Page 21
    Table 3 - Performance of growing swine fed waste grown algae (Experiment 1)
        Page 21
    Table 4 - Performance of finishing swine fed waste grown algae (Experiment 2)
        Page 22
    Table 5 - Performance of growing swine fed algae of the genus synechocystis sp. (Experiment 3)
        Page 22
Full Text



17 -
Department of Animal Science 1Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1980-7 Experiment Station
July, 1980 Gainesville, Florida



THE FEEDING VALUE OF WASTE GROWN ALGAE FOR GROWING AND FINISHING SWINE1

M. D. Harrison, J. L. Copelin and G. E. Combs2


Confinement production of livestock has intensified problems associated
with disposal of animal wastes and has caused increased interest in waste
handling systems which can reduce waste disposal costs and meet today's strin-
gent environmental quality control regulations. One system currently under
investigation at the swine research unit utilizes microscopic algae grown on
swine lagoon water and the refeeding of this algae as a source of dietary protein.

It has been estimated that in a confinement swine unit, 60 to 70 percent
of the feed nitrogen is lost through spillage or excretion. Approximately 30
percent of this nitrogen could be recovered through the growth and harvest of
algae (Lincoln and Hill, 1978). Microscopic algae are photosynthetic organisms
capable of rapidly reproducing on a medium of carbon, nitrogen, minerals and
water in the presence of sunlight. Swine waste water is an excellent source of
these nutrients. The recovered algae which contain from 30 to 70 percent protein
may have a value as a source of supplemental dietary protein for swine.

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of growing and
finishing swine fed corn-soy diets which were supplemented with algae (mixed
culture primarily Chlorella sp.). A third study was conducted to determine
if a particular genus of algae (Synechocystis sp.) reported to have been toxic
to poultry (Lincoln and Carmichael, 1980), had any toxic effects on growing swine.


Experimental

Experiment 1 Growing Trial

Seventy-two crossbred pigs averaging 71 pounds were allotted based on
weight, sex and ancestry to four dietary treatments with three replications per
treatment and six pigs per replication. All diets were balanced based on
lysine to meet the nutrient requirements of the growing pig (NRC, 1979). Algae
was substituted for corn and soybean meal at levels of 15, 30 and 45 percent
of the dietary lysine normally supplied by soybean meal. This was done by
addition of 5, 10, and 15 percent algae by weight to the diets. The diets will
be designated by their final algae content.

Experiment 2 Finishing Trial

Seventy-two crossbred pigs averaging 120 pounds were allotted based on
weight, sex and ancestry to four dietary treatments with three replications


1Experiment 260A, 260B and 260C.
2Harrison, Graduate Assistant; Copelin, Assistant Animal Nutritionist and Combs,
Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science.








- 18 -


per treatment and six pigs per replication. Diets were formulated following
the same procedure used in the growing trial balancing to meet the lysine re-
quirement of the finishing pig (NRC, 1979). Diets will again be designated
based on their total algae content.

Experiment 3 Toxicity Level

Thirty-six crossbred pigs averaging 58 pounds were allotted based on
weight, sex and ancestry to two dietary treatments with three replications per
treatment and six pigs per replication. Treatment one consisted of a con-
ventional 17.5 percent crude protein corn-soy growing swine diet. Treatment
two contained 16 percent algae (Synechocystis sp.) by weight which was sub-
stituted for corn and soybean meal thereby maintaining the 17.5 percent crude
protein content of the diet.

All pigs were housed in a concrete barn with feed and water supplied ad
libitum during each of the three experiments. Pig weight gain and feed con-
sumption were measured weekly during each of the three 28-day studies to deter-
mine average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed efficiency; these
were the parameters used to compare differences among dietary treatments. The
composition of the three diets is presented in tables 1 and 2.


Results and Discussion

The performance data, for experiments one, two, and three are summarized in
tables 3, 4 and 5, respectively.

Experiment 1

There was a reduction in average daily gain as the level of dietary algae
increased. Pigs fed the 10 and 15 percent algae diets gained slower (P<.05)
than pigs fed the control or five percent algae diets. No differences (P<.05)
were observed for feed intake. Pigs fed the 10 and 15 percent algae diets were
less efficient (P<.05) than pigs fed the control or five percent algae diets.
The pigs fed the highest level of algae (15 percent) gained slower and were
less efficient (P<.05) than pigs receiving any other diet.

Experiment 2

Results obtained in this experiment with finishing swine are similar to
those reported in experiment 1 for growing swine. Pigs fed the 10 and 15 per-
cent algae diets gained slower (P<.05) than pigs fed the control and five per-
cent algae diets. No differences (P<.05) were observed for feed intake. Pigs
fed the 15 percent algae diet were less efficient (P<.05) than pigs receiving
any other diet.

Experiment 3

The performance of pigs receiving the 16 percent algae diet was similar
to that observed in both of the previous experiments. There was a significant
(P<.05) reduction in average daily gain and these pigs were less efficient
(P<.05) when compared to the corn-soy fed pigs. There were no observable
toxic effects on these animals as had been reported with chicks (Lincoln and
Carmichael, 1980).







- 19 -


In general, pigs consuming the algae diets gained slower than those fed
the corn-soy diet. It should be noted that the algae used in these experiments
contained more than 10 percent aluminum. This element was the major component
of the flocculating agent used in harvesting the algae. Aluminum has been
reported to cause a reduction (P<.05) in both average daily gain and feed in-
take of sheep when fed at the level of 2,000 ppm (Valdivia, 1977). The 5, 10
and 15 percent algae diets fed to swine in these experiments contained 5,000,
10,000 and 15,000 ppm, respectively. Although the effect of high dietary
aluminum has not been reported for swine, it may be one of the factors in-
hibiting the performance of pigs fed algae.


Summary

Three preliminary experiments were conducted to study the effects of
including algae grown on swine lagoon water in the diets of growing and finishing
swine. In all three experiments, average daily gains were lower (P<.05) for
pigs fed diets containing more than 10 percent algae. Feed intake was not re-
duced (P<.05) for pigs fed any level of dietary algae. Pigs fed diets containing
more than 15 percent algae were less efficient than pigs fed the corn-soy or
five percent algae diets. The feeding value of an improved algae product which
is harvested with an inert material containing no aluminum is currently under
investigation.


Literature Cited

1. Lincoln, E. P. and D. T. Hill. 1978. An integrated microalgae system.
Ag. Engineering Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville.

2. Lincoln, E. P. and W. N. Carmichael. 1980. Preliminary tests for toxicity
of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Proceedings of the International
Conference on the Water Environment: Algal toxins and health. Wright
State University, Dayton, Ohio.

3. NRC. 1979. Nutrient requirements of domestic animals, no. 2. Nutrient
requirements of swine. 8th revised edition. National Academy of Science -
National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

4. Valdivia, R. 1977. Effect of dietary aluminum on phosphorus utilization
by ruminants. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville.







- 19 -


In general, pigs consuming the algae diets gained slower than those fed
the corn-soy diet. It should be noted that the algae used in these experiments
contained more than 10 percent aluminum. This element was the major component
of the flocculating agent used in harvesting the algae. Aluminum has been
reported to cause a reduction (P<.05) in both average daily gain and feed in-
take of sheep when fed at the level of 2,000 ppm (Valdivia, 1977). The 5, 10
and 15 percent algae diets fed to swine in these experiments contained 5,000,
10,000 and 15,000 ppm, respectively. Although the effect of high dietary
aluminum has not been reported for swine, it may be one of the factors in-
hibiting the performance of pigs fed algae.


Summary

Three preliminary experiments were conducted to study the effects of
including algae grown on swine lagoon water in the diets of growing and finishing
swine. In all three experiments, average daily gains were lower (P<.05) for
pigs fed diets containing more than 10 percent algae. Feed intake was not re-
duced (P<.05) for pigs fed any level of dietary algae. Pigs fed diets containing
more than 15 percent algae were less efficient than pigs fed the corn-soy or
five percent algae diets. The feeding value of an improved algae product which
is harvested with an inert material containing no aluminum is currently under
investigation.


Literature Cited

1. Lincoln, E. P. and D. T. Hill. 1978. An integrated microalgae system.
Ag. Engineering Dept., University of Florida, Gainesville.

2. Lincoln, E. P. and W. N. Carmichael. 1980. Preliminary tests for toxicity
of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Proceedings of the International
Conference on the Water Environment: Algal toxins and health. Wright
State University, Dayton, Ohio.

3. NRC. 1979. Nutrient requirements of domestic animals, no. 2. Nutrient
requirements of swine. 8th revised edition. National Academy of Science -
National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

4. Valdivia, R. 1977. Effect of dietary aluminum on phosphorus utilization
by ruminants. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville.

















TABLE 1. GROWER AND FINISHER DIET COMPOSITIONS (Experiments 1 and 2)


Experiment 1 (Grower Diets) Experiment 2 (Finisher Diets)
5% 10% 15% 5% 10% 15%
Ingredient Control Algae Algae Algae Control Algae Algae Algae

% % % % % % % %

Ground yellow corn 84.6 81.3 77.9 74.2 85.9 82.52 78.96 75.25
Soybean meal (49%) 12.2 10.06 8.9 7.2 11.2 9.73 8.20 6.60
Algaea -- 4.90 10.0 15.4 -- 4.85 9.94 15.25
Dynafos (IMCC) 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premixc 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
ASP-250d 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 -- -- -- --


aAlgae was produced at the University of Florida Swine Research Farm in an outdoor pond containing swine waste

water and harvested by flocculation with AlCl3.
Contained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 22% sulfur and 12% calcium.
Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid, 80,000 mg choline chloride, 10 mg
dB12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A, 40,000 ICU vitamin D, and 10,000 IU vitamin E per pound of premix.
Contained 20 g chlortetracycline, 20 g sulfamethazine, 10 g procaine penicillin per pound of supplement.







- 21 -


TABLE 2. TOXICITY TRIAL DIET COMPOSITION (Experiment 3)


Grower Ration

Treatment Level Control 16% Algae

Ground yellow corn 74.9 64.08
Soybean meal (49%) 22.0 16.0
Algae (Synechocystis sp.) -- 16.0
Dynafos (IMMC) 1.7 1.7
Limestone .8 .8
Iodized salt .25 .25
Trace Minerals .10 .10
Vitamin Premixc .10 .10
ASP-250d .25 .25


aAlgae of the genus Synechocystis sp. were produced at the University of Florida
Swine Research Farm in an outdoor pond containing swine waste water and har-
bvested by flocculation with AlCl.
Contained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 22%
sulfur and 12% calcium.
cContained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10 mg B12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A, 40,000 ICU
vitamin D and 10,000 IU vitamin E per pound of premix.
Contained 20 g chlortetracycline, 20 g sulfamethazine, 10 g procaine penicillin
per pound of supplement.





TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING SWINE FED WASTE GROWN ALGAE (Experiment 1)


Dietary Treatment Control 5% Algae 10% Algae 15% Algae

Animals 18 18 18 18
Initial weight 70.8 70.9 70.8 70.9
Final weight 116.6 114.0 106.2 97.6
Average daily gain 1.64a 1.52a 1.26 0.95
Average daily feed intake 4.95 4.93 4.63 4.41
Feed efficiency 3.03a 3.21a 3.70b 4.64


abcMeans on the same line
(P<.05).


with different superscripts differ significantly







- 21 -


TABLE 2. TOXICITY TRIAL DIET COMPOSITION (Experiment 3)


Grower Ration

Treatment Level Control 16% Algae

Ground yellow corn 74.9 64.08
Soybean meal (49%) 22.0 16.0
Algae (Synechocystis sp.) -- 16.0
Dynafos (IMMC) 1.7 1.7
Limestone .8 .8
Iodized salt .25 .25
Trace Minerals .10 .10
Vitamin Premixc .10 .10
ASP-250d .25 .25


aAlgae of the genus Synechocystis sp. were produced at the University of Florida
Swine Research Farm in an outdoor pond containing swine waste water and har-
bvested by flocculation with AlCl.
Contained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 22%
sulfur and 12% calcium.
cContained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10 mg B12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A, 40,000 ICU
vitamin D and 10,000 IU vitamin E per pound of premix.
Contained 20 g chlortetracycline, 20 g sulfamethazine, 10 g procaine penicillin
per pound of supplement.





TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING SWINE FED WASTE GROWN ALGAE (Experiment 1)


Dietary Treatment Control 5% Algae 10% Algae 15% Algae

Animals 18 18 18 18
Initial weight 70.8 70.9 70.8 70.9
Final weight 116.6 114.0 106.2 97.6
Average daily gain 1.64a 1.52a 1.26 0.95
Average daily feed intake 4.95 4.93 4.63 4.41
Feed efficiency 3.03a 3.21a 3.70b 4.64


abcMeans on the same line
(P<.05).


with different superscripts differ significantly







- 22 -


TABLE 4. PERFORMANCE OF FINISHING SWINE FED WASTE GROWN ALGAE (Experiment 2)


Dietary Treatment Control 5% Algae 10% Algae 15% Algae

Animals 18 18 18 16a
Initial weight 142.3 142.2 142.2 142.2
Final weight 189.7 185.9 182.7 178.3
Average daily gain 1.69b 1.56 1.31 1.24c
Average daily feed intake 5.84 5.59 5.23b 5.66
Feed efficiency 3.46 3.59 3.52 4.63c


Two pigs removed from experiment for reasons unrelated to treatments.
Means on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).










TABLE 5. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING SWINE FED ALGAE OF THE GENUS SYNECHOCYSTIS sp.
(Experiment 3)



Dietary Treatment Control 16% Algae

Animals 18 18
Initial weight 57.6 57.7
Final weight 105.2 84.0
Average daily gain 1.70a 0.94
Average daily feed intake 4.20 4.21


ab
Feed efficiency 2.47h 4.51w


abMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly (P<.05:







- 22 -


TABLE 4. PERFORMANCE OF FINISHING SWINE FED WASTE GROWN ALGAE (Experiment 2)


Dietary Treatment Control 5% Algae 10% Algae 15% Algae

Animals 18 18 18 16a
Initial weight 142.3 142.2 142.2 142.2
Final weight 189.7 185.9 182.7 178.3
Average daily gain 1.69b 1.56 1.31 1.24c
Average daily feed intake 5.84 5.59 5.23b 5.66
Feed efficiency 3.46 3.59 3.52 4.63c


Two pigs removed from experiment for reasons unrelated to treatments.
Means on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).










TABLE 5. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING SWINE FED ALGAE OF THE GENUS SYNECHOCYSTIS sp.
(Experiment 3)



Dietary Treatment Control 16% Algae

Animals 18 18
Initial weight 57.6 57.7
Final weight 105.2 84.0
Average daily gain 1.70a 0.94
Average daily feed intake 4.20 4.21


ab
Feed efficiency 2.47h 4.51w


abMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly (P<.05:




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