• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 Acknowledgement
 Table 1 - Concentration of plasma...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1980-6
Title: The use of plasma estrone sulfate to predict litter size in swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073115/00001
 Material Information
Title: The use of plasma estrone sulfate to predict litter size in swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Stoner, Candie S., 1954-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Reproduction -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Estrone   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 2).
Statement of Responsibility: Candie S. Stoner ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1980."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073115
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80742179

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 14
    Results and discussion
        Page 14
    Summary
        Page 15
    Literature cited
        Page 15
    Acknowledgement
        Page 15
    Table 1 - Concentration of plasma E1S (ng/ml) as related to litter size in swine
        Page 16
Full Text

S,1 /
.I / ',- 14 -
Department of Animal Science,-. Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1980-6 Experiment Station
July, 1980 Gainesville, Florida



THE USE OF PLASMA ESTRONE SULFATE TO PREDICT LITTER SIZE IN SWINE1

Candie S. Stoner, C. E. White, G. E. Combs,
W. W. Thatcher and Fuller W. Bazer2


Perry, Heap and Amoroso (1973) first reported that pig embryos begin to
produce the hormone estrogen by Day 12 of pregnancy. A form of that estrogen,
estrone sulfate (EiS), was later shown to reach peak levels in blood plasma
between Days 25 and 30 of pregnancy (Robertson and King, 1974). Because of
the potential economic advantage of eliminating females that are either not
pregnant or have small litters (less than 7 piglets), this study was initiated.
The goal was to determine whether or not plasma EiS values measured on Day 29
or 30 of pregnancy could be used to predict litter size at farrowing.


Experimental

Blood samples were collected from a total of 198 gilts and sows by jugular
venipuncture on either Day 29 or 30 of pregnancy. Plasma was separated from
whole blood and stored at -200F until assayed for EIS. ElS was measured by
radioimmunoassay (RIA).

Blood samples collected were from sows and gilts at four locations: Gaines-
ville and Live Oak, Florida; Stillwater, Oklahoma; and Blacksburg, Virginia.

Variability in plasma EiS concentrations was statistically analyzed to
determine effects of location, breed, day of pregnancy and parity (number of
previous litters), as related to total litter size. The relationship between
E1S and total piglets was also assessed within arbitrary groups consisting of
gilts and sows which farrowed; (1) 0 piglets, (2) 1-4 piglets, (3) 5-7 piglets,
(4) 8-10 piglets, (5) 11-14 piglets, and (6) 15 or more piglets.


Results and Discussion

Total litter size averaged 10 piglets (range 0 to 19) and was positively
associated (P<.01) with plasma EIS at Day 30. This relationship was described
by a 4th order regression equation (Y = -9.06112 + .7434x .01269x2 + .0000902x3
- .00000022x4; x = E1S (pg/ml) 100; Y = total number of piglets; R2 = .63;
P<.01). This statistical relationship indicated that the concentration of EIS
increased in an essentially linear fashion as litter size increased from 0 to 6
piglets. Concentrations of ElS varied greatly for litters ranging between 7


1Project 1462.
2Stoner, Graduate Research Assistant; White, Assistant Animal Nutritionist; Combs,
Animal Nutritionist; Bazer, Animal Physiologist, Department of Animal Science;
Thatcher, Physiologist, Department of Dairy Science.





S,1 /
.I / ',- 14 -
Department of Animal Science,-. Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1980-6 Experiment Station
July, 1980 Gainesville, Florida



THE USE OF PLASMA ESTRONE SULFATE TO PREDICT LITTER SIZE IN SWINE1

Candie S. Stoner, C. E. White, G. E. Combs,
W. W. Thatcher and Fuller W. Bazer2


Perry, Heap and Amoroso (1973) first reported that pig embryos begin to
produce the hormone estrogen by Day 12 of pregnancy. A form of that estrogen,
estrone sulfate (EiS), was later shown to reach peak levels in blood plasma
between Days 25 and 30 of pregnancy (Robertson and King, 1974). Because of
the potential economic advantage of eliminating females that are either not
pregnant or have small litters (less than 7 piglets), this study was initiated.
The goal was to determine whether or not plasma EiS values measured on Day 29
or 30 of pregnancy could be used to predict litter size at farrowing.


Experimental

Blood samples were collected from a total of 198 gilts and sows by jugular
venipuncture on either Day 29 or 30 of pregnancy. Plasma was separated from
whole blood and stored at -200F until assayed for EIS. ElS was measured by
radioimmunoassay (RIA).

Blood samples collected were from sows and gilts at four locations: Gaines-
ville and Live Oak, Florida; Stillwater, Oklahoma; and Blacksburg, Virginia.

Variability in plasma EiS concentrations was statistically analyzed to
determine effects of location, breed, day of pregnancy and parity (number of
previous litters), as related to total litter size. The relationship between
E1S and total piglets was also assessed within arbitrary groups consisting of
gilts and sows which farrowed; (1) 0 piglets, (2) 1-4 piglets, (3) 5-7 piglets,
(4) 8-10 piglets, (5) 11-14 piglets, and (6) 15 or more piglets.


Results and Discussion

Total litter size averaged 10 piglets (range 0 to 19) and was positively
associated (P<.01) with plasma EIS at Day 30. This relationship was described
by a 4th order regression equation (Y = -9.06112 + .7434x .01269x2 + .0000902x3
- .00000022x4; x = E1S (pg/ml) 100; Y = total number of piglets; R2 = .63;
P<.01). This statistical relationship indicated that the concentration of EIS
increased in an essentially linear fashion as litter size increased from 0 to 6
piglets. Concentrations of ElS varied greatly for litters ranging between 7


1Project 1462.
2Stoner, Graduate Research Assistant; White, Assistant Animal Nutritionist; Combs,
Animal Nutritionist; Bazer, Animal Physiologist, Department of Animal Science;
Thatcher, Physiologist, Department of Dairy Science.







- 15 -


and 12 piglets and then appeared to increase again as litter size increased
further. Parity (P<.03), month of sampling (P<.06), and breed of sow (P<.04)
were significant sources of variation within the statistical model.

These data suggest that it may be possible to use the plasma EIS concen-
tration (at about Day 30) to predict whether a sow or gilt will produce a very
small or large litter.

Grouping of gilts and sows according to total litter size at farrowing is
presented in table 1. Nine percent of these animals were either not pregnant
or gave birth to very small litters (less than 5 piglets). Approximately 20%
of the females bled had a litter size of 7 or less piglets.

These observations suggest that using plasma E1S to predict litter size
may be economically advantageous in culling sows and gilts with small litters.
The cost of maintaining a sow throughout pregnancy is such that those having
small litters would not likely return a profit.

Additional research is needed to determine whether or not better predictions
of litter size would result from measuring plasma ES at earlier stages of preg-
nancy, for example, between Days 20 and 25. Also, there is a need to determine
whether another estrogen, estriol sulfate, might provide a better index of
litter size. Research along these lines will be continued to obtain answers
to these questions.


Summary

A positive relationship (P<.01) between plasma concentrations of EIS in
sows and gilts at Day 30 and litter size at farrowing was observed. The signi-
ficance of this lies in the potential that such a measurement may provide an
economically feasible tool for detecting extremes in litter size. Variability
in concentrations of EIS was corrected for effects due to parity, breed, month
of sampling and location and suggests that development of this tool for preg-
nancy diagnosis and prediction of litter should be based on regional studies.
Additional research is needed before practical application of such a procedure
can be realized.


Literature Cited

1. Perry, J. S., R. B. Heap and E. C. Amoroso. 1973. Steroid hormone pro-
duction by pig blastocysts. Nature 245:46.

2. Robertson, H. A. and G. J. King. 1974. Plasma concentrations of pro-
gesterone, estrone, estradiol-176 and estrone sulfate in the pig at
implantation, during pregnancy and at parturition. J. Reprod. Fertil. 40:133


Acknowledgment

The authors express sincere appreciation to Phillip Rowan and Bill Johnson
for their valuable assistance in this study.







- 15 -


and 12 piglets and then appeared to increase again as litter size increased
further. Parity (P<.03), month of sampling (P<.06), and breed of sow (P<.04)
were significant sources of variation within the statistical model.

These data suggest that it may be possible to use the plasma EIS concen-
tration (at about Day 30) to predict whether a sow or gilt will produce a very
small or large litter.

Grouping of gilts and sows according to total litter size at farrowing is
presented in table 1. Nine percent of these animals were either not pregnant
or gave birth to very small litters (less than 5 piglets). Approximately 20%
of the females bled had a litter size of 7 or less piglets.

These observations suggest that using plasma E1S to predict litter size
may be economically advantageous in culling sows and gilts with small litters.
The cost of maintaining a sow throughout pregnancy is such that those having
small litters would not likely return a profit.

Additional research is needed to determine whether or not better predictions
of litter size would result from measuring plasma ES at earlier stages of preg-
nancy, for example, between Days 20 and 25. Also, there is a need to determine
whether another estrogen, estriol sulfate, might provide a better index of
litter size. Research along these lines will be continued to obtain answers
to these questions.


Summary

A positive relationship (P<.01) between plasma concentrations of EIS in
sows and gilts at Day 30 and litter size at farrowing was observed. The signi-
ficance of this lies in the potential that such a measurement may provide an
economically feasible tool for detecting extremes in litter size. Variability
in concentrations of EIS was corrected for effects due to parity, breed, month
of sampling and location and suggests that development of this tool for preg-
nancy diagnosis and prediction of litter should be based on regional studies.
Additional research is needed before practical application of such a procedure
can be realized.


Literature Cited

1. Perry, J. S., R. B. Heap and E. C. Amoroso. 1973. Steroid hormone pro-
duction by pig blastocysts. Nature 245:46.

2. Robertson, H. A. and G. J. King. 1974. Plasma concentrations of pro-
gesterone, estrone, estradiol-176 and estrone sulfate in the pig at
implantation, during pregnancy and at parturition. J. Reprod. Fertil. 40:133


Acknowledgment

The authors express sincere appreciation to Phillip Rowan and Bill Johnson
for their valuable assistance in this study.







- 15 -


and 12 piglets and then appeared to increase again as litter size increased
further. Parity (P<.03), month of sampling (P<.06), and breed of sow (P<.04)
were significant sources of variation within the statistical model.

These data suggest that it may be possible to use the plasma EIS concen-
tration (at about Day 30) to predict whether a sow or gilt will produce a very
small or large litter.

Grouping of gilts and sows according to total litter size at farrowing is
presented in table 1. Nine percent of these animals were either not pregnant
or gave birth to very small litters (less than 5 piglets). Approximately 20%
of the females bled had a litter size of 7 or less piglets.

These observations suggest that using plasma E1S to predict litter size
may be economically advantageous in culling sows and gilts with small litters.
The cost of maintaining a sow throughout pregnancy is such that those having
small litters would not likely return a profit.

Additional research is needed to determine whether or not better predictions
of litter size would result from measuring plasma ES at earlier stages of preg-
nancy, for example, between Days 20 and 25. Also, there is a need to determine
whether another estrogen, estriol sulfate, might provide a better index of
litter size. Research along these lines will be continued to obtain answers
to these questions.


Summary

A positive relationship (P<.01) between plasma concentrations of EIS in
sows and gilts at Day 30 and litter size at farrowing was observed. The signi-
ficance of this lies in the potential that such a measurement may provide an
economically feasible tool for detecting extremes in litter size. Variability
in concentrations of EIS was corrected for effects due to parity, breed, month
of sampling and location and suggests that development of this tool for preg-
nancy diagnosis and prediction of litter should be based on regional studies.
Additional research is needed before practical application of such a procedure
can be realized.


Literature Cited

1. Perry, J. S., R. B. Heap and E. C. Amoroso. 1973. Steroid hormone pro-
duction by pig blastocysts. Nature 245:46.

2. Robertson, H. A. and G. J. King. 1974. Plasma concentrations of pro-
gesterone, estrone, estradiol-176 and estrone sulfate in the pig at
implantation, during pregnancy and at parturition. J. Reprod. Fertil. 40:133


Acknowledgment

The authors express sincere appreciation to Phillip Rowan and Bill Johnson
for their valuable assistance in this study.







- 16 -


TABLE 1. CONCENTRATION OF PLASMA EIS (ng/ml) AS RELATED TO LITTER SIZE IN SWINE



No. of piglets No. of litters Percentage Average concentration
in a litter in each group of litters* EIS (ng/ml)


Non pregnant 13 6.6 0.98

1-4 5 2.5 2.86

5-7 21 10.6 3.87

8-10 50 25.3 5.00

11-14 95 48.0 6.34

15-19 14 7.0 6.30


*Data based on study of 198 gilts and sows.




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