• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 Table 1 - Diet composition
 Table 2 - Starter period
 Table 3 - Grower period A
 Table 4 - Grower period B
 Table 5 - Finisher period














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1980-5
Title: The effect of coffeeweed on starting, growing and finishing swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073114/00001
 Material Information
Title: The effect of coffeeweed on starting, growing and finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harrison, Michael Dean, 1957-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cassia (Genus) -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 4).
Statement of Responsibility: M.D. Harrison ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1980."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073114
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80738693

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 8
    Results and discussion
        Page 9
    Summary
        Page 10
    Literature cited
        Page 11
    Table 1 - Diet composition
        Page 12
    Table 2 - Starter period
        Page 12
    Table 3 - Grower period A
        Page 13
    Table 4 - Grower period B
        Page 13
    Table 5 - Finisher period
        Page 13
Full Text



Department of Animal Science 8 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1980-5 Experiment Station
July, 1980 Gainesville, Florida



THE EFFECT OF COFFEEWEED ON STARTING, GROWING AND FINISHING SWINE1

M. D. Harrison, J. L. Copelin, C. E. White and G. E. Combs2


Coffeeweed is a common name applied to several different species of plants
which are considered noxious weeds. Two of these species, commonly referred to
as coffeeweed and classified in the genus Cassia are called sicklepod (Cassia
obtusifolia) and coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis). While the distribution
of both species is similar and both species are a problem in grain fields
throughout the southeastern United States, sicklepod is the far greater problem
(Teem et al., 1980).

These two Cassia species while similar in many of their characteristics
may be correctly identified by careful examination of their seeds. The seeds
of sicklepod are angular and have a shape similar to that of a rectangle, whereas
the seeds of coffee senna are oval and flat.

Coffee senna has been found to be toxic to poultry (Simpson, 1970) and
cattle (Henson, 1965). Mercer (1967) reported extensive degeneration of muscle
tissue in cattle which was similar to white muscle disease. Sicklepod has also
been reported to cause myodegeneration in cattle (Henson, 1965) and has caused
a reduction in performance when fed to swine (Copelin, 1977).

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of including various levels
of coffeeweed (Cassia obtusifolia) in the diets of starting, growing and finishing
swine.

Experimental

Seventy-five crossbred pigs averaging 29 pounds were allotted, five pigs
per pen, with three pens per treatment to the following dietary treatment groups:

Diet

1 0 percent coffeeweed seed (corn-soy control diet)
2 3 percent coffeeweed seed
3 6 percent coffeeweed seed
4 Corn-soy control followed by 6 percent coffeeweed beginning
at 90 pounds body weight
5 Corn-soy control followed by 9 percent coffeeweed beginning
at 90 pounds body weight

The experiment was divided on the basis of animal weight into 4 periods:
starter (29 to 60 pounds); grower period A (60 to 90 pounds); grower period B
(90 to 120 pounds) and finisher (120 to 220 pounds). The experiment was terminated


1Experiment 264A.
Harrison, Graduate Assistant; Copelin, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Department
of Animal Science; White, Assistant Animal Nutritionist ARC Live Oak; and Combs,
Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science.







-9-


when pigs consuming the control diet weighed an average of 220 pounds. Two
levels of coffeeweed, 3 and 6 percent (diets 2 and 3), were fed along with a
control corn-soy diet (diet 1) from the beginning of the experiment to study
the effect of prolonged exposure to dietary coffeeweed (Cassia obtusifolia) on
growing pigs. The other two diets containing 6 and 9% coffeeweed (diets 4 and
5) were fed to pigs having an approximate initial weight of 90 pounds until
the termination of the trial, when control pigs reached 220 pounds. This
permitted an evaluation of growing-finishing swine which had no previous ex-
posure to coffeeweed.

All pigs were housed for four weeks during the starter period in an en-
closed nursery equipped with wire mesh floors. The pigs were moved to a semi-
enclosed building with concrete slatted floors for the growing and finishing
periods. The pigs were self-fed and water was furnished by automatic watering
devices during the entire experiment. All pigs were weighed and feed consumption
was determined bi-weekly. Upon completion of the 125-day trial, performance
data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test.

Diet composition is presented in table 1.


Results and Discussion

A summary of the performance data is presented in tables 3-6.

Starter Period. There was a significant (P<.05) reduction in average daily
gain during the starter period for the pigs consuming diet 2 when compared with
pigs fed diet 1 (0.93 vs. 1.32). There was a further reduction (P<.05) in gain
to 0.60 pounds per day for pigs consuming diet 3 when compared with pigs fed
diets 1 and 2. Feed intake was reduced (P<.05) for pigs fed diets 2 and 3 when
compared with pigs fed diet 1 (1.94 and 1.52 vs. 2.84 pounds per day).

Grower Period A. The results obtained during this period are similar to
those in the starter period. Pigs fed diet 1 gained faster (P<.05) than pigs
fed diets 2 or 3 (1.41 vs. 1.12 and 0.62 pounds, respectively). Pigs fed
diet 1 also consumed more feed (P<.05) than those fed diets 2 or 3 (3.68 vs.
3.05 and 1.96 pounds, respectively).

Grower Period B. During this period, average daily gains for pigs receiving
diet 4 were similar to those of pigs receiving diet 3 (0.75 vs. 0.86). The
average daily gain for pigs fed diet 5 (0.29 pounds per day) was the lowest
(P<.05) of all dietary treatments.

The inclusion of coffeeweed in the diet at all levels reduced (P<.05) feed
consumption when compared to diet 1. The pigs given diet 4 consumed less feed
(P<.05) than those receiving diet 2 but more feed (P<.05) than the pigs re-
ceiving diets 3 or 5. The only reduction in feed efficiency (P<.05) was
exhibited by the pigs consuming diet 5.

This reduction in feed efficiency was largely due to excessive feed wastage
by the pigs fed diet 5. These pigs attempted to sort the coffeeweed out of the
mixed diets and as a result, feed wastage was high.







- 10 -


Finisher Period. During the finisher period, average daily gains for those
pigs receiving diets 3 and 4 were reduced (P<.05) when compared to pigs fed diets
1 or 2. Average daily gains for the pigs receiving diets 4 and 5 were signifi-
cantly (P<.05) lower than for those pigs.receiving the other dietary treatments.
Reduced feed intakes (P<.05) were observed for pigs receiving diets 3, 4 and 5
when compared to pigs receiving diets 1 or 2. Pigs fed diets 4 and 5 were less
(P<.05) efficient than pigs fed diets 1, 2 or 3. Diets containing high levels
of coffeeweed caused a severe acceptance problem and an increase in feed wastage.
Acceptance of the diets appeared to be a more pronounced problem with the pigs
which began to receive coffeeweed at the beginning of grower period B.

Overall Experiment. The pigs fed diet 2 gained less (P<.05) than the pigs
fed diet 1. Pigs receiving diets 3, 4 and 5 gained slower (P<.05) than the
pigs fed diets 1 or 2. Feed intake was lower (P<.05) for pigs fed diet 4
than for pigs fed diets 1 or 2. The pigs consuming diets 3 and 5 had reduced
feed intakes (P<.05) when compared to pigs fed the other three diets. Pigs
fed diets 4 and 5 were less (P<.05) efficient than pigs fed diets 1, 2 or 3.

Throughout the course of this experiment, a great deal of pig variation
was observed within treatment groups. At all levels of coffeeweed there were
animals whose performance approached that of the pigs fed diet 1. When the
experiment was terminated (pigs fed diet 1 averaging 220 pounds) individual pig
weights for the 4 coffeeweed diets ranged as follows: diet 2, 117 to 222 pounds;
diet 3, 28 to 204 pounds; diet 4, 98 to 233 pounds; diet 5, 73 to 173 pounds.
This extreme variation in weight gain appears to be due to individual acceptance
of the coffeeweed diets; some pigs performed satisfactorily while others made
essentially no gain. Upon completion of the feeding trial, the pigs which had
been fed the coffeeweed diets were placed on a corn-soy diet and showed a two-
fold increase in feed consumption and a three-fold increase in average daily
gain during the next two weeks. These animals were fed until they reached
approximately 220 pounds; most of the pigs achieved this weight within 6 weeks.

In general, pigs consuming the coffeeweed diets (Cassia obtusifolia) ex-
hibited reduced average daily gains. If the level was 6 percent or greater
then both average daily gains and feed intake were reduced. Feed efficiency
was decreased (P<.05) when coffeeweed comprised 9 percent of the pigs'diet.


Summary

Seventy-five crossbred pigs averaging 29 pounds were used to study the
effects of coffeeweed (Cassia obtusifolia) on pig performance. Average daily
gains were lower (P<.05) for pigs consuming diet 2 when compared with diet 1.
The pigs consuming diets 3, 4 and 5 had lower average daily gains and feed in-
takes than pigs consuming diet 1 or 2. Feed efficiency was poorer (P<.05) for
the pigs consuming diets 4 and 5 when compared with the other diets. Although
the levels of coffeeweed studied reduced pig performance, there was a large
compensatory growth effect when pigs fed coffeeweed were placed on a corn-soy
diet. Feed consumption was doubled and there was a three-fold increase in
average daily gain during a two week period immediately following termination
of the coffeeweed diets.







- 11 -


Literature Cited

1. Copelin, J. L. 1977. Unpublished data, Experiment 264. Department of
Animal Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

2. Henson, J. B., J. W. Dollahite, C. H. Bridges and R. R. Rao. 1965. Myo-
degeneration in cattle grazing Cassia species. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc.
147(2):142.

3. Mercer, H. D., F. C. Neal, J. A. Himes and G. T. Edds. 1967. Cassia
occidentalis toxicosis in cattle. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 151(6):735.

4. Simpson, C. F., B. L. Damron and R. H. Harms. 1970. Toxic myopathy of
chicks fed Cassia occidentalis seeds. Department of Veterinary Science,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

5. Teem, D. H., C. S. Hoveland and G. A. Buchanan. 1980. Sicklepod (Cassia
obtusifolia) and coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis): Geographic distri-
bution,germination,and emergence. Weed Science 28(1):68.

6. Teem, D. H. 1976. Factors affecting the growth and distribution of
sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia) and coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis).
Ph.D. Dissertation, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama.







- 12 -


TABLE 1. DIET COMPOSITION


Ingredient Starter Grower Finisher
% % %

Ground yellow corna 72.50 78.00 83.50
Soybean meal 24.50 19.00 13.50
Defluorinated phosphate 1.50 1.50 1.50
Limestone 0.40 0.40 0.40
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals (CCC)b 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamins (UF)c 0.50 0.50 0.50
ASP-250d 0.25 0.25 ---


bCoffeeweed was substituted for corn at the prescribed treatment level.
-Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20%
zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, .15% iodine, .10% cobalt and
12% calcium.
cContained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic
acid, 80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mg vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU
vitamin A, 400,000 ICU vitamin D3, 10,000 IU vitamin E and 3855 mg vitamin
,3 per pound of premix.
Contained 20 g chlortetracycline, 20 g sulfamethazine, 10 g procaine
penicillin per pound of supplement.







TABLE 2. STARTER PERIOD


Dietary Treatment 1 2 3

Animals 15 15 15
Initial weight 29.32 29.10 28.66
Final weight 66.36 55.12 48.50
Average daily gain 1.32a 0.93b 0.60
Average daily feed intake 2.84 1.94 1.52
Feed efficiency 2.18 2.08 2.57

abc
aMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).







- 12 -


TABLE 1. DIET COMPOSITION


Ingredient Starter Grower Finisher
% % %

Ground yellow corna 72.50 78.00 83.50
Soybean meal 24.50 19.00 13.50
Defluorinated phosphate 1.50 1.50 1.50
Limestone 0.40 0.40 0.40
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals (CCC)b 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamins (UF)c 0.50 0.50 0.50
ASP-250d 0.25 0.25 ---


bCoffeeweed was substituted for corn at the prescribed treatment level.
-Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20%
zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, .15% iodine, .10% cobalt and
12% calcium.
cContained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic
acid, 80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mg vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU
vitamin A, 400,000 ICU vitamin D3, 10,000 IU vitamin E and 3855 mg vitamin
,3 per pound of premix.
Contained 20 g chlortetracycline, 20 g sulfamethazine, 10 g procaine
penicillin per pound of supplement.







TABLE 2. STARTER PERIOD


Dietary Treatment 1 2 3

Animals 15 15 15
Initial weight 29.32 29.10 28.66
Final weight 66.36 55.12 48.50
Average daily gain 1.32a 0.93b 0.60
Average daily feed intake 2.84 1.94 1.52
Feed efficiency 2.18 2.08 2.57

abc
aMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).







- 13 -


TABLE 3. GROWER PERIOD A


Dietary Treatment 1 2 3

Animals 15 15 15
Initial weight 66.36 55.12 48.50
Final weight 99.87 85.36 78.00
Average daily gain 1.41a 1.12b 0.62c
Average daily feed intake 3.68a 3.05b 1.96c
Feed efficiency 2.61 2.74 3.18


abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).



TABLE 4. GROWER PERIOD B



Dietary Treatment 1 2 3 4a 5a

Animals 15 15 15 15 15
Initial weight 99.87 85.36 78.00 97.66 87.08
Final weight 143.96b 119.80 85.67 118.61 95.23
Average daily gain 1.41b 1.23b 0.86c 0.75 0.29
Average daily feed intake 4.70 4.06c 2.80e 3.51d 2.40e
Feed efficiency 3.32b 3.36b 3.25b 4.72b 8.25c


6% coffeeweed begun at 90 pounds.
bceMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).


TABLE 5. FINISHER PERIOD


Dietary Treatment 1 2 3 4a 5a

Animals 15 15 15 15 15
Initial weight 143.96 119.80 85.67 118.61 95.23
Final weight 223.72 184.59 129.48 145.39 122.60
Average daily gain 1.76 1.54 1.04c 0.64 0.66d
Average daily feed intake 5.86b 5.64b 4.19c 3.92c 4.06c
Feed efficiency 3.29 3.66b 4.02 6.14c 6.15c

a
.6% and 9% coffeeweed begun at 90 pounds.
Means on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).







- 13 -


TABLE 3. GROWER PERIOD A


Dietary Treatment 1 2 3

Animals 15 15 15
Initial weight 66.36 55.12 48.50
Final weight 99.87 85.36 78.00
Average daily gain 1.41a 1.12b 0.62c
Average daily feed intake 3.68a 3.05b 1.96c
Feed efficiency 2.61 2.74 3.18


abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).



TABLE 4. GROWER PERIOD B



Dietary Treatment 1 2 3 4a 5a

Animals 15 15 15 15 15
Initial weight 99.87 85.36 78.00 97.66 87.08
Final weight 143.96b 119.80 85.67 118.61 95.23
Average daily gain 1.41b 1.23b 0.86c 0.75 0.29
Average daily feed intake 4.70 4.06c 2.80e 3.51d 2.40e
Feed efficiency 3.32b 3.36b 3.25b 4.72b 8.25c


6% coffeeweed begun at 90 pounds.
bceMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).


TABLE 5. FINISHER PERIOD


Dietary Treatment 1 2 3 4a 5a

Animals 15 15 15 15 15
Initial weight 143.96 119.80 85.67 118.61 95.23
Final weight 223.72 184.59 129.48 145.39 122.60
Average daily gain 1.76 1.54 1.04c 0.64 0.66d
Average daily feed intake 5.86b 5.64b 4.19c 3.92c 4.06c
Feed efficiency 3.29 3.66b 4.02 6.14c 6.15c

a
.6% and 9% coffeeweed begun at 90 pounds.
Means on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).







- 13 -


TABLE 3. GROWER PERIOD A


Dietary Treatment 1 2 3

Animals 15 15 15
Initial weight 66.36 55.12 48.50
Final weight 99.87 85.36 78.00
Average daily gain 1.41a 1.12b 0.62c
Average daily feed intake 3.68a 3.05b 1.96c
Feed efficiency 2.61 2.74 3.18


abcMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).



TABLE 4. GROWER PERIOD B



Dietary Treatment 1 2 3 4a 5a

Animals 15 15 15 15 15
Initial weight 99.87 85.36 78.00 97.66 87.08
Final weight 143.96b 119.80 85.67 118.61 95.23
Average daily gain 1.41b 1.23b 0.86c 0.75 0.29
Average daily feed intake 4.70 4.06c 2.80e 3.51d 2.40e
Feed efficiency 3.32b 3.36b 3.25b 4.72b 8.25c


6% coffeeweed begun at 90 pounds.
bceMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).


TABLE 5. FINISHER PERIOD


Dietary Treatment 1 2 3 4a 5a

Animals 15 15 15 15 15
Initial weight 143.96 119.80 85.67 118.61 95.23
Final weight 223.72 184.59 129.48 145.39 122.60
Average daily gain 1.76 1.54 1.04c 0.64 0.66d
Average daily feed intake 5.86b 5.64b 4.19c 3.92c 4.06c
Feed efficiency 3.29 3.66b 4.02 6.14c 6.15c

a
.6% and 9% coffeeweed begun at 90 pounds.
Means on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly
(P<.05).




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