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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Table 1 - Composition of diets
 Table 2 - Performance of pigs fed...
 Table 3 - Performance of pigs fed...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1980-4
Title: Performance of swine fed sorghum diets supplemented with fat
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073113/00001
 Material Information
Title: Performance of swine fed sorghum diets supplemented with fat
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Copelin, Johnny Landon
Gorbet, Daniel W ( Daniel Wayne ), 1942-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum as feed   ( lcsh )
Fat   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs, J.L. Copelin and D.W. Gorbet.
General Note: "June, 1980."
General Note: Pages numbered 4-7.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073113
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80736735

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 4
    Results and discussion
        Page 4
    Summary
        Page 5
    Table 1 - Composition of diets
        Page 6
    Table 2 - Performance of pigs fed starter diets containing corn and sorghum with six percent supplemental fat
        Page 7
    Table 3 - Performance of pigs fed corn or sorghum diets supplemented with fat
        Page 7
Full Text
1 -


Department of Animal Science 4 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1980-4 Experiment Station
June, 1980 Gainesville, Florida



PERFORMANCE OF SWINE FED SORGHUM DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH FAT1

G. E. Combs, J. L. Copelin and D. W. Gorbet2


The comparative nutrient content, agronomic characteristics and production
costs of grain sorghum and corn indicate that sorghum has considerable potential
for use as the major dietary energy source in swine diets. Previous Florida
reports3 show that the feeding value of grain sorghum diets was increased by
the additions of fat at levels ranging from 3 to 6 percent. The present ex-
periments were conducted to further evaluate the effectiveness of fat in im-
proving the feeding value of sorghum in swine starter, grower and finisher
diets.


Experimental

Experiment 1. Ninety crossbred pigs averaging 16 pounds were allotted
according to initial weight, litter and sex to five treatment groups. Each
of these groups consisted of three pens containing six pigs each. All pigs
were housed in an enclosed nursery building equipped with wire mesh cages.
The diets were calculated to contain 18 percent protein and were fed for a 38
day period. The sorghum varieties used were non-bird resistant (NBR) Ringaround
811A and bird resistant (BR) Funk 516.

Experiment 2. One hundred and eight crossbred pigs averaging 23.5 pounds
were allotted, six pigs per pen and three pens per treatment to six dietary
treatment groups. All pigs were housed for the initial four weeks in the
nursery facility described in Experiment 1. During the grower-finisher periods,
they were housed in semi-enclosed pens equipped with an aluminum slatted floor.
An 18 percent protein starter diet was fed until the pigs averaged 60 pounds
body weight; from 60 to 125 pounds a 15 percent protein diet was fed and from
125 pounds to market weight the diets contained 13 percent protein. The sorghum
used was NBR variety Ringaround 808.

Automatic watering devices and self-feeders were used in both experiments.

The dietary treatments and diet composition are presented in table 1. In
both experiments sorghum and corn were considered as isonitrogenous ingredients
and substituted on a weight basis.


Results and Discussion

A summary of the performance data for Experiments 1 and 2 is presented in
tables 2 and 3, respectively.


1Experiment 265A and 265B.
2Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Copelin, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Depart-
ment of Animal Science. Gorbet, Associate Agronomist, Marianna ARC.
3Research Reports AL-1979-3, SW-1979-1 and 2, and MA-1979-1.




1 -


Department of Animal Science 4 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1980-4 Experiment Station
June, 1980 Gainesville, Florida



PERFORMANCE OF SWINE FED SORGHUM DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH FAT1

G. E. Combs, J. L. Copelin and D. W. Gorbet2


The comparative nutrient content, agronomic characteristics and production
costs of grain sorghum and corn indicate that sorghum has considerable potential
for use as the major dietary energy source in swine diets. Previous Florida
reports3 show that the feeding value of grain sorghum diets was increased by
the additions of fat at levels ranging from 3 to 6 percent. The present ex-
periments were conducted to further evaluate the effectiveness of fat in im-
proving the feeding value of sorghum in swine starter, grower and finisher
diets.


Experimental

Experiment 1. Ninety crossbred pigs averaging 16 pounds were allotted
according to initial weight, litter and sex to five treatment groups. Each
of these groups consisted of three pens containing six pigs each. All pigs
were housed in an enclosed nursery building equipped with wire mesh cages.
The diets were calculated to contain 18 percent protein and were fed for a 38
day period. The sorghum varieties used were non-bird resistant (NBR) Ringaround
811A and bird resistant (BR) Funk 516.

Experiment 2. One hundred and eight crossbred pigs averaging 23.5 pounds
were allotted, six pigs per pen and three pens per treatment to six dietary
treatment groups. All pigs were housed for the initial four weeks in the
nursery facility described in Experiment 1. During the grower-finisher periods,
they were housed in semi-enclosed pens equipped with an aluminum slatted floor.
An 18 percent protein starter diet was fed until the pigs averaged 60 pounds
body weight; from 60 to 125 pounds a 15 percent protein diet was fed and from
125 pounds to market weight the diets contained 13 percent protein. The sorghum
used was NBR variety Ringaround 808.

Automatic watering devices and self-feeders were used in both experiments.

The dietary treatments and diet composition are presented in table 1. In
both experiments sorghum and corn were considered as isonitrogenous ingredients
and substituted on a weight basis.


Results and Discussion

A summary of the performance data for Experiments 1 and 2 is presented in
tables 2 and 3, respectively.


1Experiment 265A and 265B.
2Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Copelin, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, Depart-
ment of Animal Science. Gorbet, Associate Agronomist, Marianna ARC.
3Research Reports AL-1979-3, SW-1979-1 and 2, and MA-1979-1.








-5-


Experiment 1. Average daily gain was not significantly (P<.05) influenced
by dietary treatment. Feed required per unit of gain was significantly (P<.05)
less for pigs fed the corn or the sorghum diets supplemented with fat than
for pigs given sorghum without additional fat.

Experiment 2. As was found in Experiment 1, the average daily gain was
not significantly (P<.05) affected by dietary treatment and feed efficiency
was significantly (P<.05) improved by supplementing the sorghum diet with three,
six and nine percent fat. The data also show that six percent fat was optimal
in that while nine percent was significantly (P<.05) different from three per-
cent, it did not differ significantly from the six percent. No apparent benefit
resulted from varying the quantity of supplemental fat provided during the
starter, grower and finisher periods (treatment 6).

The results obtained from these experiments showing that comparable weight
gain is obtained with pigs fed either corn or sorghum based diets is in agree-
ment with previous studies. The necessity of supplementing sorghum diets with
fat to obtain a feed efficiency comparable to that found with corn (Experiment 1)
also confirms previous results. In Experiment 2, the similarity of feed ef-
ficiency data for the pigs fed corn or grain sorghum does not agree with most
of the data present in the literature. A possible explanation for this dis-
crepancy may be the relatively light weights at which these pigs were marketed.


Summary

Two experiments involving 198 crossbred pigs were conducted to: (1) compare
the feeding value of diets formulated with corn or grain sorghum as the major
source of dietary energy; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of supplemental fat
in improving the feeding value of sorghum based diets.

Pigs fed the fat supplemented (6%) sorghum diet (Experiment 1) demonstrated
feed efficiency comparable to that of the corn diet (P<.05) whereas those given
sorghum diets without supplemental fat exhibited significantly (P<.05) less
efficiency in feed conversions than the other treatments. Rate of gain was
similar for all treatments.

In Experiment 2, rate and efficiency of gain was comparable for pigs fed
either corn or sorghum diets. Efficiency but not rate of gain was improved
by the addition of three, six or nine percent fat to the sorghum diet.





TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS


Experiment 1 Sorghum Sorghum
Sorghum Sorghum NBR + BR +
Corn NBR BR 6% Fat 6% Fat


Gr. yellow corn
Gr. sorghum
Soybean meal
Salt
Dynafos
Limestone
Trace minerals (CCC)
Vitamin mix (UF)
Antibiotic
Fat (stabilized lard)


72.25

24.55
0.25
1.60
0.90
0.10
0.10
0.25


100.00


m---
72.25
24.55
0.25
1.60
0.90
0.10
0.10
0.25


100.00


--m--
72.25
24.55
0.25
1.60
0.90
0.10
0.10
0.25


100.00


64.80
26.00
0.25
1.60
0.90
0.10
0.10
0.25
6.00

100.00


64.80
26.00
0.25
1.60
0.90
0.10
0.10
0.25
6.00

100.00


Experiment 21


Corn


Sorghum
NBR3


Sorghum
NBR+3% fat


Sorghum
NBR+6% fat


Sorghum
NBR+9% fat


Sorghum
9-6-3% fat2


Gr. yellow corn 71.80 -- -- -- -- --
Gr. sorghum --- 71.80 68.60 64.80 61.60 61.60
Soybean meal 25.00 25.00 25.20 26.00 26.70 26.70
Fat (HEF)3 -- -- 3.00 6.00 9.00 9.00
Dynafos 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals (CCC)4 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vit. premix (UF)5 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Antibiotic 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

1Composition of starter diet; corn, sorghum and soybean meal adjusted to formulate 15 and 13 percent grower-
finisher diets,respectively.
2Fat added at 9, 6 and 3 percent for starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively.
3HEF, Courtesy of Buckeye Cellulose Company, Memphis, TN.
4Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, IL. Contained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1%
copper, 0.15% iodine and 12% calcium.
5Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid, 80,000 mg choline chloride,
10,000 mcg vitamin Bi2, 2,500,00 IU vitamin A, 400,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 10,000 IU vitamin E per lb of premix.









TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED STARTER DIETS CONTAINING CORN AND SORGHUM
WITH SIX PERCENT SUPPLEMENTAL FAT


Sorghum Sorghum Sorghum Sorghum
Corn NBR BR NBR + 6% Fat BR + 6% Fat
Treatments 1 2 3 4 5

Avg. initial weight 16.08 16.05 16.06 16.00 16.05
Avg. final weight 59.44 58.89 57.28 59.61 60.56
Avg. daily gain* 1.14 1.12 1.08 1.14 1.17
Avg. daily feed 1.97 2.12 2.16 2.01 2.14
Avg. feed/gain** 1.72 1.89 1.99 1.75 1.82


*Non-significant (P<.05).
**Significantly different (P<.05). Treatments 1, 4 and 5 significantly different from 2 and 3.




TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED CORN OR SORGHUM DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH FAT


Sorghum Sorghum Sorghum Sorghum +
Corn Sorghum + 3% Fat + 6% Fat + 9% Fat 9-6-3% Fat
Treatments 1 2 3 4 5 6

Avg. initial weight 23.53 23.32 23.55 23.55 23.53 23.53
Avg. final weight 187.61 182.67 191.83 191.67 190.00 183.89
Avg. daily gain* 1.67 1.62. 1.71 1.71 1.69 1.63
Avg. daily feed 4.54 4.51 4.38 4.09 3.95 4.04
Avg. feed/gain** 2.71 2.77 2.55 2.38 2.32 2.47


*Non-significant (P<.05).
**Significantly different (P<.05). Treatments 1 and 2 significantly different from other treatments.
Treatment 3 significantly different from 5.









TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED STARTER DIETS CONTAINING CORN AND SORGHUM
WITH SIX PERCENT SUPPLEMENTAL FAT


Sorghum Sorghum Sorghum Sorghum
Corn NBR BR NBR + 6% Fat BR + 6% Fat
Treatments 1 2 3 4 5

Avg. initial weight 16.08 16.05 16.06 16.00 16.05
Avg. final weight 59.44 58.89 57.28 59.61 60.56
Avg. daily gain* 1.14 1.12 1.08 1.14 1.17
Avg. daily feed 1.97 2.12 2.16 2.01 2.14
Avg. feed/gain** 1.72 1.89 1.99 1.75 1.82


*Non-significant (P<.05).
**Significantly different (P<.05). Treatments 1, 4 and 5 significantly different from 2 and 3.




TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF PIGS FED CORN OR SORGHUM DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH FAT


Sorghum Sorghum Sorghum Sorghum +
Corn Sorghum + 3% Fat + 6% Fat + 9% Fat 9-6-3% Fat
Treatments 1 2 3 4 5 6

Avg. initial weight 23.53 23.32 23.55 23.55 23.53 23.53
Avg. final weight 187.61 182.67 191.83 191.67 190.00 183.89
Avg. daily gain* 1.67 1.62. 1.71 1.71 1.69 1.63
Avg. daily feed 4.54 4.51 4.38 4.09 3.95 4.04
Avg. feed/gain** 2.71 2.77 2.55 2.38 2.32 2.47


*Non-significant (P<.05).
**Significantly different (P<.05). Treatments 1 and 2 significantly different from other treatments.
Treatment 3 significantly different from 5.




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