• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Table 1 - Diet composition
 Table 2 - Proximate analyses, lysine...
 Table 3 - Performance during the...
 Table 4 - Performance during the...
 Table 5 - Performance during the...
 Table 6 - Performance for the total...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1979-6
Title: The feeding value of Florida-grown Wesser rye for weanling and growing-finishing swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073108/00001
 Material Information
Title: The feeding value of Florida-grown Wesser rye for weanling and growing-finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: p. 9-13 : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Harrison, Michael Dean, 1957-
Copelin, Johnny Landon
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Rye as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: M.D. Harrison, J.L. Copelin and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1979."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073108
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80562354

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 9
    Results and discussion
        Page 9
    Summary
        Page 10
    Table 1 - Diet composition
        Page 11
    Table 2 - Proximate analyses, lysine and gross energy content of grains
        Page 11
    Table 3 - Performance during the starter period
        Page 12
    Table 4 - Performance during the grower period
        Page 12
    Table 5 - Performance during the finisher period
        Page 13
    Table 6 - Performance for the total period
        Page 13
Full Text



Department of Animal Science 9 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1979-6 Experiment Station
August, 1979 Gainesville, Florida



THE FEEDING VALUE OF FLORIDA-GROWN WESSER RYE FOR WEANLING
AND GROWING-FINISHING SWINE1

M. D. Harrison, J. L. Copelin and G. E. Combs2


Florida is an area with a deficiency of energy feedstuffs and requires
shipment of these feeds from grain surplus areas such as the midwest. This
often results in 10 to 15% higher feed costs for the Florida producer, as
compared to producers in grain surplus areas. Rye is grown as a winter annual
in Florida and can yield up to forty-two bushels per acre of a high quality
grain which has a crude protein content ranging from 12 to 15%. Previous
studies3 have shown that Gator rye can replace up to 50% of the corn in the
diet with no significant (P<.05) reduction in animal performance.

This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of Wesser rye for
weanling and growing-finishing swine when substituted for corn at five dietary
levels ranging from 0 to 100%.

Experimental

Ninety crossbred pigs averaging 18 pounds were allotted, six pigs per
pen, with three pens per treatment to five dietary treatment groups. The
diets contained Florida produced Wesser rye substituted for corn on an equal
weight basis at five proportional levels (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%). The five
dietary treatments are designated as follows: corn-soy control (CS), 25%
rye (25-R), 50% rye (50-R), 75% rye (75-R) and 100% rye (100-R).

All pigs were housed for four weeks during the starter period in an en-
closed nursery building equipped with wire mesh cages. The pigs were moved
to a concrete barn with an aluminum slatted floor for the grower and finisher
periods. The pigs were self-fed and water was furnished by automatic watering
devices during the entire experiment. The experiment was divided into three
phases, starter (18 to 60 lb), grower (60 to 120 lb) and finisher (120 to
200 lb). All pigs were weighed and feed consumption were determined biweekly.
Upon completion of the 134-day trial, performance data were subjected to
analysis of variance with selected contrasts to test differences between treat-
ment means.

Diet composition is presented in table 1.

Results and Discussion

The proximate analyses, lysine and gross energy content of rye and corn
are presented in table 2. Rye has more crude protein and lysine than corn but


IExperiment 266A.
2Harrison, Graduate Assistant; Copelin, Assistant Animal Nutritionist and Combs,
Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science.
3Animal Science Mimeo Report 60-14.







Department of Animal Science 9 Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1979-6 Experiment Station
August, 1979 Gainesville, Florida



THE FEEDING VALUE OF FLORIDA-GROWN WESSER RYE FOR WEANLING
AND GROWING-FINISHING SWINE1

M. D. Harrison, J. L. Copelin and G. E. Combs2


Florida is an area with a deficiency of energy feedstuffs and requires
shipment of these feeds from grain surplus areas such as the midwest. This
often results in 10 to 15% higher feed costs for the Florida producer, as
compared to producers in grain surplus areas. Rye is grown as a winter annual
in Florida and can yield up to forty-two bushels per acre of a high quality
grain which has a crude protein content ranging from 12 to 15%. Previous
studies3 have shown that Gator rye can replace up to 50% of the corn in the
diet with no significant (P<.05) reduction in animal performance.

This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of Wesser rye for
weanling and growing-finishing swine when substituted for corn at five dietary
levels ranging from 0 to 100%.

Experimental

Ninety crossbred pigs averaging 18 pounds were allotted, six pigs per
pen, with three pens per treatment to five dietary treatment groups. The
diets contained Florida produced Wesser rye substituted for corn on an equal
weight basis at five proportional levels (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%). The five
dietary treatments are designated as follows: corn-soy control (CS), 25%
rye (25-R), 50% rye (50-R), 75% rye (75-R) and 100% rye (100-R).

All pigs were housed for four weeks during the starter period in an en-
closed nursery building equipped with wire mesh cages. The pigs were moved
to a concrete barn with an aluminum slatted floor for the grower and finisher
periods. The pigs were self-fed and water was furnished by automatic watering
devices during the entire experiment. The experiment was divided into three
phases, starter (18 to 60 lb), grower (60 to 120 lb) and finisher (120 to
200 lb). All pigs were weighed and feed consumption were determined biweekly.
Upon completion of the 134-day trial, performance data were subjected to
analysis of variance with selected contrasts to test differences between treat-
ment means.

Diet composition is presented in table 1.

Results and Discussion

The proximate analyses, lysine and gross energy content of rye and corn
are presented in table 2. Rye has more crude protein and lysine than corn but


IExperiment 266A.
2Harrison, Graduate Assistant; Copelin, Assistant Animal Nutritionist and Combs,
Animal Nutritionist, Department of Animal Science.
3Animal Science Mimeo Report 60-14.








- 10 -


also contains a higher percentage of crude fiber and ash. Rye contains less
fat and has a lower gross energy content than corn.

A summary of the performance data is presented in tables 3-6.

Starter Period. No differences (P<.05) were observed in average daily
gain or feed efficiency during the starter period.

Grower Period. The average daily gain was lower (P<.05) for the pigs fed
the 75-R and 100-R diets (1.46 vs 1.59 and 1.43 us 1.59). There were no
significant differences (P<.05) in feed efficiency during the grower phase.
However, it is apparent that pigs consuming the 75-R and 100-R diets tended to
be less efficient than the CS, 25-R and 50-R pigs.

Finisher Period. The results of the finisher period are similar to those
obtained during the grower period. The average daily gain was lower (P<.05)
for the pigs fed the 75-R and 100-R diets during the finisher period when com-
pared to the CS, 25-R and 50-R diets. Pigs fed the 75-R and 100-R diets were
also less efficient (P<.05) than pigs fed the CS diets (4.01 us 3.28 and 4.10
vs 3.28).

Overall Period. There were no significant differences (P<.05) in feed
intake among the five dietary treatments during any phase of the 134-day trial.
The pigs fed the 25-R diet performed as well as those receiving the CS diet
and gained faster than the 75-R and 100-R fed pigs. There was no significant
reduction (P<.05) in the average daily gain for those animals receiving the
50-R diet when compared with the CS and 25-R fed pigs. Based on performance
of pigs fed the 100-R diets, Wesser rye has an estimated feeding value which
is 92% that of corn.

Summary

Ninety crossbred pigs with an average initial weight of 18 pounds were
studied to determine the feeding value of Florida-grown rye when used to replace
0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the dietary corn.

No differences (P<.05) were observed in the average daily gain, feed in-
take on feed efficiency during the starter phase of the experiment. Pigs fed
diets containing 75 and 100% rye were less efficient than the other dietary
treatments (P<.05) during the finisher phase. Average daily gain was lower
(P<.05) for the pigs fed the 75-R and 100-R diets during the grower and finisher
phases and for the overall experiment when compared to the pigs receiving the
CS, 25-R and 50-R diets.






- 11 -


Table 1. Diet Composition


Ingredient Starter Grower Finisher
% % %


Grain1
Soybean meal (49%)
Dynafos (IMCC)
Limestone
Iodized salt
Trace minerals (CCC)2
Vitamin premix (UF)3
ASP-250


71.80
25.00
1.70
0.80
0.25
0.10
0.10
0.25


74.10
22.00
1.70
0.80
0.25
0.10
0.10
0.15


82.10
15.00
1.70
0.80
0.25
0.10
0.05


1Yellow corn, Wesser rye or combinations.
2Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.1% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mcg vitamin B12, 2,500,000 I.U. vitamin A,
400,000 I.C.U. vitamin D3 and 10,000 I.U. vitamin E per lb of premix.









Table 2. Proximate Analyses, Lysine and Gross Energy Content of GrainsI



Criteria Corn Wesser Rye

Crude protein, % 8.10 14.53
Fiber, % 1.91 3.40
Fat, % 4.61 0.48
Ash, % 1.05 2.10
Lysine 0.25 0.83
Gross energy, Kcal/g 4.15 3.97


1Means of duplicate analyses (As fed basis).






- 11 -


Table 1. Diet Composition


Ingredient Starter Grower Finisher
% % %


Grain1
Soybean meal (49%)
Dynafos (IMCC)
Limestone
Iodized salt
Trace minerals (CCC)2
Vitamin premix (UF)3
ASP-250


71.80
25.00
1.70
0.80
0.25
0.10
0.10
0.25


74.10
22.00
1.70
0.80
0.25
0.10
0.10
0.15


82.10
15.00
1.70
0.80
0.25
0.10
0.05


1Yellow corn, Wesser rye or combinations.
2Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.1% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mcg vitamin B12, 2,500,000 I.U. vitamin A,
400,000 I.C.U. vitamin D3 and 10,000 I.U. vitamin E per lb of premix.









Table 2. Proximate Analyses, Lysine and Gross Energy Content of GrainsI



Criteria Corn Wesser Rye

Crude protein, % 8.10 14.53
Fiber, % 1.91 3.40
Fat, % 4.61 0.48
Ash, % 1.05 2.10
Lysine 0.25 0.83
Gross energy, Kcal/g 4.15 3.97


1Means of duplicate analyses (As fed basis).







- 12 -


Table 3. Performance During the Starter Period


Dietary treatment CS 25-R 50-R 75-R 100-R

Animals 17a 18 18 18 18
Initial weight 17.68 17.84 17.84 17.84 17.84
Final weight 63.07 60.05 62.17 61.55 60.82
Average daily gain 1.26 1.26 1.23 1.21 1.19
Average daily feed intake 2.29 2.32 2.25 2.23 2.18
Feed efficiency 1.83 1.83 1.82 1.83 1.82


a0ne pig removed from experiment for reasons unrelated to treatment.









Table 4. Performance During the Grower Period



Dietary treatment CS 25-R 50-R 75-R 100-R

Animals 17a 18 18 18 18
Initial weight 63.07 60.05 62.17 61.55 60.82
Final weight 121.58 122.62 120.55 115.43 122.35
Average daily gain 1.59b 1.61b 1.59b 1.46c 1.43
Average daily feed intake 4.12 4.10 4.06 3.95 3.90
Feed efficiency 2.60 2.56 2.57 2.70 2.71


bOne pig removed from experiment for reasons unrelated to treatment.
bMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly (P<.05).







- 12 -


Table 3. Performance During the Starter Period


Dietary treatment CS 25-R 50-R 75-R 100-R

Animals 17a 18 18 18 18
Initial weight 17.68 17.84 17.84 17.84 17.84
Final weight 63.07 60.05 62.17 61.55 60.82
Average daily gain 1.26 1.26 1.23 1.21 1.19
Average daily feed intake 2.29 2.32 2.25 2.23 2.18
Feed efficiency 1.83 1.83 1.82 1.83 1.82


a0ne pig removed from experiment for reasons unrelated to treatment.









Table 4. Performance During the Grower Period



Dietary treatment CS 25-R 50-R 75-R 100-R

Animals 17a 18 18 18 18
Initial weight 63.07 60.05 62.17 61.55 60.82
Final weight 121.58 122.62 120.55 115.43 122.35
Average daily gain 1.59b 1.61b 1.59b 1.46c 1.43
Average daily feed intake 4.12 4.10 4.06 3.95 3.90
Feed efficiency 2.60 2.56 2.57 2.70 2.71


bOne pig removed from experiment for reasons unrelated to treatment.
bMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly (P<.05).







- 13 -


Table 5. Performance During the Finisher Period


Dietary treatment CS 25-R 50-R 75-R 100-R

Animals 17a 18 18 18 18
Initial weight 121.58 122.62 120.55 115.43 122.35
Final weight 215.45 211.77 208.11 195.94 186.99
Average daily gain 1.72 1.61bc 1.61bc 1.48cd 1.32d
Average daily feed intake 5.62 6.15 5.67 5.89 5.42
Feed efficiency 3.28b 3.85bc 3.53bc 4.01c 4.10c


aOne pig removed from experiment for reasons unrelated to treatment.
bcdMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly (P<.05).








Table 6. Performance for the Total Period



Dietary treatment CS 25-R 50-R 75-R 100-R

Animals 17a 18 18 18 18
Initial weight 17.68. 17.84 17.84 17.84 17.84
Final weight 215.45 211.77 208.11 195.94 186.99
Average daily gain 1.54 1.525 1.50b 1.39d 1.32d
Average daily feed intake 4.25 4.48 4.23 4.30 4.03
Feed efficiency 2.77 2.97 2.84 3.07 3.04


a
SOne pig removed from experiment for reasons unrelated to treatment.
bcdMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly (P<.05).







- 13 -


Table 5. Performance During the Finisher Period


Dietary treatment CS 25-R 50-R 75-R 100-R

Animals 17a 18 18 18 18
Initial weight 121.58 122.62 120.55 115.43 122.35
Final weight 215.45 211.77 208.11 195.94 186.99
Average daily gain 1.72 1.61bc 1.61bc 1.48cd 1.32d
Average daily feed intake 5.62 6.15 5.67 5.89 5.42
Feed efficiency 3.28b 3.85bc 3.53bc 4.01c 4.10c


aOne pig removed from experiment for reasons unrelated to treatment.
bcdMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly (P<.05).








Table 6. Performance for the Total Period



Dietary treatment CS 25-R 50-R 75-R 100-R

Animals 17a 18 18 18 18
Initial weight 17.68. 17.84 17.84 17.84 17.84
Final weight 215.45 211.77 208.11 195.94 186.99
Average daily gain 1.54 1.525 1.50b 1.39d 1.32d
Average daily feed intake 4.25 4.48 4.23 4.30 4.03
Feed efficiency 2.77 2.97 2.84 3.07 3.04


a
SOne pig removed from experiment for reasons unrelated to treatment.
bcdMeans on the same line with different superscripts differ significantly (P<.05).




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