• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 Table 1 - Hemoglobin (Hb) levels...
 Table 2 - Iron content of allantoic...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1978-3
Title: Hemoglobin level and iron stores in prenatal and neonatal piglets from dams treated with iron-dextran
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073100/00001
 Material Information
Title: Hemoglobin level and iron stores in prenatal and neonatal piglets from dams treated with iron-dextran
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ducsay, Charles Andrew, 1953-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1978
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Physiology -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Iron -- Metabolism   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: C.A. Ducsay ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "March, 1978."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073100
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80551324

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 3
    Literature cited
        Page 3
    Table 1 - Hemoglobin (Hb) levels of piglets in experiments 1 and 2
        Page 4
    Table 2 - Iron content of allantoic fluid (ALF), fetus minus liver (FML) and fetal liver (FL) from control and early iron gilts
        Page 4
Full Text

oO
SDepartment of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
I ,;J' Research Report AL-1978-3 Experiment Station
SMarch, 1978 Gainesville, Florida



HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL AND IRON STORES IN PRENATAL AND NEONATAL
PIGLETS FROM DAMS TREATED WITH IRON-DEXTRAN1

C. A. Ducsay, G. E. Combs, H. D. Wal ace : is
and Fuller W. Bazer2


The use of intramuscular iron injections has become a standard procedure"
in maintaining adequate hemoglobin (Hb) levels in neonatal pigs throughout the
suckling period (Ullrey et al., 1959). Early evidence for placental transfer
of iron has been presented (Hoskins and Hansard, 1964), but attempts at pre-
farrowing iron treatment of the dam have proven relatively unsatisfactory
(Pond et al., 1961). In these experiments, attention was focused on the last
two to three weeks of gestation. More recent data however, has been presented
to stimulate investigation into the possibility of treating the dam much earlier
in gestation.

Bazer et al. (1975) demonstrated the presence of an iron-containing, pro-
gesterone-induced glycoprotein (PIG) in the allantoic fluid of pregnant gilts
between days 30 and 100 of gestation with maximum concentration occurring
between days 50 and 60. PIG is of maternal origin, traverses the placenta
and upon reaching the reducing atmosphere of the allantois, releases iron.
Hence, it appears that this protein plays some role in the iron metabolism of
the developing fetus.

This study was conducted to determine the effect of injecting the dam
with iron-dextran on the Hb level and iron stores of prenatal and neonatal pig-
lets. The iron injections were in conjunction with the peak movements of PIG
across the placenta, into the allantoic fluid compartment. By providing ad-
ditional iron during this time, it is expected that a greater amount of this
vital mineral will be available for transport to the fetus, increasing fetal
iron storage and ultimately reducingpiglet anemia.

Experimental

Experiment 1. Nineteen crossbred sows were bred and assigned to three
treatment groups: 1) Control-no supplemental iron injection; 2) Early Iron-
total of 10 mg iron-dextran/lb body weight (BW) divided among three injections
on days 40, 50 and 60 of gestation; 3) Late Iron-total of 10 mg iron-dextran/lb
BW divided among three injections on days 90, 100 and 110 of gestation. Iron-
dextran was administered via intramuscular injection to the dorsal neck region
of the sows in groups 2 and 3. The sows farrowed in individual crates
and blood samples were obtained from the newborn piglets at 81 hour and four
days post-partum. Hb was determined by the cyanomethemoglobin method.


1Experiment 252.
2Ducsay, Graduate Assistant; Combs, Animal Nutritionist; Wallace, Department
Chairman; Bazer, Associate Animal Physiologist, Animal Science Department.










Experiment 2. This was a replicate of Experiment 1 with 13 sows as-
signed to the three treatment groups. In addition to the Hb determinations
at 81 hour and four days post-partum, two males and two females of comparable
weight from each litter were sampled again for Hb determination on day 7 after
birth.

Experiment 3. Eight crossbred gilts were bred and randomly assigned to
treatment groups 1 and 2 as in the previous experiments. On day 90 of ges-
tation, all gilts were hysterectomized and the fetuses and allantoic fluid
were collected. The fetal livers (FL) were dissected from each fetus and the
fetus minus liver (FML), the FL, as well as the allantoic fluid (ALF) were
analyzed separately for iron content. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry
was utilized for the iron analysis.

Results and Discussion

The results from Experiment 1 (table 1) indicate that at birth, the
piglets from the Early Iron group had significantly higher Hb levels (P<.01).
By day 4, no differences were observed. During this period of rapid growth
and increased oxygen consumption, the neonate begins to draw heavily on
stored iron. Therefore, to determine any differences in iron storage, the
sampling period was extended to seven days in Experiment 2.

No significant differences were observed in Hb levels among the three
treatment groups either at 81 hour or four days post-partum in Experiment 2.
However, by day 7, the Hb levels from the Early Iron piglets were significantly
higher (P<.01) (table 1).

Based on the data from the first study, it appears that early treatment
of the dam has a positive effect on neonatal Hb. However, Hb levels yield
relatively little insight into the actual amount of stored iron or the pattern
of iron accumulation during fetal life. Therefore, Experiment 3 was con-
ducted to examine the effect of early iron treatment of the dam on the iron
content of the fetal tissues and allantoic fluid.

The iron concentration of the allantoic fluid (ALF) from the Early Iron
gilts was observed to be significantly higher (P<.01) than that of the Control
group (table 2). These results indicate that a greater quantity of iron
appears to be transferred to the allantoic fluid. From this fluid pool, more
iron should be available for.uptake by the fetus.

No significant difference in the iron content of the FML between the
two treatments was observed. This result is somewhat expected since the
principal site of iron storage is the liver. Therefore, if more iron is
available for uptake and storage by the fetuses in the Early Iron group, it
should manifest itself in increased hepatic iron stores. The iron content of
the FL from the Early Iron group was found to be significantly higher (P<.01)
than that of the Control group (table 2).

The present study supplies some insight into the possible mode of iron
transport to the developing concepts. Iron-dextran injection of the dam
between days 40 and 60 of gestation has a positive effect on fetal iron stores
and neonatal Hb.










Summary

Two studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of intramuscular
iron injection of the dam, in conjunction with the peak movements of an iron-
containing, progesterone induced glycoprotein (PIG), to increase fetal iron
stores and possibly reduce piglet anemia.

Nineteen crossbred sows were bred and assigned to three treatment groups:
1) Control-no supplemental iron injections; 2) Early Iron-total of 10 mg of
iron-dextran/lb body weight (BW) divided among three injections on days 40,
50 and 60 of gestation; 3) Late Iron-total of 10 mg of iron-dextran/lb BW
divided among three injections on days 90, 100 and 110 of gestation. Hemo-
globin (Hb) levels of the litters from each treatment group were determined
at 81 hour and four days post-partum. This trial was replicated using 13
sows with the Hb determinations extended to seven days post-partum.

A second study was conducted in which eight gilts were bred and assigned
to treatment groups 1 and 2. On day 90 of gestation, both groups were
hysterectomized, the fetal tissues and allantoic fluid were recovered and
analyzed for iron content.

It appears that treatment of the dam during the period of peak movement
of PIG across the placenta has a positive effect on the iron stores of the
prenatal and neonatal piglet.

Literature Cited

Bazer, F. W., T. T. Chen, J. W. Knight, D. Schlosnagle, N. Baldwin and R. M.
Roberts. 1975. Presence of a progesterone-induced, uterine specific
acid phosphatase in the allantoic fluid of gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 41:1112.

Hoskins, F. H. and S. L. Hansard. 1964. Placental transfer of iron in swine
as a function of gestation age. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 116:7.

Pond, W. G., R. S. Lowrey, J. H. Maner and J. K. Loosli. 1961. Parenteral
iron administration to sows during gestation or lactation. J. Anim.
Sci. 20:747.

Ullrey, D. E., D. R. Miller, D. A. West and R. W. Schmidt. 1959. Oral and
parenteral administration of iron in the presentation of baby pig
anemia. J. Anim. Sci. 18:256.










Summary

Two studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of intramuscular
iron injection of the dam, in conjunction with the peak movements of an iron-
containing, progesterone induced glycoprotein (PIG), to increase fetal iron
stores and possibly reduce piglet anemia.

Nineteen crossbred sows were bred and assigned to three treatment groups:
1) Control-no supplemental iron injections; 2) Early Iron-total of 10 mg of
iron-dextran/lb body weight (BW) divided among three injections on days 40,
50 and 60 of gestation; 3) Late Iron-total of 10 mg of iron-dextran/lb BW
divided among three injections on days 90, 100 and 110 of gestation. Hemo-
globin (Hb) levels of the litters from each treatment group were determined
at 81 hour and four days post-partum. This trial was replicated using 13
sows with the Hb determinations extended to seven days post-partum.

A second study was conducted in which eight gilts were bred and assigned
to treatment groups 1 and 2. On day 90 of gestation, both groups were
hysterectomized, the fetal tissues and allantoic fluid were recovered and
analyzed for iron content.

It appears that treatment of the dam during the period of peak movement
of PIG across the placenta has a positive effect on the iron stores of the
prenatal and neonatal piglet.

Literature Cited

Bazer, F. W., T. T. Chen, J. W. Knight, D. Schlosnagle, N. Baldwin and R. M.
Roberts. 1975. Presence of a progesterone-induced, uterine specific
acid phosphatase in the allantoic fluid of gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 41:1112.

Hoskins, F. H. and S. L. Hansard. 1964. Placental transfer of iron in swine
as a function of gestation age. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 116:7.

Pond, W. G., R. S. Lowrey, J. H. Maner and J. K. Loosli. 1961. Parenteral
iron administration to sows during gestation or lactation. J. Anim.
Sci. 20:747.

Ullrey, D. E., D. R. Miller, D. A. West and R. W. Schmidt. 1959. Oral and
parenteral administration of iron in the presentation of baby pig
anemia. J. Anim. Sci. 18:256.










Table 1. Hemoglobin (Hb)a Levelsb of Piglets in Experiments 1 and 2


Sampling time post-partum

Treatment 81 hour 4 days 7 days

Control

Exp. 1 8.5 .2 5.8 .2 ----
Exp. 2 8.9 .2 6.6 .2 5.2 .3


Early Iron

Exp. 1 9.6 .2** 6.1 .2 ----
Exp. 2 9.0 .2 6.7 .2 6.5 .3*


Late Iron

Exp. 1 8.9 .2 5.5 .1 ----
Exp. 2 8.8 .2 6.5 .2 6.0 .2

ag/100 ml.
bAll values represent means standard error.
Significantly different (P<.05) from means of other treatment groups
in Experiment 2.
Significantly different (P<.01) from means of other treatment groups
in Experiment 1.







Table 2. Iron Content of Allantoic Fluid (ALF), Fetus Minus Liver
(FML) and Fetal Liver (FL) From Control and Early Iron Giltsa


ALF FML FL
Treatment (pg/100 ml) (pg) (pg)

Control 440.9 29.0 7979.5 396.7 3083.7 167.3

Early Iron 736.6 57.3** 8444.2 496.2 3804.4 137.3**

aAll values represent means standard error.
**Significantly different (P<.01) from Control.










Table 1. Hemoglobin (Hb)a Levelsb of Piglets in Experiments 1 and 2


Sampling time post-partum

Treatment 81 hour 4 days 7 days

Control

Exp. 1 8.5 .2 5.8 .2 ----
Exp. 2 8.9 .2 6.6 .2 5.2 .3


Early Iron

Exp. 1 9.6 .2** 6.1 .2 ----
Exp. 2 9.0 .2 6.7 .2 6.5 .3*


Late Iron

Exp. 1 8.9 .2 5.5 .1 ----
Exp. 2 8.8 .2 6.5 .2 6.0 .2

ag/100 ml.
bAll values represent means standard error.
Significantly different (P<.05) from means of other treatment groups
in Experiment 2.
Significantly different (P<.01) from means of other treatment groups
in Experiment 1.







Table 2. Iron Content of Allantoic Fluid (ALF), Fetus Minus Liver
(FML) and Fetal Liver (FL) From Control and Early Iron Giltsa


ALF FML FL
Treatment (pg/100 ml) (pg) (pg)

Control 440.9 29.0 7979.5 396.7 3083.7 167.3

Early Iron 736.6 57.3** 8444.2 496.2 3804.4 137.3**

aAll values represent means standard error.
**Significantly different (P<.01) from Control.




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