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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 Table 1 - Composition of diets
 Table 2 - Effect of supplemental...
 Table 3 - Effect of supplemental...
 Table 4 - Effect of supplemental...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1978-2
Title: The Effects of supplemental choline chloride in the gestation-lactation diet on sow and pig performance
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073099/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Effects of supplemental choline chloride in the gestation-lactation diet on sow and pig performance
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bryant, Kenneth Lee, 1951-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1978
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Choline   ( lcsh )
Sows   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: K.L. Bryant ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January, 1978."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073099
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50672521

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 3
    Literature cited
        Page 3
    Table 1 - Composition of diets
        Page 4
    Table 2 - Effect of supplemental choline on sow and pig performance
        Page 5
    Table 3 - Effect of supplemental choline on baby pig hematocrit and hemoglobin levels
        Page 6
    Table 4 - Effect of supplemental choline on the choline content of sow colostrum and milk
        Page 6
Full Text


Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
/ Research Report AL-1978-2 Experiment Station
. January, 1978 Gainesville, Florida



THE EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINE CHLORIDE IN THE GESTATION-
LACTATION DIET ON SOW AND PIG PERFORMANCE1

K. L. Bryant2, G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace and J. P. Feaster3


The presently used practice of limiting the daily feed consumption of sows
and gilts during breeding and gestation to avoid obesity and reduce feed costs
decreases vitamin intakes unless the vitamin composition of the diet is adjusted.
A corn-soybean meal diet unsupplemented with choline and consumed at a daily in-
take of four pounds supplies only half of the suggested 3,000 mg of choline
required per day. The animal could take the amino acid methionine and synthesis
the needed choline; however, this then creates possible methionine deficiencies.

Recent studies have revealed on improvement in conception rate (1), litter
size (2), and baby pig hematocrit and hemog o from supplemental
choline in the gestation-lactation diet. Al p ly p s y (4) showed
a significant improvement in the average w ning weight 0o' i r sows given
supplemental choline during lactation. li

This experiment was undertaken to stu rt e effects of supple ental choline
chloride in the gestation-lactation diet ol El g. flo n:i

1. The reproductive performance of gilts and sows;
2. Baby pig hematocrit and hemoglobin levels; and
3. The choline content of sow colostrum and milk.

Experimental

Approximately three weeks prior to their first breeding, forty crossbred
females were randomly assigned on the basis of weight and breeding to four dietary
treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows:

1. Basal diet
2. Basal diet choline chloride at 455 mg/lb of diet
3. Low Bulk diet
4. Low Bulk + choline chloride at 455 mg/lb

The low bulk diet contained no oats and compared favorably with most com-
mercial sow diets. The composition and chemical analysis of the dietary treat-
ments are shown in table 1. To ensure equal crude protein and energy intake,
females receiving the Basal diets were fed 4.2 Ib/day while those receiving the
Low Bulk diets were fed 4.0 lb/day. Management of the females during breeding,
gestation, and lactation and care of the newborn litter were essentially the
same as described in a previous report (4). Ten to sixteen hours after farrowing,

1Data taken from Swine Unit, experiment no. 215-C.
2Bryant, graduate student, present address: 109 Plantation Road, Blacksburg, Va.
Combs and Feaster, Animal Nutritionists; Wallace, Department Chairman, Animal
Science Department.










blood samples, for hematocrit and hemoglobin determination, were taken by
jugular puncture from three males and three females from each litter. During
the last two farrowing periods, five ml samples of both colostrum and milk
were taken from each sow. The colostrum and milk samples were collected at
farrowing and 14 days postfarrowing, respectively. These samples were analyzed
for total choline content by the method of Ackerman and Salmon (5).

Data were analyzed by the analysis of variance procedure and Duncan's new
multiple range test.

Results and Discussion

An overall summary of the results is presented in table 2.

Conception rate

Sows fed the unsupplemented basal diet had a significantly (P<.05) lower
conception rate than sows fed the other three diets. However, no relationship
between dietary choline level and conception rate was apparent since the con-
ception rate for the other unsupplemented diet (Low Bulk) compared favorably
with the two supplemented diets. The small number of females used in the study
probably had a large effect on this difference in conception rates.

Performance at farrowing

Overall performance at farrowing was quite good for all four dietary treat-
ments. No significant differences (P<.05) were observed in the number of live
pigs, number of dead pigs or the number of resorbing fetuses per litter for the
four dietary treatments.

A significant difference was observed on the average birth weight per pig
for the dietary treatments. No relationship between dietary choline level and
average birth weight was apparent since the two choline supplemented diets had
the highest (1.44 lb) and the lowest (1.29 lb) birth weights.

Performance at 21 days postfarrowing

No difference due to dietary choline level was observed for any of the
criteria at 21 days postfarrowing. This included number of pigs weaned per
litter, average weaning weight per pig, and percentage of live pigs surviving.

Sow feed consumption and weight change

Average daily feed consumption per sow and average sow weight change from
four days prefarrowing to 21 days postfarrowing were essentially the same for
all dietary treatments.

Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels

Table 3 shows the effect of supplemental choline in the sow's diet on the
baby pig's hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. Dietary choline levels had no
effect (P<.05) on these two blood parameters. In other cases where hematocrit
levels of less than 25 percent and hemoblogin level of less than 7 gm/100 ml of
blood were recorded, supplemental choline, vitamin E, and selenium together were
reported to be helpful (3).










Choline content of colostrum and milk


A summary of the choline content of sow colostrum and milk for the four
dietary treatments is presented in table 4. Colostrum was significantly higher
(P<.05) in choline than milk (382 mg/liter vs. 146 mg/liter). No relationship
between dietary choline level and the choline level of colostrum or milk was
observed.

Summary

Forty females and 115 litters were utilized to study the effects of supple-
mental choline (455 mg/lb) in the sow's gestation-lactation diet on sow and pig
performance. Baby pig hematocrit and hemoglobin levels and the choline content
of sow colostrum and milk were also evaluated. Sow and pig performance was
essentially the same for all dietary treatments showing no advantage for supple-
menting choline. Baby pig hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were not altered by
the supplementation of choline to the sow's diet. Colostrum was found to be
significantly (P<.05) higher in choline than milk. However, the dietary choline
level had no effect on the level of choline in either colostrum or milk.

Literature Cited

1. Stockland, W. L. and L. G. Blaylock. 1974. Choline requirement of pregnant
sows and gilts under restricted feeding conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 39:1113.

2. Kornegay, E. T. and T. N. Meacham. 1973. Evaluation of supplemental
choline for reproducing sows housed in total confinement on concrete or
in dirt lots. J. Anim. Sci. 37:506.

3. Cunha, T. J. 1974. Vitamin needs update. Part 1. Choline requirements.
Hog Farm Management 10(1):26.

4. Bryant, K. L., G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace and J. P. Feaster. 1978. Effect
of supplemental choline in the prefarrowing and lactation diet of sows on
sow and pig performance. AL Research Report AL-1978-1. Gainesville, Florida.

5. Ackerman, C. J. and W. D. Salmon. 1960. A simplified and specific method
for the estimation of choline. Anal. Biochem. 1:327.










Choline content of colostrum and milk


A summary of the choline content of sow colostrum and milk for the four
dietary treatments is presented in table 4. Colostrum was significantly higher
(P<.05) in choline than milk (382 mg/liter vs. 146 mg/liter). No relationship
between dietary choline level and the choline level of colostrum or milk was
observed.

Summary

Forty females and 115 litters were utilized to study the effects of supple-
mental choline (455 mg/lb) in the sow's gestation-lactation diet on sow and pig
performance. Baby pig hematocrit and hemoglobin levels and the choline content
of sow colostrum and milk were also evaluated. Sow and pig performance was
essentially the same for all dietary treatments showing no advantage for supple-
menting choline. Baby pig hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were not altered by
the supplementation of choline to the sow's diet. Colostrum was found to be
significantly (P<.05) higher in choline than milk. However, the dietary choline
level had no effect on the level of choline in either colostrum or milk.

Literature Cited

1. Stockland, W. L. and L. G. Blaylock. 1974. Choline requirement of pregnant
sows and gilts under restricted feeding conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 39:1113.

2. Kornegay, E. T. and T. N. Meacham. 1973. Evaluation of supplemental
choline for reproducing sows housed in total confinement on concrete or
in dirt lots. J. Anim. Sci. 37:506.

3. Cunha, T. J. 1974. Vitamin needs update. Part 1. Choline requirements.
Hog Farm Management 10(1):26.

4. Bryant, K. L., G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace and J. P. Feaster. 1978. Effect
of supplemental choline in the prefarrowing and lactation diet of sows on
sow and pig performance. AL Research Report AL-1978-1. Gainesville, Florida.

5. Ackerman, C. J. and W. D. Salmon. 1960. A simplified and specific method
for the estimation of choline. Anal. Biochem. 1:327.










Table 1. Composition of Diets


Diets1

1 2 3 4

Yellow corn meal 58.50 58.30 72.50 75.00
Ground whole oats 20.00 20.00 -- --
Soybean oilmeal (49%) 18.00 18.00 21.30 21.30
Dynafos 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone 1.10 1.10 1.10 1.10
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace mineral premix (CCC)2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Choline Chloride4 --- 0.20 --- 0.20

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


Calculated composition:

Digestible energy, kcal/lb 1,466.00 1,466.00 1,538.00 1,538.00
Protein, % 16.45 16.45 17.21 17.21
Calcium, % 0.83 0.83 0.81 0.81
Phosphorus, % 0.63 0.63 0.64 0.64
Choline, mg/lb 438.00 774.00 417.00 753.00

Feeding level per sow, lb/day 4.20 4.20 4.00 4.00

Daily dig. energy/sow, kcal 6,157.00 6,157.00 6,152.00 6,152.00
Daily protein/sow,.lb .69 .69 .69 .69

1Diet 1 Basal
Diet 2 Basal + choline chloride at 455 mg/lb diet.
Diet 3 Low Bulk
Diet 4 Low Bulk + choline chloride at 455 mg/lb diet.
2Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, IL, contains 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1%
copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3Contains 6000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid, 80,000
mg choline chloride, 10,000 mcg vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A, 4000 ICU
vitamin D3, 10,000 IU vitamin E and 4 gm vitamin K3 per pound of premix.
4Courtesy of Commercial Solvents Corp., Terre Haute, IN, and contained 50% choline
chloride.









Table 2. Effect of Supplemental Choline on Sow and Pig Performance


Diets

Criteria 1 2 3 4

No. of litters 24 30 28 33
Avg. no. of litters farrowed/sow 2.04 2.27 2.21 2.30
Conception ratec 82.80a 93.80 93.30b 94.30b

Litter performance at farrowing

No. of live pigs/litter 11.42 11.20 10.43 11.24
Avg. birth weight/pig, kg. 2.93 3.17b 3.01ab 2.84a
No. of dead pigs/litter .50 .40 .39 .45
No. of resorbing fetuses/litter .67 .53 .64 .91

Litter performance at 21 days
postfarrowing

No. of pigs weaned/litter 9.96 10.50 9.46 10.21
Avg. weaning weight/pig, kg, 11.21 11.31 11.57 10.38
Percentage of live pigs surviving 88.68 94.04 91,96 91.30

Avg. daily feed consumption/sow, kg. 8.36 8.87 8.29 8.34
Avg. sow weight change, kg -55.97 -60.46 -55.62 -51.77


different (P<.05).


abvalues in the same line containing different superscripts are significantly
CExpressed as a percentage of bred sows farrowing.




















Table 3. Effect of Supplemental Choline on Baby Pig
Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Levels


Diets

Criteria 1 2 3 4


Hematocrit, % 36.8 35.9 35.8 35.4

Hemoglobin, gm/100 ml
blood 8.56 8.42 8.40 8.30












Table 4. Effect of Supplemental Choline on the Choline Content
of Sow Colostrum and Milk



Diets

Criteria 1 2 3 4


Colostrum, mg choline/liter 386 438 324 381

Milk, mg choline/liter 146 122 151 166


.* I I




















Table 3. Effect of Supplemental Choline on Baby Pig
Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Levels


Diets

Criteria 1 2 3 4


Hematocrit, % 36.8 35.9 35.8 35.4

Hemoglobin, gm/100 ml
blood 8.56 8.42 8.40 8.30












Table 4. Effect of Supplemental Choline on the Choline Content
of Sow Colostrum and Milk



Diets

Criteria 1 2 3 4


Colostrum, mg choline/liter 386 438 324 381

Milk, mg choline/liter 146 122 151 166


.* I I




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