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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 Table 1 - Composition of diets,...
 Table 2 - Effect of supplemental...
 Table 3 - Effect of sire of litter...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1978-1
Title: Effect of supplemental choline in the prefarrowing and lactation diet of sows on sow and pig performance
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073098/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of supplemental choline in the prefarrowing and lactation diet of sows on sow and pig performance
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bryant, Kenneth Lee, 1951-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1978
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sows -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Choline   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: K.L. Bryant ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January, 1978."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073098
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80549364

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 3
    Literature cited
        Page 3
    Table 1 - Composition of diets, %
        Page 4
    Table 2 - Effect of supplemental choline on sow and pig performance
        Page 5
    Table 3 - Effect of sire of litter on the incidence and percentage survival of spraddled leg pigs
        Page 5
Full Text


.J Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1978-1 Experiment Station
January, 1978 Gainesville, Florida



EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINE IN THE PREFARROWING AND
LACTATION DIET OF SOWS ON SOW AND PIG PERFORMANCE1

K. L. Bryant2, G. E. Combs, H. D. Wallace and J. P. Feaster3


In the past ten years a spraddled leg condition in baby pigs has been ob-
served throughout the United States. Spraddled legs can involve the entire
litter; however, in most cases only a few pigs in each litter are affected.
Producers have reported a very high mortality rate in spraddled leg pigs with
only an occasional pig surviving to weaning.

Field reports (1) (2) indicate that spraddled leg pigs might be the result
of a choline deficiency. Heredity, viruses and slices have also been sug-
gested as possible causes (3) (4) (5). Recent rese cI~tiLh e shown a
possible improvement in sow and pig performance fro supp ntA py.n the
sow diet (6) (5) (7). y

The study reported here was undertaken to ev te the ef e %i'of sup lemen-
tal choline in the farrowing-lactation diet of th 0 i 1,, l) sow and pi per-
formance at farrowing and during lactation and, 2) .t cWE1 .spra led
leg pigs. 0ojda1

Experimental

The entire University sow herd, consisting of approximately 65 animals, was
utilized in this study. By using a multiple year-round farrowing procedure, ap-
proximately 20-25 crossbred sows were bred to farrow at 10-week intervals. All
sows were double-mated to the same boar, or a full brother.

During breeding and gestation the sows were maintained in dirt lots with
little or no green forage available and were hand fed four pounds of a complete
mixed feed once per day. Sows were sprayed every 10 weeks during gestation to
control external parasites and approximately two weeks prior to farrowing all sows
were dewormed. Four days before the sows were due to farrow, each sow was moved
to the farrowing barn; scrubbed with soap, disinfectant and water and weighed and
placed in a farrowing stall. Each farrowing stall was equipped with a feeder,
automatic waterer and a 350 watt infra-red heat lamp. The farrowing building was
thoroughly steam cleaned and fumigated between farrowings. As sows came to the
farrowing barn they were randomly assigned on the basis of age, breed and number
of previous litters to one of the following dietary treatments:

1. Basal sow diet
2. Basal sow diet + choline chloride at 455 mg/lb of diet

IData taken from Swine Unit Experiment No. 215-B.
2Bryant, graduate student; present address; 109 Plantation Road, Blacksburg,
Virginia 24060.
3Combs and Feaster, Animal Nutritionists; Wallace, Department Chairman, Animal
Science Department.










All sows were fed 3 Ibs. of their respective diets twice per day prior to far-
rowing and essentially free choice during lactation. Compositions of the dietary
treatments are shown in table 1.

When each litter of pigs were born, navel cords were tied off, clipped and
treated with a tincture of iodine; needle teeth were clipped; tails were docked;
and all pigs were weighed and earnotched for identification. At 3-5 days of age
all pigs were injected with 100 mg of iron to prevent anemia and male pigs were
castrated. Careful observations were made on each litter for the occurance of
spraddled legs. All pigs were weaned at three weeks of age and sow and pig weights
were obtained.

The statistical analyses were conducted by analysis of variance (8) and
t-tests (9).

Results and Discussion

An overall summary of sow and pig performance is presented in table 2.

Performance at farrowing

The number of live pigs born per litter was higher (12.47 vs. 11.47) for
the choline supplemented sows than the unsupplemented sows. However, the choline
diet was imposed only 3-4 days prior to farrowing and probably did not contribute
to this difference in litter size. Chance allotment of sows to dietary treatments
is suggested as the cause for the difference. Average birth weight per pig, num-
ber of dead pigs and number of resorbing fetuses per litter were similar for both
dietary treatments.

Twenty-six spraddled leg pigs were observed during the course of the experi-
ment and the severity of the condition varied between pigs. The sows receiving
the supplemental choline farrowed fewer spraddled leg pigs per litter (.23 vs. .36)
than the unsupplement sows, but this difference was not significant (P>.05). Sows
bred to boars No. 7 and 8 farrowed more spraddled leg pigs (21 vs. 5) and a signi-
ficantly (P<.05) higher average number of spraddled leg pigs per litter (.44 vs.
.13) than sows bred to boars 9 and 10 (table 3). The severity of the condition
appeared to be greater in the pigs sired by boars 7 and 8 as evidenced by a much
lower percentage surviving to weaning. This data suggests that the spraddled leg
pig problem in the University sow herd is probably one of heredity and not nutrition

Performance at 21-day post-farrowing

The choline supplemented sows weaned a larger number of pigs per litter
(10.8 vs. 10.02) than the unsupplemented sows. This difference was due to a
darry over from the larger litter size at birth because no difference was observed
in the percentage of live pigs surviving to weaning for either dietary treatment.
The average weaning weight per pigs was significantly (P<.05) improved by the
supplementation of choline. The average weaning per pig was 11.99 lb. for the
choline supplemented sows and 10.98 lb. for the unsupplemented sows. This signi-
ficant improvement in weaning weights is not in agreement with other research
reports (6) (7) where choline was supplemented during gestation and lactation.
The choline supplemented sows consumed less feed and lost significantly (P<.05)
more weight than the unsupplemented sows (table 2). The difference reported
above could have been due to variation in the prefarrowing weight of sows. The









average prefarrowing weight was 255 kg and 234 kg for the supplemented and
unsupplemented sows respectively. The heavier sows generally consume less
feed and lose more weight during lactation.

Summary

Eighty-seven litters were utilized to study the effects of 455 mg/lb of
supplemental choline chloride to a basal sow diet on sow and pig performance and
the occurance of spraddled leg pigs. No significant differences in dietary treat-
ments were observed with the number of live pigs, average birth weight per pig,
number of dead or resorbing fetuses, number of spraddled leg pigs per litter, or
sow feed consumption. There were significantly more spraddled leg pigs farrowed
from sows bred to boars 7 and 8 than from sows bred to boars 9 and 10. The data
from this study suggests that the spraddled leg pig problem in the herd studied
here is due to hereditary effects and not a deficiency of choline. The average
weaning weight per pig and the average sow weight loss during lactation were
significantly higher for the choline supplemented sows.

Literature Cited

1. Cunha, T. J. 1968. Spraddled hind legs may be a result of a choline de-
ficiency. Feedstuffs 40(10):25.

2. Cunha, T. J. 1974. Vitamin needs update. Part 1. Choline requirements.
Hog Farm Management 10(1):26.

3. Dobson, K. J. 1968. Congenital splayleg of piglets. Aust. Vet. J. 44(1):26.

4. Olsen, L. D. and J. F. Prange. 1968. Spraddle-legged baby pigs. Vet. Med./
Sm. Anim. Clin. 63:714.

5. Kornegay, E. T. and T. N. Meacham. 1973. Evaluation of supplemental choline
for reproducing sows housed in total confinement on concrete or in dirt lots.
J. Anim. Sci. 37:506.

6. NCR-42. Committee on Swine Nutrition. 1976. Effect of supplemental choline
on reproductive performance of sows: A cooperative regional study. J. Anim.
Sci. 42:1211.

7. Stockland, W. L. and L. G. Blaylock. 1974. Choline requirement of pregnant
sows and gilts under restricted feeding conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 39:1113.

8. Steel, R. G. and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and Procedures of Statistics.
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, New York.

9. Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1967. Statistical Methods. 6th ed.
Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa.









average prefarrowing weight was 255 kg and 234 kg for the supplemented and
unsupplemented sows respectively. The heavier sows generally consume less
feed and lose more weight during lactation.

Summary

Eighty-seven litters were utilized to study the effects of 455 mg/lb of
supplemental choline chloride to a basal sow diet on sow and pig performance and
the occurance of spraddled leg pigs. No significant differences in dietary treat-
ments were observed with the number of live pigs, average birth weight per pig,
number of dead or resorbing fetuses, number of spraddled leg pigs per litter, or
sow feed consumption. There were significantly more spraddled leg pigs farrowed
from sows bred to boars 7 and 8 than from sows bred to boars 9 and 10. The data
from this study suggests that the spraddled leg pig problem in the herd studied
here is due to hereditary effects and not a deficiency of choline. The average
weaning weight per pig and the average sow weight loss during lactation were
significantly higher for the choline supplemented sows.

Literature Cited

1. Cunha, T. J. 1968. Spraddled hind legs may be a result of a choline de-
ficiency. Feedstuffs 40(10):25.

2. Cunha, T. J. 1974. Vitamin needs update. Part 1. Choline requirements.
Hog Farm Management 10(1):26.

3. Dobson, K. J. 1968. Congenital splayleg of piglets. Aust. Vet. J. 44(1):26.

4. Olsen, L. D. and J. F. Prange. 1968. Spraddle-legged baby pigs. Vet. Med./
Sm. Anim. Clin. 63:714.

5. Kornegay, E. T. and T. N. Meacham. 1973. Evaluation of supplemental choline
for reproducing sows housed in total confinement on concrete or in dirt lots.
J. Anim. Sci. 37:506.

6. NCR-42. Committee on Swine Nutrition. 1976. Effect of supplemental choline
on reproductive performance of sows: A cooperative regional study. J. Anim.
Sci. 42:1211.

7. Stockland, W. L. and L. G. Blaylock. 1974. Choline requirement of pregnant
sows and gilts under restricted feeding conditions. J. Anim. Sci. 39:1113.

8. Steel, R. G. and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and Procedures of Statistics.
McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, New York.

9. Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1967. Statistical Methods. 6th ed.
Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa.













Table 1. Composition of Diets, %


Yellow corn meal

Ground whole oats

Soybean oilmeal (49%)


Biophos


Limestone


Iodized salt

Trace mineral premix (CCC)2

Vitamin premix (UF)3


Basal

58.50

20.00

18.00

1.50

1.30

0.50


0.10

0.05


Basal + Cholinel

58.30

20.00

18.00


1.50

1.30

0.50

0.10

0.05


Choline chloride


100.00


100.00


Chemical analysis

Crude protein, % 15.45 15.64

Choline mg/lb 397.72 806.82

Methionine, % 0.22 0.24

ICholine chloride supplemented at 455 mg/lb diet.
2Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois.
Contained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper,
.15% iodine, .10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg
pantothenic acid, 80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 pg
vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A, 400,000 ICU vitamin D3,
10,000 IU vitamin E and 3855 mg vitamin K3 per pound of premix.
4Courtesy of Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute,
Indiana, and contained 50% choline chloride.







Table 2. Effect of Supplemental Choline on Sow and Pig Performance




Diets

Criteria Basal Basal + Choline


No. of litters 44 43
Avg. no. of litters farrowed/sow 4.05 3.98

Performance at farrowing

No. of live pigs/litter 11.47 12.47
Avg. birth weight/ pig, lb. 3.01 3.12
No. of dead pigs/litter .61 .47
No. of resorbing fetuses/litter .77 .93
No. of spraddled leg pigs/litter .36 .23

Performance at 21 days postfarrowing

No. of pigs weaned/litter 10.02 10.81
Avg. weaning weight/pig, lb. 10.98 11.99*
Percentage of live pigs surviving 88.33 89.28

Avg. daily feed consumption/sow, lb.a 9.06 8.78
Sow weight change, lb. -63.32 -85.80*

*Significant at (P<.05).

aFrom 4 days prefarrowing to 21 days postfarrowing.




Table 3. Effect of Sire of Litter on the Incidence and
Percentage Survival of Spraddled Leg Pigs



a
Boars

Criteria 7 and 8 9 and 10

No. of litters 48 39
Total no. of spraddled leg pigs 21 5
Avg. no. of spraddled leg pigs/litter .44 .13*
Percentage of spraddled leg pigs
surviving to weaning 47.60 80.00

*Significant at (P<.05).


aBoars within each pair are littermates.







Table 2. Effect of Supplemental Choline on Sow and Pig Performance




Diets

Criteria Basal Basal + Choline


No. of litters 44 43
Avg. no. of litters farrowed/sow 4.05 3.98

Performance at farrowing

No. of live pigs/litter 11.47 12.47
Avg. birth weight/ pig, lb. 3.01 3.12
No. of dead pigs/litter .61 .47
No. of resorbing fetuses/litter .77 .93
No. of spraddled leg pigs/litter .36 .23

Performance at 21 days postfarrowing

No. of pigs weaned/litter 10.02 10.81
Avg. weaning weight/pig, lb. 10.98 11.99*
Percentage of live pigs surviving 88.33 89.28

Avg. daily feed consumption/sow, lb.a 9.06 8.78
Sow weight change, lb. -63.32 -85.80*

*Significant at (P<.05).

aFrom 4 days prefarrowing to 21 days postfarrowing.




Table 3. Effect of Sire of Litter on the Incidence and
Percentage Survival of Spraddled Leg Pigs



a
Boars

Criteria 7 and 8 9 and 10

No. of litters 48 39
Total no. of spraddled leg pigs 21 5
Avg. no. of spraddled leg pigs/litter .44 .13*
Percentage of spraddled leg pigs
surviving to weaning 47.60 80.00

*Significant at (P<.05).


aBoars within each pair are littermates.




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