• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Reference
 Table 1 - Composition of the...
 Table 2 - Performance data for...
 Table 3 - Performance data for...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Sciences ; AL-1977-5
Title: The effects of various levels of aflatoxins on young swine
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073096/00001
 Material Information
Title: The effects of various levels of aflatoxins on young swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Monegue, Harold James, 1951-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Aflatoxins -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: H.J. Monegue ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1977."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073096
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80547638

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 3
    Reference
        Page 3
    Table 1 - Composition of the diets
        Page 4
    Table 2 - Performance data for starter-grower period (day 1 throught 70)
        Page 5
    Table 3 - Performance data for finishing period (day 71-119) and liver and kidney weights
        Page 6
Full Text



S Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
S Research Report AL-1977-5 Experiment Station
August, 1977 Gainesville, Florida


THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF AFLATOXINS ON YOUNG SWINE1

H. J. Monegue, G. E. Combs, G. T. Edds and H. D. Wallace2


Aflatoxins are recognized as a group of extremely potent carcinogens.
These carcinogens, although toxic to all species at high levels, do not affect
each species of animal alike at low levels. This difference in tolerance
level among species makes it difficult to set a specific level as safe for all
animals. The minimum toxic level for most species has not been established
although the general order of susceptibility to aflatoxins has been worked
out. Establishment of the minimum toxic level for each species would permit
the disposal of contaminated feed in a reasonable and safe method without loss
of valuable livestock feed ingredients.

Aflatoxins also present a possible public health problem since there is
little knowledge of the levels toxic to humans. For this reason, it is impor-
tant to examine the possibility of aflatoxin residues in the tissues of ani-
mals which have consumed contaminated feed.

The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate several low levels of dietary
aflatoxins to help determine the minimum toxic level for young swine. A sec-
ondary objective was to test for aflatoxin tissue residues at these low levels.

Experimental

Forty Duroc-Yorkshire X Hampshire barrows and gilts averaging 20.9 lb.
body weight were allotted according to weight and sex to the following treat-
ments:

1. zero aflatoxin; weaning to market.
2. 100 ppb. aflatoxin; weaning to market. '
3. 200 ppb. aflatoxin; weaning to market. 7
4. 300 ppb. aflatoxin; weaning to market.
5. 100 ppb. aflatoxin; weaning to 118.8 lb. body weight.
6. 200 ppb. aflatoxin; weaning to 118.8 Ib. body weight. '
7. 300 ppb. aflatoxin; weaning to 118.8 lb. body weight. I
8. 100 ppb. aflatoxin; 118.8 lb. body weight to market.P,
9. 200 ppb. aflatoxin; 118.8 lb. body weight to market. -'
10. 300 ppb. aflatoxin; 118.8 lb. body weight to market.

Each animal was housed and fed individually in confinement. Feed and
water were supplied ad libitum. Table 1 shows the composition of the diets.




1Swine Research Experiment 242 B.
2Monegue, graduate student; Combs, Animal Nutritionist; Edds, Veterinary
Toxicologist, Vet. Science; Wallace, Chairman, Animal Science Department.






-2-


Animal weight and feed consumption were recorded on days 0, 7, 28 and then
biweekly for 119 days.

Prothrombin time and the enzymes serum alkaline phosphatase (AP), serum
gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), serum glutamate oxalacetate transaminase
(SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were determined from
blood samples taken from the anterior vena cava on days 0, 7, 28, 70, 98 and
119.

All forty pigs were slaughtered and examined for gross lesions. Liver
sections were checked for microscopic lesions. Liver and kidney weights were
recorded for all animals. The center lobe of the liver and a sample of the
gracilis muscle were collected and frozen for aflatoxin residue analysis. The
liver and muscle were analyzed for aflatoxin residues according to the method
of Brown et al. (1973).

Aflatoxins for this experiment were produced by inoculating a rice medium
with Aspergillus parasiticus using the technique of Shotwell et al. (1966).

Results and Discussion

A summary of the performance data and liver and kidney weights is shown
in tables 2 and 3.

Under the conditions of this trial levels of 100, 200 and 300 ppb. afla-
toxins (BI equivalent) did not significantly influence average daily gain,
feed consumption, or feed efficiency. An earlier report showed 280 ppb. de-
pressed growth rate and feed efficiency (Duthie et al. 1966). A higher plane
of nutrition and/or improved disease status are possible explanations as to
why 300 ppb. aflatoxins were not toxic in this study. Under these conditions
more than 300 ppb. aflatoxin B1 would be required to adversely effect these
performance criteria.

The prothrombin time of the pigs receiving 100, 200 and 300 ppb. afla-
toxins did not increase above that for the control pigs. Explanations for
not finding the increased blood clotting time include: (1) the prothrombin
time increased for only a short time and returned to normal; (2) the aflatoxin
levels used in this study were too low to cause an increase in the blood clot-
ting time of young swine.

There was no statistical difference (P < .05) in liver or kidney weights
expressed as percent of body weight. The livers of the pigs which started on
aflatoxins at weaning appeared to be slightly heavier on the average than
those of the control pigs (1.50 versus 1.30). The pigs which consumed 300
ppb. aflatoxins from 118.8 lb. body weight to market had heavier livers than
those at the 100 and 200 ppb. levels (1.54 versus 1.39). These results were
consistent with those of early experiments.

No macroscopic lesions were found in livers of pigs fed aflatoxin levels
of 100, 200 and 300 ppb.

The changes in serum enzymes during the first 70 days of the trial could
not be attributed to aflatoxin level. The serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
(GGT) showed the most variation between aflatoxin levels during this period.






-3-


During the last 49 days of the trial there was a general trend toward decreas-
ing serum enzymes levels. GGT appeared to be the most variable of the four
enzymes. During this period individual pig differences appeared to be greater
than treatment differences. The entire enzyme profile leads to the conclusion
that 100, 200 and 300 ppb. aflatoxins (BI equivalent) were too low to cause
sufficient liver damage and be reflected in higher serum enzyme levels.

Examination of liver and muscle samples for aflatoxin residues of B1, B2,
GI and G2 revealed no residues. The analysis procedure was checked by spiking
pork muscle with 10 and 50 ppb. aflatoxin B1. The aflatoxin was recovered
from the spiked samples. If residues were present, a low level would have
been expected. Wiseman and Jacobson (1969) found 0.83 and 0.27 ppb. aflatoxin
B1 in the liver and ham of animals which consumed 400 ppb. Aflatoxins M1 and
M2 were not found in these tissues either. Wiseman and Jacobson (1969) found
minute levels of M1 in liver and muscle, 0.19 and 0.06 ppb. M1 respectively.
In comparison with the residues found at 400 ppb. B1 any residue at 100, 200
and 300 ppb. would be expected to be small.

Summary

Forty pigs were used to determine the minimum toxic level of aflatoxins
and to test for aflatoxin residues in the tissues. Aflatoxin was added in the
feed at 100, 200 and 300 ppb. Bi equivalent. The growth rate, feed consump-
tion, feed efficiency, and prothrombin time were not influenced by these afla-
toxin levels. The liver weights were slightly elevated for the pigs consuming
aflatoxins, but kidney weight was not changed. The enzyme profile indicated
little, if any, liver damage with these aflatoxin levels. Aflatoxin residues
were not found in the liver and muscle samples. It appears 300 ppb. aflatoxins
(BI equivalent) is below the minimum toxic level for these experimental condi-
tions.

References

Allcroft, R. and R. B. A. Carnaghan. 1963. Groundnut toxicity: An examina-
tion for toxin in human food products from animals fed toxic groundnut
meal. Vet. Record 75:259.

Brown, N. L., S. Nesheim, M. Stack, and G. Ware. 1973. Method for the deter-
mination of aflatoxin in animal tissue. J. Ass. Official Anal. Chem. 56:
1437.

Duthie, I. F., M. C. Lancaster, J. Taylor, D. C. Thomas, C. A. Shocklady, P. H.
Attfield, and E. Fuller-Lewis. 1966. Toxic groundnut meal in feeds for
pigs. Vet. Record 79:621.

Edds, G. T. 1973. Acute aflatoxicosis: A review. J. Am. Vet. Med. Asso.
162:304.

Shotwell, 0. L., C. W. Hesseltine, R. D. Stubblefield, and W. G. Sorenson.
1966. Production of aflatoxin on rice. Appl. Microbiol. 14:425.


Wiseman, H. G. and W. C. Jacobson. 1969. Unpublished data.






-3-


During the last 49 days of the trial there was a general trend toward decreas-
ing serum enzymes levels. GGT appeared to be the most variable of the four
enzymes. During this period individual pig differences appeared to be greater
than treatment differences. The entire enzyme profile leads to the conclusion
that 100, 200 and 300 ppb. aflatoxins (BI equivalent) were too low to cause
sufficient liver damage and be reflected in higher serum enzyme levels.

Examination of liver and muscle samples for aflatoxin residues of B1, B2,
GI and G2 revealed no residues. The analysis procedure was checked by spiking
pork muscle with 10 and 50 ppb. aflatoxin B1. The aflatoxin was recovered
from the spiked samples. If residues were present, a low level would have
been expected. Wiseman and Jacobson (1969) found 0.83 and 0.27 ppb. aflatoxin
B1 in the liver and ham of animals which consumed 400 ppb. Aflatoxins M1 and
M2 were not found in these tissues either. Wiseman and Jacobson (1969) found
minute levels of M1 in liver and muscle, 0.19 and 0.06 ppb. M1 respectively.
In comparison with the residues found at 400 ppb. B1 any residue at 100, 200
and 300 ppb. would be expected to be small.

Summary

Forty pigs were used to determine the minimum toxic level of aflatoxins
and to test for aflatoxin residues in the tissues. Aflatoxin was added in the
feed at 100, 200 and 300 ppb. Bi equivalent. The growth rate, feed consump-
tion, feed efficiency, and prothrombin time were not influenced by these afla-
toxin levels. The liver weights were slightly elevated for the pigs consuming
aflatoxins, but kidney weight was not changed. The enzyme profile indicated
little, if any, liver damage with these aflatoxin levels. Aflatoxin residues
were not found in the liver and muscle samples. It appears 300 ppb. aflatoxins
(BI equivalent) is below the minimum toxic level for these experimental condi-
tions.

References

Allcroft, R. and R. B. A. Carnaghan. 1963. Groundnut toxicity: An examina-
tion for toxin in human food products from animals fed toxic groundnut
meal. Vet. Record 75:259.

Brown, N. L., S. Nesheim, M. Stack, and G. Ware. 1973. Method for the deter-
mination of aflatoxin in animal tissue. J. Ass. Official Anal. Chem. 56:
1437.

Duthie, I. F., M. C. Lancaster, J. Taylor, D. C. Thomas, C. A. Shocklady, P. H.
Attfield, and E. Fuller-Lewis. 1966. Toxic groundnut meal in feeds for
pigs. Vet. Record 79:621.

Edds, G. T. 1973. Acute aflatoxicosis: A review. J. Am. Vet. Med. Asso.
162:304.

Shotwell, 0. L., C. W. Hesseltine, R. D. Stubblefield, and W. G. Sorenson.
1966. Production of aflatoxin on rice. Appl. Microbiol. 14:425.


Wiseman, H. G. and W. C. Jacobson. 1969. Unpublished data.





-4-


Table 1. Composition of the diets.


Dietsab

Ingredient Starter Grower Finisher


Yellow corn mealc 71.80 74.90 82.10

Soybean meal (49) 25.00 22.00 15.00

Dynafosd 1.70 1.70 1.70

Limestone 0.80 0.80 0.80

Iodized salt 0.25 0.25 0.25

Trace mineral mixe 0.10 0.10 0.10

Vitamin premix No. 4f 0.10 0.10 0.05

ASP-2508 0.25 0.15 --

Percent crude protein 17.20 16.50 14.50


aStarter was fed from weaning to 74.8 lb;
finisher from 119.7 lb to market.


grower from 74.8 to 119.7 lb;


bCrude aflatoxins were added to the diets to achieve a Bi equivalent of 100,
200, and 300 ppb.; feed analysis showed the average aflatoxin levels to be
108, 201, and 303 ppb.; the control diet was negative for aflatoxins.

CFound to contain no aflatoxins.

produced by International Minerals and Chemicals Corp., Libertyville, Ill.
Contained monocalcium and dicalcium phosphates; not less than 18.5 percent
phosphorus, 20 percent calcium, and not more than 0.19 percent fluorine.

eSupplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Ill. Contained 20% zinc, 5.5%
manganese, 1.1% copper, 10% iron, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.

fContained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mcg Vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU Vitamin A,
400,000 ICU Vitamin D and 10,000 IU Vitamin E per Ib of premix.

gProduced by American Cyanamid Co., Princeton, NJ. Contained chlortetracycline,
sulfamethazine, and penicillin in a 2:2:1 ratio; 44.1, 44.1, and 22.05 gm
per kg premix.


hDetermined by N x 6.25 percent.






-5-


Table 2. Performance data for starter-grower
period (day 1 through 70).


Criteria


Average daily gain (Ib)

Average daily feed
consumption (Ib)

Feed efficiency
(feed/gain)


0


1.45


3.23


2.23


Aflatoxin Level


100 200


1.54 1.54


3.45 3.41


2.24 2.22


300


1.50


3.39


2.26


--


~-----














Table 3. Performance data for finishing period (day 71-119) and liver and kidney weights.



Treatments


Criteria 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Average daily gain (Ib) 1.61 1.54 1.58 1.52 1.69 1.61 1.67 1.52 1.63 1.61

Average daily feed
consumption (Ib) 5.15 4.77 4.84 5.15 5.26 4.86 4.95 4.58 4.80 4.69

Feed efficiency
(feed/gain) 3.21 3.10 3.06 3.39 3.11 3.03 2.96 3.01 2.94 2.92

Liver weight 1.30 1.50 1.63 1.50 1.54 1.40 1.44 1.39 1.38 1.54

Kidney weight 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.14


aTreatments as

bCalculated as

CCalculated as


described under Experimental.

percent of body weight.

percent of body weight.




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