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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Table 1 - Effect of 400 ppb. Aflatoxin...
 Table 2 - Effects of 400 ppb. Aflatoxin...
 Table 3 - Performance data and...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Sciences ; AL-1977-4
Title: A preliminary study of the effects of aflatoxin on young swine
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073095/00001
 Material Information
Title: A preliminary study of the effects of aflatoxin on young swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Monegue, Harold James, 1951-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Aflatoxins -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: H.J. Monegue ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1977."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073095
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80547605

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 3
    Table 1 - Effect of 400 ppb. Aflatoxin B1 equivalent on performance, prothrombin time and liver weight of growing-finishing pigs (Experiment 1)
        Page 3
    Table 2 - Effects of 400 ppb. Aflatoxin B1 equivalent and Vitamin K level on performance, prothrombin time and liver weight of growing-finishing pigs (Experiment 2)
        Page 4
    Table 3 - Performance data and prothrombin times for pigs consuming feed with 400 ppb. Aflatoxins and various dietary modifications (Experiment 3)
        Page 5
Full Text



Department of Animal Science ',,/', Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1977-4 Experiment Station
August, 1977 / i /-, Gainesville, Florida


A PRELIMINARY STUDY OFTHE EFFECTS OF A ATOXIi ON YOUNG SWINE1

H. J. Monegue, G. E. Combs, Wji/T,),dds andH. D. Wallace2


Aflatoxins are metabolites of the mold Aspergillus flavus and other fungi
of the genus Aspergillus and Penicillium.

Until now, prevention of mold growth and identifying contaminated feed
have been the accepted methods for dealing with the aflatoxin problem. With
the increasing cost of production, feed in particular, unanswered questions
relative to the most effective method of feeding aflatoxin contaminated ingre-
dients to livestock dictates that the problem be studied.

Three preliminary experiments were conducted to gather information on the
relationship of aflatoxins and the performance of young swine. The basic areas
investigated were: (1) the acceptability of contaminated feed (2) the influence
of vitamin K and (3) diet modifications to increase animal resistance.

Experimental

Experiment 1 utilized 14 Duroc-Yorkshire X Hampshire barrows and gilts,
allotted to two groups, with an average weight of 97.2 Ibs. Group one received
shelled corn with no aflatoxin and group two received shelled corn naturally
contaminated with approximately 400 ppb. aflatoxin. Both the shelled corn and
supplement were fed "free choice".

Experiment 2 used 42 Duroc-Yorkshire X Hampshire barrows and gilts with an
average weight of 97.2 Ibs. The animals were allotted to two levels of aflatoxin
(0 and 400 ppb.) and three levels of vitamin K (0, 4.4, and 13.2 mg/kg). At
the conclusion of experiments 1 and 2, three animals from each group were
slaughtered and the livers collected.

Experiment 3 used 60 crossbred barrows and gilts, of various breeding, with
an average weight of 25.1 lbs. The animals were allotted to six treatments:
(1) no aflatoxin (2) 400 ppb. aflatoxin, 400 ppb. aflatoxin plus (3) 13.2 mg/kg
vitamin K (4) 200 ppm. Cu (5) 0.25% CSP-250 and (6) 6% animal fat.

The data collected were animal weight, feed consumption, prothrombin time
and liver weight (expressed as percent of body weight). Animal weight and feed
consumption were recorded biweekly. Prothrombin time was determined from blood
samples taken from the anterior vena cava at the beginning and termination of
the experiments. Liver weights at slaughter were obtained for the animals on
experiments 1 and 2. The livers were also examined for gross and microscopic
lesions.



1Data from Swine Unit Experiments 242 and 242 A.
2Monegue, graduate student; Combs, Animal Nutritionist; Edds, Veterinary
Toxicologist, Veterinary Science and Wallace, Chairman, Animal Science Department.







-2-


The animals were supplied feed and water ad libitum in confinement. Corn-
soybean meal diets fortified with minerals and vitamins served as the basal
diets for experiments 2 and 3. Yellow corn naturally contaminated with approx-
imately 400 ppb. (BI equivalent) aflatoxin was used in these experiments.

Results and Discussion

Experiment 1 tested the acceptability of aflatoxin contaminated corn to
finishing pigs when fed as shelled corn plus supplement (table 1). A signif-
icant decrease (P<.05) in average daily gain (ADG) (1.50 lbs. vs. 0.97 lbs.), a
lower feed consumption, both shelled corn and supplement, and a slightly higher
feed efficiency were recorded for the group receiving aflatoxins. The decline
in feed consumption appears to indicate that there is not an acceptability prob-
lem with contaminated feed since both corn and supplement consumption declined.
But rather the mold and/or toxin have an appetite depressing effect.

An increase in blood clotting time and liver weight have been reported in
animals affected with aflatoxiciosis. In experiment 1, however, the prothrombin
time and liver weights were not significantly (P<.05) changed by 400 ppb. afla-
toxins. Microscopic examination of the livers did reveal hepatic damage (cell
vaculation and bile duct proliferation) in the pigs consuming aflatoxins.

Experiment 2 measured the response of pigs fed aflatoxin contaminated
feed to supplemental vitamin K (table 2). Vitamin K was recommended for treating
the clinical signs of aflatoxicosis because of the similarity between vitamin
K deficiency and certain lesions (transudates and hemorrhages) observed with
aflatoxicosis. The ADG for the zero aflatoxin group was significantly higher
(P<.05) than the 400 ppb. group, but there was no difference in feed efficiency.
Feed consumption was lower for the aflatoxin group. There was no difference
between levels of vitamin K in either group. Vitamin K, however, did appear to
improve the feed consumption of the pigs receiving 400 ppb. aflatoxins.

Blood clotting time has been reported to increase when aflatoxins are con-
sumed. In this study, there was a significant decrease (P<.05) in the pro-
thrombin time of three groups which could not be correlated with aflatoxin or
vitamin K level. There was no significant difference (P<.05) in liver weights,
but the livers of the aflatoxin pigs appeared to be heavier. As in experiment
1, microscopic lesions were found in those animals which consumed aflatoxin,
however, they were not as severe as the lesions found in experiment 1.

Experiment 3 examined several possible dietary modifications to help the
young pig overcome depressed growth rate and feed efficiency associated with
aflatoxins (table 3). High vitamin K and Cu appeared to depress ADG and feed
consumption compared with aflatoxin fed alone. The group with CSP-250 had a
significantly higher ADG and feed consumption than the other aflatoxin groups.
Animal fat gave neither a positive or negative effect. However, there was no
significant difference (P<.05) between the zero and 400 ppb. aflatoxin treat-
ments as found in experiments 1 and 2. Feed efficiency and prothrombin time
were the same for all groups.






-3-


Summary

Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of aflatoxins
on young swine in the areas of: (1) the acceptability of contained feed
(2) the influence of vitamin K and (3) diet modifications to increase animal
resistance. An acceptability problem was not indicated, but appetite de-
pression may be likely. Aflatoxins at 400 ppb. depressed ADG and feed con-
sumption. Vitamin K showed no influence on the ADG of animals consuming con-
taminated feed, but appeared to improve feed consumption with increasing
vitamin K level. At 400 ppb. aflatoxins CSP-250 improved ADG and feed con-
sumption while Cu and animal fat did not. In no case was elevated blood
clotting time associated with this level of aflatoxin. Liver weight was
slightly increased by 400 ppb. aflatoxin in experiment 2.

Diets containing corn naturally contaminated with 400 ppb. aflatoxin (BI
equivalent) were found to be toxic to young swine. There are many questions
still to be answered about the effects of aflatoxins on young swine.





Table 1. Effect of 400 ppb. Aflatoxin BI Equivalent on Performance,
Prothrombin Time and Liver Weight of Growing-Finishing Pigs
(Experiment 1).


Aflatoxin Level
Criteria
0 ppb. 400 ppb.

Average daily gain (lb.) 1.50a 0.97b

Average daily feed consumption (lb.)
shelled corn 4.65 3.33
supplement 1.32 0.77

Efficiency (feed/gain) 3.99 4.23

Prothrombin time (sec.)
initial 14.9 13.7
termination 13.1 13.6

Liver weight 1.64 1.70


abValues in the same line containing different
icantly different (P<.05).


superscripts are signif-


CLiver weight calculated as percent of body weight.






-3-


Summary

Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of aflatoxins
on young swine in the areas of: (1) the acceptability of contained feed
(2) the influence of vitamin K and (3) diet modifications to increase animal
resistance. An acceptability problem was not indicated, but appetite de-
pression may be likely. Aflatoxins at 400 ppb. depressed ADG and feed con-
sumption. Vitamin K showed no influence on the ADG of animals consuming con-
taminated feed, but appeared to improve feed consumption with increasing
vitamin K level. At 400 ppb. aflatoxins CSP-250 improved ADG and feed con-
sumption while Cu and animal fat did not. In no case was elevated blood
clotting time associated with this level of aflatoxin. Liver weight was
slightly increased by 400 ppb. aflatoxin in experiment 2.

Diets containing corn naturally contaminated with 400 ppb. aflatoxin (BI
equivalent) were found to be toxic to young swine. There are many questions
still to be answered about the effects of aflatoxins on young swine.





Table 1. Effect of 400 ppb. Aflatoxin BI Equivalent on Performance,
Prothrombin Time and Liver Weight of Growing-Finishing Pigs
(Experiment 1).


Aflatoxin Level
Criteria
0 ppb. 400 ppb.

Average daily gain (lb.) 1.50a 0.97b

Average daily feed consumption (lb.)
shelled corn 4.65 3.33
supplement 1.32 0.77

Efficiency (feed/gain) 3.99 4.23

Prothrombin time (sec.)
initial 14.9 13.7
termination 13.1 13.6

Liver weight 1.64 1.70


abValues in the same line containing different
icantly different (P<.05).


superscripts are signif-


CLiver weight calculated as percent of body weight.













Table 2. Effects of 400 ppb. Aflatoxin B1 Equivalent and Vitamin K Level on Performance, Prothrombin Time
and Liver Weight of Growing-Finishing Pigs (Experiment 2).



Aflatoxin Level

0 ppb. 400 ppb.

Vitamin K activity per kg diet (mg/kg)
Criteria
0 4.41 13.23 0 4.41 13.23

Average daily gain (lb.) 1.76a 1.70a 1.76a 1.43b 1.41b 1.50b

Average daily feed consumption (lb.) 5.95 5.84 5.98 4.56 4.78 5.16

Efficiency (feed/gain) 3.38 3.44 3.39 3.18 3.39 3.44

Prothrombin time -15.87a +4.88b -7.52ab -1.10b -15.64a +1.71b

Liver weight 1.58 1.76 1.60 1.93 1.78 1.81



abValues in the same line containing different superscripts are significantly different (P<.05).
dExpressed as percent change in prothrombin time.
Liver weight calculated as percent of body weight.











Table 3. Performance Data and Prothrombin Times for Pigs Consuming Feed with 400-ppb. Aflatoxins and
Various Dietary Modifications (Experiment 3).



average average daily
daily feed feed/ prothrombin
Criteria gain (lb.) consumption (lb.) gain time

Basal Diet:

(1) no aflatoxin 1.43ac 3.66ac 2.56 +9.83

(2) 400 ppb. aflatoxin 1.32bc 3.26bc 2.49 +8.62


Basal diet with 400 ppb. aflatoxins:

(3) 13.23 mg vitamin K per kg diet 1.17b 2.89b 2.46 +13.25

(4) 200 ppm. Cu 1.21b 3.0 9b 2.53 +8.12

(5) 0.25 percent CSP-250 1.48a 3.68a 2.49 +9.52

(6) 6 percent animal fat 1.28bc 3.13b 2.44 +9.30



abcalues in the same column containing different superscripts are significantly different (P<.05).
dExpressed as percent change in prothrombin time.




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