• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Table 1 - Composition of diets...
 Table 2 - Performance of young...
 Table 3 - Performance of barrows...
 Table 4 - Performance of growing-finishing...
 Table 5 - Effect of sex on performance...














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; AL-1977-1
Title: Supplemental choline for young and growing-finishing swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073092/00001
 Material Information
Title: Supplemental choline for young and growing-finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bryant, Kenneth Lee, 1951-
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Choline   ( lcsh )
Sows   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 2).
Statement of Responsibility: K.L. Bryant, G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April, 1977."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073092
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50672928

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Table 1 - Composition of diets (%)
        Page 3
    Table 2 - Performance of young pigs fed high levels of supplemental choline
        Page 4
    Table 3 - Performance of barrows and gilts fed three levels of supplemental choline
        Page 4
    Table 4 - Performance of growing-finishing pigs fed three levels of supplemental choline
        Page 4
    Table 5 - Effect of sex on performance of growing-finishing pigs fed three levels of supplemental choline
        Page 4
Full Text


.-Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
SResearch Report AL-1977-1 Experiment Station
April, 1977 Gainesville, Florida

SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINE FOR YOUNG AND GROWING-FINISHING SWINE1

K. L. Bryant2, G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace3
"I ., 1 ^ -1 i \
Choline, a B-complex vitamin, is presently added to swine rations with.little
research data to support the levels used. The NRC (1973) lists the choline \e-
quirement for 10-22 lb. pigs at 500 mg/lb. and for 22-44'l bpigs at,4O mg/ib.
No requirements are listed for older pigs (1). c? s

Early work (2) indicated supplemental choline was essenal for the ..young pig.
The need for supplemental choline in growing-finishing rations is less clear. No
increase in daily gain or feed efficiency was reported when supple r tal choline
was added to 15-16% crude protein rations (3), (4). However ,.Yhen an 11% crude
protein diet was supplemented with choline, the pigs perfdvi.d as well as pigs
receiving a 14% crude protein diet unsupplemented with choline (4).

This study was undertaken to evaluate the need for supplemental choline in
the diets of young and growing-finishing pigs fed in confinement.

Experimental

Experiment 1. Fifty-four crossbred pigs averaging 15-16 pounds were allotted,
on the basis of weight, sex, and breeding, to three dietary treatments as follows:
1. Control
2. Control + 455 mg of choline chloride per lb.
3. Control + 910 mg of choline chloride per lb.
The pigs were housed in expanded metal cages located in a pig nursery with
feed and water provided ad libitum. Diet composition and analysis were given in
table 1. The pigs remained on test for 42 days.

Experiment 2. Eighty-four crossbred pigs, averaging 77-78 pounds, were
divided on the basis of weight, sex, and breeding into six pens of barrows and six
pens of gilts. Two pens of each sex were randomly allotted to three levels of
supplemental choline: high, normal and none. The basal mixture contained 14% and
16% crude protein, respectively, for barrows and gilts. Diet composition and anal-
ysis are given in table 1. The pigs were fed ad libitum in concrete-floored pens
for 70 days.
Data from both experiments were analyzed by the analysis of variance procedure
and differences in means were tested by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

1Data taken from Swine Unit Experiments 236 and 236A.
2Bryant, graduate student; present address: 109 Plantation Rd., Blacksburg, VA 24060.
3Combs, Animal Nutritionist and Wallace, Department Chairman, Animal Science Dept.

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$85.90 or ll cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.
Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences







-2-


Results and Discussion

Experiment 1. Performance data are summarized in table 2. The average daily
gains for the young pigs fed 455 and 910 mg/lb. of supplemental choline were not
significantly different (P < .05) from the pigs receiving the control diet. There
was a slight decrease in feed consumption with increasing levels of supplemental
choline; however, feed consumption differences were not significant (P < .05).
The pigs receiving the highest level of supplemental choline (910 mg/lb.) had a
significantly lower (P < .05) feed/gain ratio than the other two diets. This
significant improvement in feed conversion with the high level of supplemental
choline can not be readily explained.

Experiment 2. An overall summary is presented in table 3.

Choline effects. The effects of supplemental choline on performance of
growing-finishing pigs are summarized in table 4. Supplemental choline level had
no effect (P < .05) on daily gain or feed conversion. From the data, it appears
that the control diet contained sufficient amounts of choline and methionine to
permit normal performance. Therefore, supplemental choline does not appear to be
necessary for normal growth and feed conversion in growing-finishing swine fed
this type of diet.

Sex effects. The effect of sex on the performance of growing-finishing pigs
fed three levels of supplemental choline are summarized in table 5. Daily gain and
feed consumption were significantly (P < .01) higher for the barrows as compared to
the gilts. Feed conversion favored the gilts slightly but the difference was not
significant. Therefore, the poorer performance of the gilts appears to be directly
related to their significantly lower feed consumption.

Summary

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the need for supplemental choline
in the diets of young and growing-finishing swine. In Experiment 1, a normal 18%
crude protein starter diet was supplemented with 0, 455 and 910 mg of choline per
pound of diet. In Experiment 2, the performance of gilts and barrows were compared
when fed three levels of supplemental choline; low (0), medium (80 mg/lb.) and
high (535 mg/lb.). The results of both experiments suggest that the addition of
supplemental choline to normal (corn-soybean meal) starter or growing-finishing
diets is not necessary for normal daily gains and feed conversion.

Literature Cited

NRC. 1973. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. No. 2. Nutrient Require-
ments of Swine. National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

Nesheim, R. 0. and B. C. Johnson. 1950. Effect of a high level of methionine on
the dietary choline requirement of the baby pig. Journal of Nutrition 41:149.

Seerley, R. W. 1969. The effect of supplemental choline in a corn-soybean meal
diet. Swine Short Course, Univ. of Georgia. Page 12.

Vipperman, P. E., Jr., E. R. Peo and P. J. Cunningham. 1970. Choline and amino
acid supplementation of a low protein diet for swine. J. Animal Science 31:213.




-3-


Table 1. Composition of Diets (%)


Experiment 1.


Treatment 1 2 3
(Ingredients)

Ground yellow corn (8.9%) 72.36 72.15 71.90
Soybean oilmeal (49%) 24.19 24.20 24.25
Bio-Phos 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone 0.90 0.90 0.90
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals (CCC)1 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)2 0.10 0.10 0.10
Aureo-SP-250 0.25 0.25 0.25
Choline chloride3 --- 0.20 0.40

; 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated
Protein (%) 18.29 18.31 18.28
Choline (mg/kg diet) 1180 2180 3180
Methionine (%) 0.29 0.29 0.29


Experiment 2.


BARROWS


GILTS


Treatment 1 2 3 1 2 3
(Ingredients)


Ground yellow corn
Soybean oilmeal (49%)
Bio-Phos
Limestone
Iodized salt
Trace minerals (CCC)1
Vitamin premix (UF)2
Vitamin premix (UF)
(No choline)
Choline chloride3


83.50
13.00
1.60
1.00
0.50
0.10
0.10


0.20


83.70
13.00
1.60
1.00
0.50
0.10
0.10


83.70
13.00
1.60
1.00
0.50
0.10

0.10


78.50
18.00
1.60
1.00
0.50
0.10
0.10


0.20


78.70
18.00
1.60
1.00
0.50
0.10
0.10


78.70
18.00
1.60
1.00
0.50
0.10

0.10


100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated
Protein (%) 14.00 14.00 14.00 16.00 16.00 16.00
Choline (mg/kg diet) 1905 905 725 2020 1020 840
Methionine (%) 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.24 0.24 0.24

1Generously supplied by Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, Illinois. Contains:
20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt,
and 2% calcium.
2Contains 6,000 mg riboflavin; 20,000 mg niacin; 12,000 mg pantothenic acid;
80,000 mg choline chloride; 10,000 mcg Vitamin B12; 2,500,000 I.U. Vitamin A;
400,000 I.C.U. Vitamin D3; 10,000 IU Vitamin E and 3,860 mg of Vitamin K per
pound pre-riY.
3Generously applied by IMC Chemical Group, Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana.





-4-


TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG PIGS FED HIGH LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINE


Treatment Control 1000 mg. 2000 mg.

Criteria

Initial weight, lb. 15.7 15.7 15.7
Final weight, lb. 62.0 62.2 64.7
Daily gain, lb. 1.10 1.11 1.16
Daily feed, lb. 2.18 2.14 2.08
Feed/gain, lb. 1.99 1.93 1.80


a,bValues in the same line containing different superscripts are significantly
different (P <.05).
------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------


TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF BARROWS AND GILTS FED THREE LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINE

Barrows Gilts
High Normal No High Normal No
Choline Choline Choline Choline Choline Choline
Criteria


Initial weight, lb.
Final weight, lb.
Daily gain, lb.
Daily feed, lb.
Feed/gain, lb.


78.10
204.90
1.81
5.78
3.19


78.30
212.60
1.92
5.98
3.12


78.30
214.80
1.95
6.18
3.17


77.00
195.80
1.70
5.25
3.10


77.00
195.70
1.70
5.13
3.02


77.00
192.00
1.65
5.04
3.07


TABLE 4. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS FED THREE LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL
CHOLINEa

Level of Supplemental Choline
Criteria High Normal None
Average daily gain, lb. 1.76 1.81 1.80
Average daily feed, lb. 5.52 5.56 5.61
Feed/gain, lb. 3.15 3.07 3.12


aCombined data for barrows and gilts (28 pigs per treatment).


TABLE 5. EFFECT OF SEX ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS FED THREE LEVELS OF
SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINEa

Criteria Male Female

Average daily gain, lb. 1.89 1.68**
Average daily feed, lb. 5.98 5.14**
Feed/gain 3.16 3.06

a Combined data for three choline levels (42 pigs per sex).
**Significant at (P< .01).





-4-


TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG PIGS FED HIGH LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINE


Treatment Control 1000 mg. 2000 mg.

Criteria

Initial weight, lb. 15.7 15.7 15.7
Final weight, lb. 62.0 62.2 64.7
Daily gain, lb. 1.10 1.11 1.16
Daily feed, lb. 2.18 2.14 2.08
Feed/gain, lb. 1.99 1.93 1.80


a,bValues in the same line containing different superscripts are significantly
different (P <.05).
------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------


TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF BARROWS AND GILTS FED THREE LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINE

Barrows Gilts
High Normal No High Normal No
Choline Choline Choline Choline Choline Choline
Criteria


Initial weight, lb.
Final weight, lb.
Daily gain, lb.
Daily feed, lb.
Feed/gain, lb.


78.10
204.90
1.81
5.78
3.19


78.30
212.60
1.92
5.98
3.12


78.30
214.80
1.95
6.18
3.17


77.00
195.80
1.70
5.25
3.10


77.00
195.70
1.70
5.13
3.02


77.00
192.00
1.65
5.04
3.07


TABLE 4. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS FED THREE LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL
CHOLINEa

Level of Supplemental Choline
Criteria High Normal None
Average daily gain, lb. 1.76 1.81 1.80
Average daily feed, lb. 5.52 5.56 5.61
Feed/gain, lb. 3.15 3.07 3.12


aCombined data for barrows and gilts (28 pigs per treatment).


TABLE 5. EFFECT OF SEX ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS FED THREE LEVELS OF
SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINEa

Criteria Male Female

Average daily gain, lb. 1.89 1.68**
Average daily feed, lb. 5.98 5.14**
Feed/gain 3.16 3.06

a Combined data for three choline levels (42 pigs per sex).
**Significant at (P< .01).





-4-


TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG PIGS FED HIGH LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINE


Treatment Control 1000 mg. 2000 mg.

Criteria

Initial weight, lb. 15.7 15.7 15.7
Final weight, lb. 62.0 62.2 64.7
Daily gain, lb. 1.10 1.11 1.16
Daily feed, lb. 2.18 2.14 2.08
Feed/gain, lb. 1.99 1.93 1.80


a,bValues in the same line containing different superscripts are significantly
different (P <.05).
------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------


TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF BARROWS AND GILTS FED THREE LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINE

Barrows Gilts
High Normal No High Normal No
Choline Choline Choline Choline Choline Choline
Criteria


Initial weight, lb.
Final weight, lb.
Daily gain, lb.
Daily feed, lb.
Feed/gain, lb.


78.10
204.90
1.81
5.78
3.19


78.30
212.60
1.92
5.98
3.12


78.30
214.80
1.95
6.18
3.17


77.00
195.80
1.70
5.25
3.10


77.00
195.70
1.70
5.13
3.02


77.00
192.00
1.65
5.04
3.07


TABLE 4. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS FED THREE LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL
CHOLINEa

Level of Supplemental Choline
Criteria High Normal None
Average daily gain, lb. 1.76 1.81 1.80
Average daily feed, lb. 5.52 5.56 5.61
Feed/gain, lb. 3.15 3.07 3.12


aCombined data for barrows and gilts (28 pigs per treatment).


TABLE 5. EFFECT OF SEX ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS FED THREE LEVELS OF
SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINEa

Criteria Male Female

Average daily gain, lb. 1.89 1.68**
Average daily feed, lb. 5.98 5.14**
Feed/gain 3.16 3.06

a Combined data for three choline levels (42 pigs per sex).
**Significant at (P< .01).





-4-


TABLE 2. PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG PIGS FED HIGH LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINE


Treatment Control 1000 mg. 2000 mg.

Criteria

Initial weight, lb. 15.7 15.7 15.7
Final weight, lb. 62.0 62.2 64.7
Daily gain, lb. 1.10 1.11 1.16
Daily feed, lb. 2.18 2.14 2.08
Feed/gain, lb. 1.99 1.93 1.80


a,bValues in the same line containing different superscripts are significantly
different (P <.05).
------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------


TABLE 3. PERFORMANCE OF BARROWS AND GILTS FED THREE LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINE

Barrows Gilts
High Normal No High Normal No
Choline Choline Choline Choline Choline Choline
Criteria


Initial weight, lb.
Final weight, lb.
Daily gain, lb.
Daily feed, lb.
Feed/gain, lb.


78.10
204.90
1.81
5.78
3.19


78.30
212.60
1.92
5.98
3.12


78.30
214.80
1.95
6.18
3.17


77.00
195.80
1.70
5.25
3.10


77.00
195.70
1.70
5.13
3.02


77.00
192.00
1.65
5.04
3.07


TABLE 4. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS FED THREE LEVELS OF SUPPLEMENTAL
CHOLINEa

Level of Supplemental Choline
Criteria High Normal None
Average daily gain, lb. 1.76 1.81 1.80
Average daily feed, lb. 5.52 5.56 5.61
Feed/gain, lb. 3.15 3.07 3.12


aCombined data for barrows and gilts (28 pigs per treatment).


TABLE 5. EFFECT OF SEX ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS FED THREE LEVELS OF
SUPPLEMENTAL CHOLINEa

Criteria Male Female

Average daily gain, lb. 1.89 1.68**
Average daily feed, lb. 5.98 5.14**
Feed/gain 3.16 3.06

a Combined data for three choline levels (42 pigs per sex).
**Significant at (P< .01).




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