Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL-1976-3
Title: Effect of methionine supplementation on the performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention of growing pigs fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073090/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of methionine supplementation on the performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention of growing pigs fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campabadal, Carlos Miguel, 1950-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Piglets -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum as feed   ( lcsh )
Methionine   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: C.M. Campabadal ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October, 1976."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073090
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50687139

Full Text


SDepartment of Animal Science i Flo ida Agricultural
pResearch Report AL-1976-9 Experiment Station
October, 1976 G ainesville, Florida
'. i19 1976
EFFECT OF METHIONINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE PERFORMANCE,
NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND NITROGEN RETENTION OF
GROWING PIGS FED BIRD RESISTANT SORGHUM GRAIN DIETS1'

C. M. Campabadal, H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs and D. L. Hammell2

Sorghum grain has become increasingly important as a feed ingredient for
swine in recent years. From the agronomic standpoint, sorghum grain varieties
with open heads and brown seeds are better adapted to the Southeast than those
having compact heads and red seeds. These brown sorghums called "bird resis-
tant" contain relatively high levels of tannins which have been shown to
decrease nutrient utilization by livestock and poultry. Research at this sta-
tion by.Houser and Lundy (1) and by Wallace, Combs and Houser (2) showed
significant differences between a bird resistant sorghum and a non-bird resis-
tant sorghum. Pigs fed the bird resistant sorghum diet required more feed per
unit of gain and gained slower than.pigs fed non-bird resistant sorghum diet.

Tannins are polyphenolic compounds which are thought to be detoxified by
methylation. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of methio-
nine as a methyl donor compound in reducing the depressive effect of high
tannins present in bird resistant sorghum grain.

Experimental Procedure
Experiment 1 Twenty-four crossbred pigs with an initial weight of 59 to 64 Ibs.
were divided into four groups according to weight and sex and assigned to one
of the following dietary treatments:

1. Control diet (Corn-soybean meal)
2. Non-bird resistant (NBR) sorghum grain (McNair 652) diet
3. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain (Funk 79) diet
4. Bird resistant sorghum grain (Funk 79) diet plus 0.10%
dl-methionine

Each group of pigs was moved to 12 metabolic cages for a period of 14 days
to determine nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention. Chromium oxide was
added to the diet to facilitate collection procedures.

Experiment 2 Forty crossbred pigs, having an initial weight of 55 to 60 Ibs.
were divided into five groups according to weight and sex and assigned to one of
the following dietary treatments:

1 Data presented in this report were from Swine Unit Experiment Nos. 225-A
and 225-C.
2 Campabadal, Graduate Assistant; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists;
Hammell, Assistant Animal Nutritionist, ARC Live Oak, Florida.

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$ 84.12 or .08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.





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Control diet (Corn-soybean meal)
Non-bird resistant sorghum grain (McNair 652) diet
Non-bird resistant sorghum grain (McNair 652) diet plus 0.10%
dl-methionine
Bird resistant sorghum grain (Funk 79) diet
Bird resistant sorghum grain (Funk 79) diet plus 0.10%
dl-methionine


Composition and chemical analyses of the diets are presented in table 1.
Feed was offered by self-feeders and water was provided by automatic watering
devices. Pigs were individually penned and fed in concrete floored units.


Table 1. Ingredient and Chemical Composition of Diets


Control BR NBR
Ingredients % %%
Corn meal (8.5%) 77.71 -
BR sorghum grain (8.4%) 77.65
NBR sorghum grain (10.9%) 82.60
Soybean meal (49.0%) 19.19 19.35 14.28
Dynafos (22% Ca; 18,5% P)1 2.10 2.00 2.12
Limestone (33,0% Ca) 0.40 0.40 0.40
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals (CCC)2 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.10 0.10 0.10
Aureo SP-2504 0.15 0.15 0.15
Chemical Composition (%)
Dry matter 89.00 88.97 88.90
Crude protein 15.80 15.94 16.07
Calciums 0.65 0.65 0.65
Phosphorus5 0.50 0.50 0.50
Tannin level6 1.50 0.30
1 Product of International Mineral and Chemical Corporation. Skokie, Illinois.
2 Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20% zinc,
5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 10% iron, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3 Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mcg Vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU Vitamin A,
400,000 ICU Vitamin D and 10,000 IU Vitamin E per lb. of premix.
4 Supplied by American Cyanamid Co., Princeton, New Jersey.
5 Calculated value.
6 As tannic acid equivalent.

DL-Methionine was added at 0.10 percent level to the bird resistant and the non-
bird resistant diet according to the treatment.

Results and Discussion

Performance data for experiment 1 are presented in table 2. There were no
significant differences (P < .05) in daily gain between treatments. However,
pigs receiving the diet based on bird resistant sorghum grain tended to gain
more slowly than those pigs fed the other diets. Feed intake was also not
significantly affected (P < .05) by dietary treatment. Pigs fed bird resistant
sorghum grain diets consumed the highest amount of feed per day, followed by the






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non-bird resistant and the corn-soybean meal fed pigs. Significant differences
(P < .01) in feed conversion were observed between treatments. Pigs fed the
corn-soybean meal diet required less feed per unit of gain that the other three
treatments. Addition of methionine to the bird resistant sorghum grain diet
resulted in the pigs requiring significantly (P < .01) less feed per pound of
gain than those pigs fed the bird resistant unsupplemented diet.

A summary of the digestibility data is presented in table 3. There were
significant differences (P < .01) in dry matter and crude protein digestibility
between treatments. Pigs fed the corn-soybean meal diet showed the highest dry
matter and crude protein digestion coefficients followed by pigs receiving the
non-bird resistant sorghum diet. No significant effect (P < .05) on dry matter
and crude protein digestibility was observed with the addition of 0.10% dl-
methionine to bird resistant sorghum grain diets. However, nitrogen retention
in the bird resistant plus methionine group was significantly improved (P < .01)
to a level almost similar to the non-bird resistant sorghum grain diets.

Daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion data for experiment 2 are
presented in table 4. Significant differences (P < .01) in daily gain were
observed between diets. Pigs receiving the corn-soybean meal control diet
gained faster (P < .01) than the other dietary treatments. Addition of methio-
nine to the bird resistant sorghum diet also resulted in significantly higher
gains than the bird resistant sorghum diet not supplemented. However, similar
levels of methionine did not have any beneficial effect on gains when added to
a non-bird resistant sorghum grain diet. There were no significant effects
(P < .05) on feed intake between treatments. As in experiment 1, pigs fed the
control diet consumed less feed per day than either the bird resistant sorghum
and the non-bird resistant sorghum grain diets. Similar to the daily gain data,
the addition of methionine to the non-bird resistant diet did not improve feed
conversion such as was observed in the bird resistant sorghum diets.

Summary
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dl-rethionine
supplementation on the performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention
of growing pigs fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets.

Supplementation of 0.10% dl-methionine resulted in a significant improvement
in daily gain and feed conversion of growing pigs fed bird resistant sorghum grain
diets. However, similar levels of methionine did not have any beneficial effect
on performance when added to a non-bird resistant diet. No significant effect
on dry matter and crude protein digestibility were observed with addition of 0.10%
dl-methionine to bird resistant sorghum diets. However, nitrogen retention in
the bird resistant plus methionine group was significantly improved to a level
almost similar to the non-bird resistant sorghum grain diet.

Literature Cited
1. Houser, D. L. and H. W. Lundy. 1972. Florida grown corn, bird resistant
grain sorghum and non-bird resistant grain sorghum for growing-finishing pigs.
ARC Mimeo Rpt. SW 1972-3. Live Oak, Florida.

2. Wallace, H. D., G. E. Combs and R. H. Houser. 1974. Florida grown bird resis-
tant grain sorghum for growing-finishing swine. AL Research Rpt. AL-1974-11.
Gainesville, Florida.






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Table 2. Performance of Growing Pigs Fed Sorghum Grain Diets
(Experiment 1)

Daily Gain Feed Intake Feed Conversion
Diets lb lb lb
Corn-soybean meal diet 1.68 4.58 2.71a
NBR sorghum diet 1.51 4.71 3.12e
BR sorghum diet 1.47 4.88 3.35c
BR sorghum diet + .10% Meth. 1.62 4.88 3.01

a,b,c Means in the same column bearing different superscript letters
differ significantly (P < .01).





Table 3. Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention of Pigs Fed
Sorghum Grain Diets (Experiment 1)

Digestibility Nitrogen
Dry Matter Crude Protein Retention
Diets % % gr/day
Corn-soybean meal diet 90.9a 81.1a 18.8a
NBR sorghum diet 86.8b 74.7 11.1
BR sorghum diet 81.9 65.5 6.6
BR sorghum + .10% Meth. 82.1c 65.9 10.4b

a,b,c Means in the same column bearing different superscript letters
differ significantly (P < .01).





Table 4. Daily Gain, Feed Intake and Feed Conversion of Growing
Pigs Fed Sorghum Grain Diets (Experiment 2)

Daily Gain Feed Intake Feed Conversion
Diets Ib lb lb

Corn-soybean meal diet 1.90a 5.56 2.92
NBR sorghum diet 1.72 c 5.71 3.31
NBR sorghum + .10% Meth. 1.71bc 5.74 3.35b
BR sorghum diet 1.63c 5.76 3.54b
BR sorghum + .10% Meth. 1.79a 5.84 3.25

a,b,c Means in the same column bearing different superscript letters
differ significantly (P < .01).




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