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Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL-1976-10
Title: Influence of different additives on performance of young pigs fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073088/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of different additives on performance of young pigs fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campabadal, Carlos Miguel, 1950-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Piglets -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sorghum as feed   ( lcsh )
Methionine   ( lcsh )
Choline   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 4).
Statement of Responsibility: C.M. Campabadal ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October, 1976."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073088
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50687157

Table of Contents
    Influence of different additives on performance of young pigs fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets
        Page 1
        Experimental
            Page 1
            Page 2
        Results and discussion
            Page 3
        Summary
            Page 3
        Literature cited
            Page 4
Full Text



S Department of Animal Science
S/0 Research Report AL-1976-10
October, 1976


OCT 19 1976


iFlorida Agricultural
iExperiment Station
iGainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ADDITIVES IONIPERFORMANCE OF YOUNG
PIGS FED BIRD RESISTANT SORGHUM GRAIN DIETS1

C. M. Campabadal, H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs
and D. L. Hammell2

Bird damage in the Southeastern states has produced substantial losses to
sorghum grain production. To counteract this problem plant geneticists have
developed resistant varieties high in astringent tannins which decrease the con-
sumption by birds. Unfortunately this advantage is offset by reports of decreased
nutrient utilization by swine (1) (2).


The present study was conducted to determine the
tives (methionine, choline and polyvinyl-pyrrolidone)
young pigs fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets.


effect of different addi-
on the performance of


Experimental
Experiment 1 Thirty-two crossbred early weaned pigs, having an initial
weight of 15 pounds were divided into four groups according to weight and sex and
allotted to eight pens of four pigs each. The dietary treatments were as follows:

1. Control (corn-soybean meal) diet.
2. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain diet.
3. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain diet plus 0.10% dl-methionine.
4. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain diet plus 0.20% dl-methionine.

The bird resistant sorghum grains used in this experiment were a mixture of
the following varieties: McCurdy 81 (60%), Dekalb 54 (30%) and Funk 79 (10%).

Experiment 2 Eighty-four crossbred pigs, four to five weeks of age, weigh-
ing 13 to 15 pounds were divided into seven groups according to weight and sex
and allotted to 14 pens of six pigs each. The dietary treatments were as follows:

1 Experiments 225L and 225J.
2 Campabadal, Graduate Assistant; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; Hammell, Assistant Animal Nutritionist,
ARC Live Oak, Florida.


Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$ 84.12 or .08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.







S Department of Animal Science
S/0 Research Report AL-1976-10
October, 1976


OCT 19 1976


iFlorida Agricultural
iExperiment Station
iGainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ADDITIVES IONIPERFORMANCE OF YOUNG
PIGS FED BIRD RESISTANT SORGHUM GRAIN DIETS1

C. M. Campabadal, H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs
and D. L. Hammell2

Bird damage in the Southeastern states has produced substantial losses to
sorghum grain production. To counteract this problem plant geneticists have
developed resistant varieties high in astringent tannins which decrease the con-
sumption by birds. Unfortunately this advantage is offset by reports of decreased
nutrient utilization by swine (1) (2).


The present study was conducted to determine the
tives (methionine, choline and polyvinyl-pyrrolidone)
young pigs fed bird resistant sorghum grain diets.


effect of different addi-
on the performance of


Experimental
Experiment 1 Thirty-two crossbred early weaned pigs, having an initial
weight of 15 pounds were divided into four groups according to weight and sex and
allotted to eight pens of four pigs each. The dietary treatments were as follows:

1. Control (corn-soybean meal) diet.
2. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain diet.
3. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain diet plus 0.10% dl-methionine.
4. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain diet plus 0.20% dl-methionine.

The bird resistant sorghum grains used in this experiment were a mixture of
the following varieties: McCurdy 81 (60%), Dekalb 54 (30%) and Funk 79 (10%).

Experiment 2 Eighty-four crossbred pigs, four to five weeks of age, weigh-
ing 13 to 15 pounds were divided into seven groups according to weight and sex
and allotted to 14 pens of six pigs each. The dietary treatments were as follows:

1 Experiments 225L and 225J.
2 Campabadal, Graduate Assistant; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists, Uni-
versity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida; Hammell, Assistant Animal Nutritionist,
ARC Live Oak, Florida.


Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$ 84.12 or .08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.









1. Control (corn-soybean meal) diet.
2. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain (Funk 79) diet.
3. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain (Funk 79) diet plus 0.10% dl-methionine.
4. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain (Funk 79) diet plus 1000 mg/lb of choline
chloride.
5. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain (Funk 79) diet plus 0.50% polyvinyl-pyrro-
lidone.
6. Bird resistant (BR) sorghum grain (Funk 79) diet plus 0.10% dl-methionine +
1000 mg/lb of choline chloride and + 0.50% polyvinyl-pyrrolidone.
7. Non-bird resistant (NBR) sorghum grain (Funk G-522) diet.

All pigs were self-fed and water was supplied by automatic watering devices.
Weight gains and feed consumption were recorded at two week intervals.

Diet composition for both experiments is presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Ingredients and Chemical Composition of the Diets

Experiment 1 Experiment 2
Control BR Control BR NBR
Ingredients % % % % %

Corn meal (8.5%) 71.90 --- 71.92 --
BR sorghum grain mixture (10%) --- 74.70 --- --- ---
BR sorghum grain, Funk 79 (9.3%) --- --- --- 73.30 ---
NBR sorghum grain (8.7%) --- --- --- --- ---
Soybean meal (49.0%) 24.27 21.50 24.27 22.85 23.90
Dynafos (22% Ca; 18.5% P)1 2.63 2.65 2.63 2.65 2.60
Limestone (33.0% Ca) 0.48 0.50 0.48 0.48 0.48
Iodized salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Trace minerals (CCC)2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Aureo SP-2504 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.10


Chemical Composition (%)
Dry matter 88.97 88.92 88.93 88.95 88.97
Crude protein 18.15 18.07 18.20 18.12 17.98
Calcium5 0.80 0.81 0.81 0.82 0.82
Phosphorus5 0.60 0.61 0.60 0.62 0.61
Tannin level6 --- 1.90 --- 1.50 0.20


1 Product of International Mineral and Chemical Corporation, Skokie, Illinois.
2 Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Qunicy, Illinois. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.1% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3 Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mcg vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A,400,000
ICU vitamin D and 10,000 IU vitamin E per pound of premix.
4 Supplied by American Cyanamid Co., Princeton, New Jersey.
5 Calculated value.
6 As tannic acid equivalent.






-3-


Results and Discussion
Effects of supplemental methionine on performance of young pigs are shown in
Table 2. Supplemental methionine significantly improved (P < .01) daily gains
compared to gains obtained by pigs fed the bird resistant unsupplemented diet.
No significant differences (P < .05) in daily gain were obtained between pigs fed
the two levels of supplemental methionine. The highest gains were obtained by
pigs fed the corn-soybean meal control diet.

Pigs fed the bird resistant sorghum diet had the highest feed consumption.
However, addition of methionine reduced (P < .01) feed intake. Feed conversion
was significantly higher (P < .01) for pigs fed the bird resistant sorghum diets.
However, the addition of both levels of methionine reduced significantly the
amount of feed required per unit of gain; but not to the level of the corn-soybean
meal control diet.

A summary of the performance data of experiment 2 is presented in Table 3.
Daily gain was significantly affected (P < .01) by dietary treatment. The corn-
soybean meal and the non-bird resistant fed pigs gained significantly faster
(P < .01) than the other dietary treatments. The addition of choline to the bird
resistant sorghum diet was the only dietary additive that produced higher (P < .01)
gains than the unsupplemented bird resistant sorghum grain diet. Feed intake was
similar for all dietary treatments. Pigs fed the bird resistant sorghum diet
required (P < .01) more feed per pound of gain than the other dietary treatments.
Addition of the combination of the three additives to bird resistant diet resulted
in more efficient gains than the supplementation of each additive alone. However,
differences in feed conversion were not statistically different (P < .05).

Table 2. Effect of Different Methionine Levels on the
Performance of Young Pigs Fed Bird Resistant
Sorghum Grain (Experiment 1)


Daily Gain Feed Intake Feed Conversion
Diets lb Ib Ib


Corn-soybean meal diet 1.10a 2.09a 1.90a
BR sorghum grain diet 0.86b 2.67b 3.10c
BR sorghum grain + 0.10% Meth. 1.05a 2.19a 2.08b
BR sorghum grain + 0.20% Meth. 1.01a 2.25a 2.23b

a,b,c Means in the same column bearing different superscript letters differ
significantly (P < .01).

Summary
Two feeding trials, involving a total of 116 young pigs have been conducted
to determine the effect of different additives on performance of young pigs fed
bird resistant sorghum grain diets.

In the first trial, supplementation of 0.10% dl-methionine resulted in a






-3-


Results and Discussion
Effects of supplemental methionine on performance of young pigs are shown in
Table 2. Supplemental methionine significantly improved (P < .01) daily gains
compared to gains obtained by pigs fed the bird resistant unsupplemented diet.
No significant differences (P < .05) in daily gain were obtained between pigs fed
the two levels of supplemental methionine. The highest gains were obtained by
pigs fed the corn-soybean meal control diet.

Pigs fed the bird resistant sorghum diet had the highest feed consumption.
However, addition of methionine reduced (P < .01) feed intake. Feed conversion
was significantly higher (P < .01) for pigs fed the bird resistant sorghum diets.
However, the addition of both levels of methionine reduced significantly the
amount of feed required per unit of gain; but not to the level of the corn-soybean
meal control diet.

A summary of the performance data of experiment 2 is presented in Table 3.
Daily gain was significantly affected (P < .01) by dietary treatment. The corn-
soybean meal and the non-bird resistant fed pigs gained significantly faster
(P < .01) than the other dietary treatments. The addition of choline to the bird
resistant sorghum diet was the only dietary additive that produced higher (P < .01)
gains than the unsupplemented bird resistant sorghum grain diet. Feed intake was
similar for all dietary treatments. Pigs fed the bird resistant sorghum diet
required (P < .01) more feed per pound of gain than the other dietary treatments.
Addition of the combination of the three additives to bird resistant diet resulted
in more efficient gains than the supplementation of each additive alone. However,
differences in feed conversion were not statistically different (P < .05).

Table 2. Effect of Different Methionine Levels on the
Performance of Young Pigs Fed Bird Resistant
Sorghum Grain (Experiment 1)


Daily Gain Feed Intake Feed Conversion
Diets lb Ib Ib


Corn-soybean meal diet 1.10a 2.09a 1.90a
BR sorghum grain diet 0.86b 2.67b 3.10c
BR sorghum grain + 0.10% Meth. 1.05a 2.19a 2.08b
BR sorghum grain + 0.20% Meth. 1.01a 2.25a 2.23b

a,b,c Means in the same column bearing different superscript letters differ
significantly (P < .01).

Summary
Two feeding trials, involving a total of 116 young pigs have been conducted
to determine the effect of different additives on performance of young pigs fed
bird resistant sorghum grain diets.

In the first trial, supplementation of 0.10% dl-methionine resulted in a









significant improvement in daily gain and feed conversion of young pigs fed bird
resistant sorghum grain diets.

In the second trial, pigs fed corn-soybean meal and non-bird resistant sor-
ghum grain diets obtained better performance than the other dietary treatments.
Combination of the three additives in the bird resistant sorghum diet resulted
in more efficient gains than the supplementation of each additive alone.

Table 3. Effect of Different Additives on the Performance of
Young Pigs Fed Sorghum Grain Diets (Experiment 2)

Daily Feed Feed
Gain Intake Conversion
Diets lb lb lb


Corn-soybean meal diet 1.12a 1.88 1.67a
BR sorghum grain diet 0.88c 2.09 2.37c
BR sorghum grain + choline 1.00b 1.93 1.93b
BR sorghum grain + methionine 0.97bc 1.89 1.95b
BR sorghum grain + polyvinyl-pyrrolidone 0.97bc 1.89 1.95b
bc8ab
BR sorghum grain + chol. + meth. + PVP 0.98bc 1.82 1.85a
NBR sorghum grain diet 1.17a 2.16 1.85a

a,b,c Means in the same column bearing different superscript letters differ
significantly (P < .01).

Literature Cited

1. Houser, R. H. and H. W. Lundy. 1972. Florida grown corn, bird resistant
grain sorghum and non bird resistant grain sorghum for growing-finishing
swine. ARC Mimeo Rept. SW-1972-3. Live Oak, Florida.


2. Wallace, H. D., G. E. Combs and R. H. Houser. 1974.
resistant grain sorghum for growing-finishing swine.
1974-11. Gainesville, Florida.


Florida grown bird
AL Res. Rept. AL-




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