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Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL-1976-8
Title: Effect of moisture, method of preservation and surface area of corn on the availability of phosphorus in corn for swine
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073087/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effect of moisture, method of preservation and surface area of corn on the availability of phosphorus in corn for swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Abrams, Stephen M
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Phosphorus in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: S.M. Abrams, H.D. Wallace and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October, 1976."
General Note: Typescript.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073087
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50686113

Table of Contents
    Effect of moisture, method of preservation and surface area of corn on the availability of phosphorus in corn for swine
        Page 1
        Literature cited
            Page 1
        Experimental
            Page 2
        Results and discussion
            Page 2
            Page 3
        Summary
            Page 4
Full Text

~'Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
S Research Report AL-1976-8 Experiment Station
October, 1976 Gainesville, Florida

EFFECT OF MOISTURE, METHOD OF PRESERVATION AND SURFACE AREA OF CORN
ON THE AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHORUSJNCORN FOR SWINE1
uuc 19 !97G ZC
S. M. Abrams, H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs2

Previous research at this station demonstrated that the phosphorus in high
moisture corn, preserved anaerobically, is more available to swine than the
phosphorus in regular corn (1). Organic acids, as well as airtight silos, are
commonly used to preserve high moisture grains. Canadian workers have reported
increased starch digestion in the intestinal tract of the pig when the diet con-
tained high moisture corn preserved with organic acids (2). Two theoretical
explanations were offered: 1) an acidic diet progresses more slowly through the
digestive tract allowing more time for amylase activity, and 2) the presence of
acid during preservation resulted in a predigestion of the starch granules prior.
to feeding. As anaerobically preserved high moisture corn has a lower pH than
regular corn, and intestinal phytases are apparently present to a limited extent
in the pig (3), either of these factors could explain the increase in phosphorus
availability obtained.

Whatever process is involved in the increased phosphorus availability in
anaerobically preserved high moisture corn, may also occur in high moisture corn
preserved with propionic acid, and this process may be facilitated by increasing
the surface area of the grain during storage. This experiment was designed to
test the effect of moisture, method of preservation and surface area on the
availability of phosphorus in corn.



1 Data presented in this report were from Swine Unit Experiment No. 239C.
2 Abrams, Graduate Assistant; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists, Animal
Science Department, University of Florida.


Literature Cited
(1) Fla. Res. Rept. AL-1976-7, (2) Brit. J. Nutr. 30:401, (3) Biol. Abstr. 56:208
and (4) Cereal Chem. 44:318.


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$88.00 or .08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.

Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences





~'Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
S Research Report AL-1976-8 Experiment Station
October, 1976 Gainesville, Florida

EFFECT OF MOISTURE, METHOD OF PRESERVATION AND SURFACE AREA OF CORN
ON THE AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHORUSJNCORN FOR SWINE1
uuc 19 !97G ZC
S. M. Abrams, H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs2

Previous research at this station demonstrated that the phosphorus in high
moisture corn, preserved anaerobically, is more available to swine than the
phosphorus in regular corn (1). Organic acids, as well as airtight silos, are
commonly used to preserve high moisture grains. Canadian workers have reported
increased starch digestion in the intestinal tract of the pig when the diet con-
tained high moisture corn preserved with organic acids (2). Two theoretical
explanations were offered: 1) an acidic diet progresses more slowly through the
digestive tract allowing more time for amylase activity, and 2) the presence of
acid during preservation resulted in a predigestion of the starch granules prior.
to feeding. As anaerobically preserved high moisture corn has a lower pH than
regular corn, and intestinal phytases are apparently present to a limited extent
in the pig (3), either of these factors could explain the increase in phosphorus
availability obtained.

Whatever process is involved in the increased phosphorus availability in
anaerobically preserved high moisture corn, may also occur in high moisture corn
preserved with propionic acid, and this process may be facilitated by increasing
the surface area of the grain during storage. This experiment was designed to
test the effect of moisture, method of preservation and surface area on the
availability of phosphorus in corn.



1 Data presented in this report were from Swine Unit Experiment No. 239C.
2 Abrams, Graduate Assistant; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists, Animal
Science Department, University of Florida.


Literature Cited
(1) Fla. Res. Rept. AL-1976-7, (2) Brit. J. Nutr. 30:401, (3) Biol. Abstr. 56:208
and (4) Cereal Chem. 44:318.


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$88.00 or .08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.

Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences







- 2 -


Experimental

Seventy weanling pigs were allotted to 14 groups on the basis of weight
and sex, each group contained three gilts and two barrows. These groups were
randomly allotted to seven treatments, two groups per treatment. Treatments
were based on the method of preservation of the corn, as follows:

Supp. Special Method of
Phos., % Type of Corn Preservation

.16 regular corn none
.00 regular corn none
.00 ground regular corn propionic acid
.00 ground high moisture corn propionic acid
.00 shelled high moisture corn propionic acid
.00 ground high moisture corn anaerobic
.00 shelled high moisture corn anaerobic

Anaerobic preservation was carried out as previously described (1). Propionic
acid was added at a rate of 1.25% w/w to the high moisture corn and 1.05% w/w
to the ground regular corn, in order that the amount added be equivalent on a
dry matter basis. Surface area of corn was increased by grinding it prior to
preservation. Diet composition is shown in Table 1.

Weight gains and feed consumption were measured biweekly. Blood samples
were taken at the termination of the experiment for serum inorganic phosphorus
determinations. The duration of the experiment was four weeks.

Results and Discussion

Results of the experiment are presented in Table 2. Pigs receiving the
control diet (.16% supplemental phosphorus) gained faster than pigs receiving
any of the other treatments (P < .05). Pigs receiving the ground high moisture
corn preserved with propionic acid gained faster than pigs receiving the ground
regular corn preserved with propionic acid (P < .05). Pigs receiving the con-
trol diet had higher serum phosphorus levels than pigs on all other treatments
(P < .05). Serum phosphorus values were higher for pigs consuming the ground
high moisture corn diets, irrespective of the method of preservation, than for
pigs on any of the other unsupplemented diets. Serum phosphorus values were
also higher for pigs receiving the shelled high moisture corn preserved with
propionic acid than for pigs consuming the unsupplemented regular corn diet.

Three general observations may be made from these results. First, ground
high moisture corn, irrespective of method of preservation, resulted in higher
serum phosphorus values than did shelled high moisture corn. This indicates
that whatever activity is involved in phytate phosphorus liberation is accel-
erated by increasing the surface area of the corn. Anaerobic preservation of
ground high moisture corn for nonruminants is not a practical consideration as
this leads to the conversion of amino acid nitrogen to nonprotein nitrogen.
However, the loss of amino acids may not occur when propionic acid is used as
the preservative due to the inhibition of microbial activity.







- 2 -


Experimental

Seventy weanling pigs were allotted to 14 groups on the basis of weight
and sex, each group contained three gilts and two barrows. These groups were
randomly allotted to seven treatments, two groups per treatment. Treatments
were based on the method of preservation of the corn, as follows:

Supp. Special Method of
Phos., % Type of Corn Preservation

.16 regular corn none
.00 regular corn none
.00 ground regular corn propionic acid
.00 ground high moisture corn propionic acid
.00 shelled high moisture corn propionic acid
.00 ground high moisture corn anaerobic
.00 shelled high moisture corn anaerobic

Anaerobic preservation was carried out as previously described (1). Propionic
acid was added at a rate of 1.25% w/w to the high moisture corn and 1.05% w/w
to the ground regular corn, in order that the amount added be equivalent on a
dry matter basis. Surface area of corn was increased by grinding it prior to
preservation. Diet composition is shown in Table 1.

Weight gains and feed consumption were measured biweekly. Blood samples
were taken at the termination of the experiment for serum inorganic phosphorus
determinations. The duration of the experiment was four weeks.

Results and Discussion

Results of the experiment are presented in Table 2. Pigs receiving the
control diet (.16% supplemental phosphorus) gained faster than pigs receiving
any of the other treatments (P < .05). Pigs receiving the ground high moisture
corn preserved with propionic acid gained faster than pigs receiving the ground
regular corn preserved with propionic acid (P < .05). Pigs receiving the con-
trol diet had higher serum phosphorus levels than pigs on all other treatments
(P < .05). Serum phosphorus values were higher for pigs consuming the ground
high moisture corn diets, irrespective of the method of preservation, than for
pigs on any of the other unsupplemented diets. Serum phosphorus values were
also higher for pigs receiving the shelled high moisture corn preserved with
propionic acid than for pigs consuming the unsupplemented regular corn diet.

Three general observations may be made from these results. First, ground
high moisture corn, irrespective of method of preservation, resulted in higher
serum phosphorus values than did shelled high moisture corn. This indicates
that whatever activity is involved in phytate phosphorus liberation is accel-
erated by increasing the surface area of the corn. Anaerobic preservation of
ground high moisture corn for nonruminants is not a practical consideration as
this leads to the conversion of amino acid nitrogen to nonprotein nitrogen.
However, the loss of amino acids may not occur when propionic acid is used as
the preservative due to the inhibition of microbial activity.






- 3 -


Table 1. Composition of Diets


Supplemental Phosphorus, % and Type of Corna
.16 .00
Item RC RC GRC+PA GHMC+PA SHMC+PA GHMC SHMC


Level, lb.

Ground corn (14.0% H20) 74.37 74.84 74.84 -
Ground corn (28.0% H20) 89.95 88.21 89.39 89.39
Soybean meal (49% protein) 23.06 22.98 22.98 22.98 22.98 22.98 22.98
Ground limestone .98 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.48
Calcium phosphate .89 -
Iodized saltD .25 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25
Trace mineral premixc .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10
Vitamin premix .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10
Mecadox .25 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25

Level, %
Analysis (13.5% H20 basis)
Calculated
Crude protein 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00
Calcium .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65
Phosphorus .50 .34 .34 .34 .34 .34 .34
Analyzed
Calcium .62 .60 .64 .58 .61 .61 .58
Phosphorus .57 .39 .39 .39 .38 .39 .40

a Type of corn and method of preservation: RC = regular corn/none; GRC+PA =
ground regular corn/propionic acid; GHMC+PA = ground high moisture corn/pro-
pionic acid; SHMC+PA = shelled high moisture corn/propionic acid; GHMC =
ground high moisture corn/anaerobic; SHMC = shelled high moisture corn/anaerobic.
b .0007% iodine.
c Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, .15% iodine, .10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
d Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 Vg vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A,
400,000 ICU vitamin 03, 10,000 IU vitamin E and 3855 mg vitamin K3 per pound
of premix.





- 4 -


Table 2. Feedlot Performance and Serum Phosphorus Levels

Supplemental Phosphorus, % and Type of Corna
.16 .00
Item RC RC GRC+PA GHMC+PA SHMC+PA GHMC SHMC


Number of pigs 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Av. initial wt., lb. 14.3 14.5 14.4 14.3 14.3 14.5 14.4
Av. final wt., lb. 41.0 32.2 29.8 34.4 31.5 33.5 31.3
Av. daily gain, lb. .93d .62bc .53b .8c .60bc .64bc .60bc
Av. daily feed, Ib.f 1.85 1.43 1.43 1.54 1.37 1.46 1.32
Feed:gain ratiof 2.00 2.33 2.73 2.25 2.29 2.26 2.24
Serum phosphorus,
mg/100 ml. 9.35e 3.62b 4.11bc 6.21d 4.77c 6.11d 4.22bc

a Type of corn and method of preservation: RC = regular corn/none; GRC+PA =
ground regular corn/propionic acid; GHMC+PA = ground high moisture corn/pro-
pionic acid; SHMC+PA = shelled high moisture corn/propionic acid; GHMC
ground high moisture corn/anaerobic; SHMC = shelled high moisture corn/anaerobic,
b,c,d,e Means within a row with different superscripts were different (P < .05).
S13.5% H20 basis.


Second, serum phosphorus levels were higher for pigs receiving ground high
moisture corn preserved with propionic acid than for pigs receiving ground
regular corn preserved with propionic acid. This indicates that moisture, not
acidity is the crucial factor in the liberation of phytate phosphorus. This
result parallels other work which showed that moisture was necessary for the
increase in phosphorus availability that resulted from steam pelleting (4).

Finally, the response achieved in average daily gain and serum phosphorus
with the use of anaerobically preserved shelled high moisture corn, which was
so evident in a previous experiment (1), was not present in this experiment.
It was noted that the immediate heating of the corn during reconstitution which
occurred in that experiment, did not occur in the present experiment. Imbibi-
tion of water by the corn may have been inhibited by the colder temperatures,
as this experiment took place during the winter months.

Summary

Seventy weanling pigs were used to test the effect of moisture, method of
preservation (anaerobic or propionic acid) and surface area of the corn on the
availability of phosphorus for swine. No supplemental phosphorus was included
in the diets, with the exception of the control treatment. Pigs receiving the
ground high moisture corn preserved with propionic acid gained faster than pigs
receiving the ground regular corn preserved with propionic acid (P < .05).
Serum phosphorus levels were higher for pigs receiving the ground high moisture
corn diets, irrespective of method of preservation, than for pigs on any of the
other unsupplemented diets (P < .05).




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