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Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL-1976-7
Title: Availability of phosphorus in high moisture corn for swine
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073086/00001
 Material Information
Title: Availability of phosphorus in high moisture corn for swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Abrams, Stephen M
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Phosphorus in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: S.M. Abrams, H.D. Wallace and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October, 1976."
General Note: Typescript on yellow paper.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073086
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50686045

Table of Contents
    Availability of phosphorus in high moisture corn for swine
        Page 1
        Literature cited
            Page 1
        Experimental
            Page 2
        Results and discussion
            Page 3
        Summary
            Page 4
Full Text

(. 'Department of Animal Science
Research Report AL-1976-7
/ 7 October, 1976


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
i; iF Ii S Gainesville, Florida


AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS pNc GH
MOISTURE CORN FOR SWINEIu

S. M. Abrams, H. D. Wallace and G E., CombS2
,' .,".,. -. .:; h c

The phosphorus in cereal grains represents a potential source of this
essential element to nonruminants. Unfortunately, 50 to 80 percent of this
phosphorus is in the form of phytin (1), the mineral salt of phytic acid, and
is largely unavailable to swine (2). The possibility of releasing the phos-
phate group from phytin represents a potential economic benefit to the animal
industry.

Phytase, an enzyme which hydrolyzes phytin and releases the phosphate
group, is secreted by certain microbial populations (3) and is present in grains
(4, 5, 6). In grains, however, the enzyme only becomes active during germina-
tion. Steam pelleting is capable of effecting an increase in the availability
of phosphorus in cereal based diets (7, 8). Pelleting in the absence of steam
did not have this effect (9).

High moisture corn, preserved anaerobically, undergoes a partial fermenta-
tion during which phytases may be secreted by the fermenting organisms. The
presence of moisture, though not resulting in germination, may activate some of
the enzymes normally active during germination, including phytase. Moisture
alone, even in the absence of enzymatic activity, may increase the solubility of
phytic acid. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the
phosphorus in high moisture corn is more available to swine than that in regular
corn.

1 Data presented in this report were from Swine Unit Experiment No. 239.
2 Abrams, graduate assistant; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists, Animal
Science Department, University of Florida.

Literature Cited
(1) Poul. Sci. 47:1372, (2) J. Anim. Sci. 14:1073, (3) Appl. Microb. 16:1348,
(4) Biochem. J. 52:102, (5) Weed Sci. 18:360, (6) Planta. 116:91, (7) J. Anim.
Sci. 28:484, (8) 40:857, (9) Cereal Chem. 44:318 and (10) N.R.C. Swine 1973.


Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$ 88.00 or .08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.





(. 'Department of Animal Science
Research Report AL-1976-7
/ 7 October, 1976


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
i; iF Ii S Gainesville, Florida


AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS pNc GH
MOISTURE CORN FOR SWINEIu

S. M. Abrams, H. D. Wallace and G E., CombS2
,' .,".,. -. .:; h c

The phosphorus in cereal grains represents a potential source of this
essential element to nonruminants. Unfortunately, 50 to 80 percent of this
phosphorus is in the form of phytin (1), the mineral salt of phytic acid, and
is largely unavailable to swine (2). The possibility of releasing the phos-
phate group from phytin represents a potential economic benefit to the animal
industry.

Phytase, an enzyme which hydrolyzes phytin and releases the phosphate
group, is secreted by certain microbial populations (3) and is present in grains
(4, 5, 6). In grains, however, the enzyme only becomes active during germina-
tion. Steam pelleting is capable of effecting an increase in the availability
of phosphorus in cereal based diets (7, 8). Pelleting in the absence of steam
did not have this effect (9).

High moisture corn, preserved anaerobically, undergoes a partial fermenta-
tion during which phytases may be secreted by the fermenting organisms. The
presence of moisture, though not resulting in germination, may activate some of
the enzymes normally active during germination, including phytase. Moisture
alone, even in the absence of enzymatic activity, may increase the solubility of
phytic acid. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the
phosphorus in high moisture corn is more available to swine than that in regular
corn.

1 Data presented in this report were from Swine Unit Experiment No. 239.
2 Abrams, graduate assistant; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists, Animal
Science Department, University of Florida.

Literature Cited
(1) Poul. Sci. 47:1372, (2) J. Anim. Sci. 14:1073, (3) Appl. Microb. 16:1348,
(4) Biochem. J. 52:102, (5) Weed Sci. 18:360, (6) Planta. 116:91, (7) J. Anim.
Sci. 28:484, (8) 40:857, (9) Cereal Chem. 44:318 and (10) N.R.C. Swine 1973.


Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$ 88.00 or .08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.





- 2 -


Experimental

Seventy-two weanling pigs were allotted to 12 groups on the basis of sex
and weight, each group initially weighed 16.7 pounds and contained three barrows
and three gilts. These groups were randomly assigned to six treatments, two per
treatment, in a two by three factorial experiment. Two types of corn, origi-
nating from the same lot were used: regular corn at 11.7% moisture and high
moisture corn at 28.0% moisture. The latter was prepared by reconstituting
regular corn in a horizontal mixer, and preserved for a minimum of 21 days prior
to ration formulation by sealing the corn in doubled Cryovac Barrier Bags3.
Immediately prior to ration formulation, propionic acid was added at .3% w/w
(.3 lb. propionic acid:100 Ibs. corn), in order to prevent mold formation in the
feeders. Three levels of supplemental phosphorus were used, .0, .10 and .22% of
the diet, and the latter two levels were reduced to .05 and .12%, respectively,
when the pigs reached 22 pounds. Diet composition is shown in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1. Initial Composition of Diets

Supplemental Phosphorus, % and Type of Corna
.uU .Iu .2 ~
Item HMC RC HMC RC HMC RC
.. Level, lb.
Ground corn (11.7% H20) 74.73 74.50 74.15
Ground corn (28.0% H20) 91.35 91.08 90.65 -
Soybean meal (49% protein) 22.55 22.55 22.59 22.59 22.65 22.65
Ground limestone 2.02 2.02 1.66 1.66 1.13 1.13
Calcium phosphate .55 .55 1.37 1.37
Iodized saltb .25 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25
Trace mineral premixc .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10
Vitamin premixd .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10
Mecadox .25 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25
Level, %
Analysis (11.1% H20 basis)
Calculated
Crude protein 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00
Calcium .80 .80 .80 .80 .80 .80
Phosphorus .38 .38 .48 .48 .60 .60
Analyzed
Calcium .82 .83 .80 .80 .82 .81
Phosphorus .39 .39 .49 .50 .62 .61
a HMC = anaerobically preserved high moisture corn; RC = regular corn.
b .0007% iodine.
c Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, .15% iodine, .10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
d Contained 6000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 ug vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A,
400,000 ICU vitamin D3, and 10,000 IU vitamin E per pound of premix.


3 Courtesy of W. R. Grace and Company.





- 3 -


Table 2. Composition of Diets After Pigs Reached 22 lb. Weight


Supplemental Phosphorus, % and Type of Corn
.00 .05 .12
Item HMC RC HMC RC HMC RC
Level, lb.
Ground corn (11.7% H20) 75.53 75.40 75.17
Ground corn (28.0% H O) 92.63 92.47 92.19 -
Soybean meal (49% protein) 22.40 22.40 22.42 22.42 22.46 22.46
Ground limestone 1.37 1.37 1.23 1.23 .98 .98
Calcium phosphate .25 .25 .69 .69
Iodized saltD .25 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25
Trace mineral premixc .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10
Vitamin premixed .10 .10 .10 .10 .10 .10
Mecadox .25 .25 .25 .25 .25 .25

Level, %
Analysis (11.3% H20 basis)
Calculated
Crude protein 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 18.00
Calcium .65 .65 .65 .65 .65 .65
Phosphorus .38 .38 .43 .43 .50 .50
Analyzed
Calcium .61 .65 .68 .66 .62 .62
Phosphorus .39 .39 .45 .42 .52 .52


HMC = anaerobically preserved high
.0007% iodine.


moisture corn; RC = regular corn.


c Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, .15% iodine, .10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
d Contained 6000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 ig vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A,
400,000 ICU vitamin D3, and 10,000 IU vitamin E per pound of premix.


Weight gains and feed consumption were measured biweekly. Blood samples
from two males and one female in each group were also taken biweekly for serum
inorganic phosphorus determinations. The dewclaw from the left hind leg was
removed from all animals on the last day of the experiment for phalange bone
ash determinations. Samples of each type of corn were analyzed for their phytate
phosphorus content. The duration of the experiment was six weeks.


Results and Discussion

Results of the experiment are shown in Table 3. Increasing the phosphorus
level and the inclusion of high moisture corn in the diet resulted in improved
average daily gains (P < .0001 and P < .01, respectively). Feed efficiency
improved when high moisture corn was in the diet (P < .01) and this effect was
particularly noticeable when no supplemental phosphorus was present. Irrespec-
tive of sampling date (two, four or six weeks), pigs receiving high moisture
corn in their diets had higher serum phosphorus levels than pigs receiving
regular corn (P < .01, P < .0001 and P < .0001, respectively). Increasing





- 4 -


levels of dietary phosphorus had the same effect (P < .0001). High moisture
corn in the diet resulted in an increase in percent phalange bone ash (P < .0001)
as did increasing dietary phosphorus (P < .0001). High moisture corn contained
less phytate phosphorus than regular corn (P < .05). The analysis showed that
high moisture corn contained .147% phytate phosphorus or 45.5% of its total
phosphorus content, and regular corn contained .205% phytate phosphorus or 63.6%
of its total phosphorus content.

Table 3. Feedlot Performance, Serum Phosphorus Levels and % Bone Ash

Supplemental Phosphorusg, % and Type of Cornh
.00, .00 .10, .05 .22, .12


Item HMC RC HMC RC HMC
Number of pigs 12 12 12 12 12
Av. initial weight, lb. 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7
Av. final weight, lb. 51.4 43.0 56.2 54.9 60.6
Av, Jaily gain, lb.. .83 .63 .94ac .91 1.05
Av. daily feed,ilb.' 1.66 1.56 1.86 1.97 2.11
Feed:gain ratio 2.00 2.48 1.97 2.17 2.01
Serum phosphorus,
mg/100 ml., at b a c b
2 weeks 5.40 3.74a 6.70 5.88 9.09
4 weeks 6.16b 4.27a 7.68 5.72 9.71
6 weeks 5.88b 4.04a 7.40c 6.24b 8.68
Phalange bone ash, % 56.01" 49.24 57.16D 55.92" 59.12
a,b,c,d,e,f Means within a row with different superscripts were differ
g First figure is phosphorus supplement prior to 22 lb.; second figure
h phorus supplement after 22 lb.
i HMC = anaerobically preserved high moisture corn; RC = regular corn.
11.3% H20 basis.


RC
12
16.7
59.3 cd
1.01
2.14
2.12


9.04d
8.57e
8.32 d
58.05cd
ent (P<.05).
is phos-


The evidence from all criteria indicates that the phosphorus in high mois-
ture corn, preserved anaerobically, is more available to swine than that in
regular corn. Average daily gains, serum phosphorus and percent bone ash were
greater for pigs receiving high moisture corn when no supplemental phosphorus
was added to the diet. When the diet was supplemented with sufficient phosphorus
to meet the recommended level (10), the .22, .12% sequence, there were no differ-
ences between the two types of corn, with the exception of serum phosphorus
values at the fourth week. Assuming that nonphytate plant phosphorus is 100%
available and that phytate phosphorus is completely unavailable, the analyzed
increase in nonphytate phosphorus represents the equivalent of an addition of
.04% inorganic phosphorus to the diet.
Summary

Seventy-two weanling pigs were used to determine if the phosphorus in
anaerobically preserved high moisture corn was more available than the phos-
phorus in regular corn. Pigs receiving low phosphorus diets had increased rates
of gain, serum phosphorus levels and percent bone ash and obtained improved feed
efficiency when high moisture corn was in the diet. An analysis confirmed that
there was a reduction in the amount of phytate phosphorus in the high moisture
corn.




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