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Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL-1976-6
Title: Influence of protein quality on growth and development of yearling foals (HN-744)
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073085/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of protein quality on growth and development of yearling foals (HN-744)
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 2, 4 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ott, E. A ( Edgar A )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Foals -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Grain as feed   ( lcsh )
Soybean meal as feed   ( lcsh )
Lysine in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.A. Ott.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "Research conducted by Dr. E.A. Ott, Associate Professor Animal Science, with the assistance of Mr. J.R. Kilcrease and staff at the Horse Research Center, Ocala, FL."
General Note: "September, 1976."
General Note: Typescript.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073085
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50685908

Table of Contents
    Influence of protein quality on growth and development od yearling foals
        Page 1
        Experiment
            Page 1
        Results
            Page 1
            Page 2
    List of Tables
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text


Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1976-6 Experiment Station
September, 1976 Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN QUALITY ON GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT OF YEARLING FOALS (HN-744)

E. A. Ott i* i.. i


Protein quality is a reflection of how accuraeY ai. lI'I protein source
provides those amino acids required by the animal. Growing foals have been shown
to respond to protein quality with increased growth and improved efficiency (Slade
and Robinson, 1969, Breuer and Golden, 1971,, aind'H~int.ziet ai.pl 97). Unfortunately,
there is still inadequate information on how critical these amino acids are and
exactly what minimum levels of intake are necessary.

Earlier work suggests that the amino acid lysine is likely the most limiting
under typical feeding conditions. When soybean meal, milk protein or fish meal is
the primary source of supplemental protein, lysine deficiencies are unlikely. When
protein is provided primarily by the cereal grains, lysine levels may be too low to
support optimum growth and development. Crude protein levels may therefore provide a
bias appraisal of a specific rations ability to meet the needs of the growing foal.

Brewers Dried Grains (BDG) contain 25-35% crude protein and could provide an
economical source of protein and energy for horses. Since its protein content is
primarily of cereal grain origin, its lysine content is relatively low (about 1.1%).
An experiment was designed to compare the performance of yearling foals receiving
soybean meal and BDG supplemented rations.

Experiment

Twenty-four Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse foals averaging about 284 days of age
(241 343 range) were divided randomly within sex and breed groups to two treatment
groups. Group A received ration HR-20, group B received HR-21. Formulas for the two
rations are shown in table 1. The grain rations were calculated to provide 15.0% crude
protein and to be equal in energy and other nutrients. The foals were fed individually
and offered all the ration they would consume in a one hour period twice each day.
They were also offered Coastal Bermudagrass hay at a rate of 1% of their body weight
daily.

Daily feed consumption was measured and changes in weight, height, girth and
length were determined at 28-day intervals.

Results

Grain ration consumption for the soybean meal based ration was 12.77 Ibs. per day
while those receiving the Brewers Dried Grains consumed 12.26 lbs. per day. Intake
varied from an average of 8.86 Ibs. per day during the first 28-day period to 15.72 Ibs.
per day during the last period. Hay consumption averaged 6.48 lbs. per day with an in-
crease from 5.82 lbs. per day for the first period to 8.10 lbs. per day for the last.
Average total feed intake for the entire experiment was 18.98 Ibs. per day. Grain


Research conducted by Dr. E. A. Ott, Associate Professor of Animal Science, with the
assistance of Mr. J. R. Kilcrease and staff at the Horse Research Center, Ocala, FL.






Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1976-6 Experiment Station
September, 1976 Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN QUALITY ON GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT OF YEARLING FOALS (HN-744)

E. A. Ott i* i.. i


Protein quality is a reflection of how accuraeY ai. lI'I protein source
provides those amino acids required by the animal. Growing foals have been shown
to respond to protein quality with increased growth and improved efficiency (Slade
and Robinson, 1969, Breuer and Golden, 1971,, aind'H~int.ziet ai.pl 97). Unfortunately,
there is still inadequate information on how critical these amino acids are and
exactly what minimum levels of intake are necessary.

Earlier work suggests that the amino acid lysine is likely the most limiting
under typical feeding conditions. When soybean meal, milk protein or fish meal is
the primary source of supplemental protein, lysine deficiencies are unlikely. When
protein is provided primarily by the cereal grains, lysine levels may be too low to
support optimum growth and development. Crude protein levels may therefore provide a
bias appraisal of a specific rations ability to meet the needs of the growing foal.

Brewers Dried Grains (BDG) contain 25-35% crude protein and could provide an
economical source of protein and energy for horses. Since its protein content is
primarily of cereal grain origin, its lysine content is relatively low (about 1.1%).
An experiment was designed to compare the performance of yearling foals receiving
soybean meal and BDG supplemented rations.

Experiment

Twenty-four Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse foals averaging about 284 days of age
(241 343 range) were divided randomly within sex and breed groups to two treatment
groups. Group A received ration HR-20, group B received HR-21. Formulas for the two
rations are shown in table 1. The grain rations were calculated to provide 15.0% crude
protein and to be equal in energy and other nutrients. The foals were fed individually
and offered all the ration they would consume in a one hour period twice each day.
They were also offered Coastal Bermudagrass hay at a rate of 1% of their body weight
daily.

Daily feed consumption was measured and changes in weight, height, girth and
length were determined at 28-day intervals.

Results

Grain ration consumption for the soybean meal based ration was 12.77 Ibs. per day
while those receiving the Brewers Dried Grains consumed 12.26 lbs. per day. Intake
varied from an average of 8.86 Ibs. per day during the first 28-day period to 15.72 Ibs.
per day during the last period. Hay consumption averaged 6.48 lbs. per day with an in-
crease from 5.82 lbs. per day for the first period to 8.10 lbs. per day for the last.
Average total feed intake for the entire experiment was 18.98 Ibs. per day. Grain


Research conducted by Dr. E. A. Ott, Associate Professor of Animal Science, with the
assistance of Mr. J. R. Kilcrease and staff at the Horse Research Center, Ocala, FL.






Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1976-6 Experiment Station
September, 1976 Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN QUALITY ON GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT OF YEARLING FOALS (HN-744)

E. A. Ott i* i.. i


Protein quality is a reflection of how accuraeY ai. lI'I protein source
provides those amino acids required by the animal. Growing foals have been shown
to respond to protein quality with increased growth and improved efficiency (Slade
and Robinson, 1969, Breuer and Golden, 1971,, aind'H~int.ziet ai.pl 97). Unfortunately,
there is still inadequate information on how critical these amino acids are and
exactly what minimum levels of intake are necessary.

Earlier work suggests that the amino acid lysine is likely the most limiting
under typical feeding conditions. When soybean meal, milk protein or fish meal is
the primary source of supplemental protein, lysine deficiencies are unlikely. When
protein is provided primarily by the cereal grains, lysine levels may be too low to
support optimum growth and development. Crude protein levels may therefore provide a
bias appraisal of a specific rations ability to meet the needs of the growing foal.

Brewers Dried Grains (BDG) contain 25-35% crude protein and could provide an
economical source of protein and energy for horses. Since its protein content is
primarily of cereal grain origin, its lysine content is relatively low (about 1.1%).
An experiment was designed to compare the performance of yearling foals receiving
soybean meal and BDG supplemented rations.

Experiment

Twenty-four Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse foals averaging about 284 days of age
(241 343 range) were divided randomly within sex and breed groups to two treatment
groups. Group A received ration HR-20, group B received HR-21. Formulas for the two
rations are shown in table 1. The grain rations were calculated to provide 15.0% crude
protein and to be equal in energy and other nutrients. The foals were fed individually
and offered all the ration they would consume in a one hour period twice each day.
They were also offered Coastal Bermudagrass hay at a rate of 1% of their body weight
daily.

Daily feed consumption was measured and changes in weight, height, girth and
length were determined at 28-day intervals.

Results

Grain ration consumption for the soybean meal based ration was 12.77 Ibs. per day
while those receiving the Brewers Dried Grains consumed 12.26 lbs. per day. Intake
varied from an average of 8.86 Ibs. per day during the first 28-day period to 15.72 Ibs.
per day during the last period. Hay consumption averaged 6.48 lbs. per day with an in-
crease from 5.82 lbs. per day for the first period to 8.10 lbs. per day for the last.
Average total feed intake for the entire experiment was 18.98 Ibs. per day. Grain


Research conducted by Dr. E. A. Ott, Associate Professor of Animal Science, with the
assistance of Mr. J. R. Kilcrease and staff at the Horse Research Center, Ocala, FL.










consumption as a percent of body weight, increased with age. During the first period
the foals consumed an average of 1.42 lbs./100 Ibs. body weight and during the last
period they consumed 1.81 lbs./100 lbs. body weight. Since hay consumption was re-
latively constant, total intake varied from 2.39 lbs./100 lbs. body weight to .2.74
Ibs. per 100 Ibs. body weight. Feed consumption is shown in table 2.



By the second period, a highly significant weight gain response to the soybean
meal ration was evident (Figure 1). The soybean meal ration maintained its advantage
throughout the experiment (252 days). Gains in weight, height at withers and heart
girth were all significantly (P<.05) improved by the soybean meal based ration by the
end of the experiment (table 3). A small increase in length was also noted (P<.10).
Density of the foal (weight volume2) was not affected by treatment. Lack of dif-
ference in density would suggest a comparable body composition, thus the growth dif-
ferences would appear to be real and suggest a true response to protein quality. Total
feed consumption and feed efficiency were not affected by treatment and no significant
differences due to sex were noted.




































2Volume was approximated by the equation v = length (girth)2
411

















Table 1. Experimental Rations


HR-20 HR-21

Brewers Dried Grains --- 20.0
Corn 27.0 38.0
Oats 40.0 15.0
Soybean meal 10.0 4.0
Wheat bran 10.0 10.0
Alfalfa, dehy. 5.0 5.0
Molasses 5.0 5.0
Limestone, Gr. 1.0 1.0
Bio. Phos. 1.0 1.0
Salt 0.5 0.5
Premix, TM = Vit2 0.5 0.5


Calculated Analyses

Crude Protein, % 15.0 15.0
Digestible Energy, Meal 1.32 1.31
Calcium, % .81 .83
Phosphorus, % .57 .59
Lysine, % .61 .50



1Fed with Coastal Bermudagrass hay.

provided the following per lb. of ration: manganese, 4.9 mg; iron,
18.2 mg; copper, 3.4 mg; zinc, 18.0 mg; cobalt, 0.1 mg; iodine,
0.1 mg; Vitamin A, 3000 IU; Vitamin D, 300 IU; and Vitamin E, 6 IU.












Table 2. Feed Consumption


Period1


Grain Ration


1.51
1.34


1.45
1.41


1.56
1.42


Average Average
for Ration for Exp.


lbs./100 Ibs. body weight


1.65
1.58


1.78
1.82


1.82
1.96


1.84
1.90


1.83
1.92


1.74
1.88


Hay


.92
1.01


.94
1.0


Total


2.43
2.35


2.29
2.30


2.48
2.40


2.59
2.58


2.62
2.71


2.43
2.60


2.68
2.78


2.77
2.90


2.65
2.84


28 days each.

Group A received ration HR-20.

3Group B received ration HR-21.


1.69
1.69


1.69


2.55
2.61


2.58

















Table 3. Influence of Protein Quality on the Growth and
Development of Yearling Foals (adjusted means).


Group
Ration
Supplemental Protein Source


A
HR-20
Soybean Meal


B
HR-21
Brewers Dried
Grains


Weight
Initial, lbs.
Final, lbs.
Gain, lbs.


Height
Initial, in.
Final, in.
Gain, in.


Girth
Initial, in.
Final, in.
Gain, in.


Length
Initial, in.
Final, in.
Gain, in.


Ave. Feed Cons.
Feed/lb. gain


lbs.(252 days)


Significantly different P<.05.

+significantly different P<.10.


609.2
910.4
301.2


609.2
865.8
256.6*


52.63
57.77
5.14


52.63
57.07
4.44*


57.74
64.89
7.15*


57.74
66.33
8.59


52.00
59.33
7.33

4845
16.08


52.00
58.45
6.45+

4727
18.38




Figure 1. Influences of Protein Quality on the Growth of Yearling Foals


900











800





eight
Ibs.



700











600


Soybean Meal
-------- Brewers Dried Grains


28 day periods


41




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