• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 The effect of dietary particle...
 List of Tables














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL-1976-5
Title: The effect of dietary particle size on ulcer development of pigs
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073084/00001
 Material Information
Title: The effect of dietary particle size on ulcer development of pigs
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Monegue, Harold James, 1951-
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Stomach -- Ulcers   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 4).
Statement of Responsibility: H.J. Monegue, H.D. Wallace and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September, 1976."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073084
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50685598

Table of Contents
    The effect of dietary particle size on ulcer development of pigs
        Page 1
        Experimental
            Page 1
        Results and discussion
            Page 2
        Summary
            Page 2
    List of Tables
        Page 3
        Literature cited
            Page 4
Full Text
I;Qf '.
.....'.. -.

SDepartment of Animal Science ,- Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1976-5 Li i Experiment Station
/ September, 1976 Gainesville, Florida
OCT 19 1976 i
THE EFFECT OF DIETARY PARTICLE SIZE ON ULCER
DEVELOPMENT OF PIGS'

H. J. Monegue, H. D. Wallace and G.'E. Combs2

As the intensity of swine production increased from 1950 to the present,
there have been increasing reports of esophagogastric ulcers in swine. The
incidence of ulcers in the non-glandular portion of the stomach has been
estimated to range from 4% to 53% of the animals studied. In severe cases
both growing-finishing pigs and breeding stock have been lost due to ulcers.

The size of the feed particles, specifically that of the corn portion of
the diet, has been suspected as a factor in ulcer development. Several
researchers found a correlation between fine feed particle size and an increase
in keratinization of the non-glandular portion of the stomach which appeared
to lead to ulcers in this region (1) (2) (3).

The objective was to study the effect of corn particle size in a corn-
soybean meal diet when fed to pigs from weaning to market weight.

Experimental

Twenty-four crossbred pigs approximately five weeks of age were allotted
to three treatment groups. For the first six weeks of the trial all pigs were
housed in expanded metal cages with automatic watering devices and self feeders.
The pigs were then moved to concrete finishing pens with self feeders and
waterers. Each treatment group received the same diet but with the corn por-
tion ground to three different particle sizes:



1 Data from Swine Unit Experiment No. 251.
2 Monegue, Graduate Student; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists.




This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$88.oo00 or.08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.

Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences




I;Qf '.
.....'.. -.

SDepartment of Animal Science ,- Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1976-5 Li i Experiment Station
/ September, 1976 Gainesville, Florida
OCT 19 1976 i
THE EFFECT OF DIETARY PARTICLE SIZE ON ULCER
DEVELOPMENT OF PIGS'

H. J. Monegue, H. D. Wallace and G.'E. Combs2

As the intensity of swine production increased from 1950 to the present,
there have been increasing reports of esophagogastric ulcers in swine. The
incidence of ulcers in the non-glandular portion of the stomach has been
estimated to range from 4% to 53% of the animals studied. In severe cases
both growing-finishing pigs and breeding stock have been lost due to ulcers.

The size of the feed particles, specifically that of the corn portion of
the diet, has been suspected as a factor in ulcer development. Several
researchers found a correlation between fine feed particle size and an increase
in keratinization of the non-glandular portion of the stomach which appeared
to lead to ulcers in this region (1) (2) (3).

The objective was to study the effect of corn particle size in a corn-
soybean meal diet when fed to pigs from weaning to market weight.

Experimental

Twenty-four crossbred pigs approximately five weeks of age were allotted
to three treatment groups. For the first six weeks of the trial all pigs were
housed in expanded metal cages with automatic watering devices and self feeders.
The pigs were then moved to concrete finishing pens with self feeders and
waterers. Each treatment group received the same diet but with the corn por-
tion ground to three different particle sizes:



1 Data from Swine Unit Experiment No. 251.
2 Monegue, Graduate Student; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists.




This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$88.oo00 or.08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.

Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences





- 2 -


Treatments:

(1) Coarse ground (0.5 inch screen-grinder)
(2) Medium ground (0.25 inch screen-hammermill)
(3) Fine ground (0.0625 inch screen-hammermill)

To measure the feed particle size of each treatment group, the Modulus of
Uniformity was used (4). Uniformity expresses the ratio of coarse, medium and
fine particles in a sample of ground feed (coarse:medium:fine). The Modulus
of Uniformity for the three treatments is shown in Table 2.

The composition of the diets is shown in Table 1.

At the conclusion of the experiment the animals were slaughtered and the
stomachs examined for keratinization and ulcers. The keratinization score was
determined by estimating the percent of the non-glandular portion of the stom-
ach with keratinization (0 = 0%, 1 = 25%, 2 = 50%, 3 = 75%, 4 = 100%).

Results and Discussion

The performance data and stomach examination data are summarized in Table 2.

The feed particle size had no effect on daily gain (P < .05). However,
the pigs receiving the coarse ground corn required 11% more feed per pound of
gain than the pigs receiving the medium ground corn and 20% more feed per pound
of gain than those receiving the finely ground corn.

Visual examination of the esophagogastric region of the stomach revealed
that as the dietary particle size decreased the degree of keratinization
increased significantly (P < .05). Only half of the pigs on treatment one
showed any keratinization and all of these were scored 2 or less, whereas all
the pigs on treatments two and three showed keratinization. Further study
showed five of the twenty-four pigs with esophagogastric ulcers. Four of the
animals were from treatment three and one from treatment two, resulting in a
significantly higher percentage of ulcers for the fine particle size over the
coarse particle size (P < .05). The medium particle size was not significantly
different from either of the other treatments with respect to ulcer development.

Summary

Twenty-four young pigs were allotted to three groups and fed diets which
varied only in particle size (coarse, medium and fine ground) for 124 days.
Daily gain was equal for all treatments, but feed efficiency appears to improve
with decreasing feed particle size. At slaughter stomach examination showed a
significant increase in the amount of keratinization and the number of ulcers
formed as the particle size decreased. Although finer particle size was more
desirable from the standpoint of feed efficiency, there was an increased ten-
dency toward esophagogastric ulcers.





- 2 -


Treatments:

(1) Coarse ground (0.5 inch screen-grinder)
(2) Medium ground (0.25 inch screen-hammermill)
(3) Fine ground (0.0625 inch screen-hammermill)

To measure the feed particle size of each treatment group, the Modulus of
Uniformity was used (4). Uniformity expresses the ratio of coarse, medium and
fine particles in a sample of ground feed (coarse:medium:fine). The Modulus
of Uniformity for the three treatments is shown in Table 2.

The composition of the diets is shown in Table 1.

At the conclusion of the experiment the animals were slaughtered and the
stomachs examined for keratinization and ulcers. The keratinization score was
determined by estimating the percent of the non-glandular portion of the stom-
ach with keratinization (0 = 0%, 1 = 25%, 2 = 50%, 3 = 75%, 4 = 100%).

Results and Discussion

The performance data and stomach examination data are summarized in Table 2.

The feed particle size had no effect on daily gain (P < .05). However,
the pigs receiving the coarse ground corn required 11% more feed per pound of
gain than the pigs receiving the medium ground corn and 20% more feed per pound
of gain than those receiving the finely ground corn.

Visual examination of the esophagogastric region of the stomach revealed
that as the dietary particle size decreased the degree of keratinization
increased significantly (P < .05). Only half of the pigs on treatment one
showed any keratinization and all of these were scored 2 or less, whereas all
the pigs on treatments two and three showed keratinization. Further study
showed five of the twenty-four pigs with esophagogastric ulcers. Four of the
animals were from treatment three and one from treatment two, resulting in a
significantly higher percentage of ulcers for the fine particle size over the
coarse particle size (P < .05). The medium particle size was not significantly
different from either of the other treatments with respect to ulcer development.

Summary

Twenty-four young pigs were allotted to three groups and fed diets which
varied only in particle size (coarse, medium and fine ground) for 124 days.
Daily gain was equal for all treatments, but feed efficiency appears to improve
with decreasing feed particle size. At slaughter stomach examination showed a
significant increase in the amount of keratinization and the number of ulcers
formed as the particle size decreased. Although finer particle size was more
desirable from the standpoint of feed efficiency, there was an increased ten-
dency toward esophagogastric ulcers.




-3-


Table 1. Composition of Dietsi


Ingredient % Starter Grower Finisher


Corn (yellow)2 71.80 74.90 82.10
Soybean meal (49%) 25.00 22.00 15.00
Dynafos (IMC) 1.70 1.70 1.70
Limestone .80 .80 .80
Salt iodizedd) .25 .25 .25
Trace mineral mix (CCC)3 .10 .10 .10
Vitamin premix (UF)4 .10 .10 .05
ASP-250 .25 .15 ---
100.00 100.00 -100.00

Percent protein 18.71 17.52 15.74


1 The starter diet was fed up to 80 Ibs.; grower diet was
fed from 80 Ibs. to 130 Ibs.; finisher diet was fed from
130 Ibs. to slaughter.
2 The corn was ground according to treatment.
3 Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, Illinois, contains 20%
zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine,
0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
4 Contains 6000 mg. riboflavin; 20,000 mg. niacin, 12,000
mg. pantothenic acid, 80,000 mg. choline chloride, 10,000
mcg. vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A, 4000 ICU
vitamin 03, 10,000 IU vitamin E and 4 gm. vitamin K3 per
pound of premix.







- 4 -


Table 2. Performance and Stomach Examination Data
of Pigs Fed Feed of Varying Particle Size


Treatments Coarse Medium Fine


Av. initial wt., lb. 22.9 22.9 22.9
Av. final wt., lb. 216.5 208.9 213.5
Av. daily gain, lb.1 1.56 1.50 1.54
Av. daily feed, lb. 4.90 4.24 4.01
Av. feed/gain, lb. 3.14 2.83 2.61
Modulus of uniformity2 1:6:3 0:4:6 0:3:7

Av. keratinization score3'4 0.75a 2.0b 3.1gc
Percent pigs with ulcers4 a 12.5ab 50.0b


1 No significant difference between treatments (P < .05).
2 Determined by ASAE recommendations.
3 Percent of the non-glandular portion of the stomach with
keratinization (0 = 0%, 1 = 25%, 2 = 50%, 3 = 75%, 4 = 100%).
4 Different superscripts indicate a significant difference
between treatments (P < .05).












Literature Cited


1. Mahan, D. C., R. A.
W. R. Featherston.
of ulcers in swine.


Pickett, T. W. Perry, T. M. Curtin, W. M. Beeson and
1964. Influence of ration particle size on the incidence
J. Anim. Sci. 23:883.


2. Reimann, E. M., C. V. Maxwell, T. Kowalczyk, N. J. Benevenga, R. H. Grummer
and W. G. Hoekstra. 1968. Effect of fineness of grind of corn on gastric
ulcers in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 27:992.

3. Riker, J. T. III, T. W. Perry, R. A. Pickett and T. M. Curtin. 1967. Influ-
ence of various grains on the incidence of esophagogastric ulcers in swine.
J. Anim. Sci. 26:731.

4. Agricultural Engineers Yearbook. 1962. Method of determining modulus of
uniformity and modulus of fineness of ground feed. p. 249.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs