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Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL-1976-4
Title: Supplementary salt levels in swine diets
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Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073083/00001
 Material Information
Title: Supplementary salt levels in swine diets
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Zometa, Carlos Alfredo, 1945-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Salt in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs, C.A. Zometa and H.D. Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September, 1976."
General Note: Typescript on pink paper.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073083
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50685676

Table of Contents
    Supplementary salt levels in swine diets
        Page 1
        Experimental
            Page 1
        Results and discussion
            Page 2
        Summary
            Page 2
    List of Tables
        Page 3
        Page 4
Full Text


SDepartment of Animal Science
Research Report AL-1976-4
S September, 1976


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
Gainesville, FLorida


SUPPLEMENTARY SALT LEVELS IN SWINE DIETS' ,....


G. E. Combs, C. A. Zometa
and H. D. Wallace2


OC J'' 19i76


A previous report3 showed that supplementary salt levels of 0.12 and 0.25
percent were as effective as the more commonly used 0.50 percent-level in
increasing rate and efficiency of gain.

This study was conducted to determine if salt levels lower than 0.12 per-
cent would be satisfactory and to study the effects of providing sodium and
chlorine in forms other than salt (NaCl).

Experimental

Experiment 1 Seventy-five early weaned pigs were allotted to five treat-
ment groups of 15 pigs each. Dietary treatments consisted of providing supple-
mentary salt at level 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.50.

Experiment 2 Forty-eight pigs having an initial weight of approximately
16 pounds were divided into four treatment groups of 12 pigs each. The treat-
ment groups were as follows:


0.20% salt (sodium (Na) chloride (Cl))
0.5% sodium sulfate + 0.30% potassium chloride
0.5% sodium sulfate
0.3% potassium chloride


Pigs in all experiments were housed in expanded metal cages equipped with
automatic watering devices and self feeders.

Diet composition is presented in Table 1.


1 Experiments 233B and 233D.
2 Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists; Zometa, Research
3 Research Report AL-1975-11.


Assistant.


Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$ 88.00 or .08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.






SDepartment of Animal Science
Research Report AL-1976-4
S September, 1976


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
Gainesville, FLorida


SUPPLEMENTARY SALT LEVELS IN SWINE DIETS' ,....


G. E. Combs, C. A. Zometa
and H. D. Wallace2


OC J'' 19i76


A previous report3 showed that supplementary salt levels of 0.12 and 0.25
percent were as effective as the more commonly used 0.50 percent-level in
increasing rate and efficiency of gain.

This study was conducted to determine if salt levels lower than 0.12 per-
cent would be satisfactory and to study the effects of providing sodium and
chlorine in forms other than salt (NaCl).

Experimental

Experiment 1 Seventy-five early weaned pigs were allotted to five treat-
ment groups of 15 pigs each. Dietary treatments consisted of providing supple-
mentary salt at level 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.50.

Experiment 2 Forty-eight pigs having an initial weight of approximately
16 pounds were divided into four treatment groups of 12 pigs each. The treat-
ment groups were as follows:


0.20% salt (sodium (Na) chloride (Cl))
0.5% sodium sulfate + 0.30% potassium chloride
0.5% sodium sulfate
0.3% potassium chloride


Pigs in all experiments were housed in expanded metal cages equipped with
automatic watering devices and self feeders.

Diet composition is presented in Table 1.


1 Experiments 233B and 233D.
2 Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists; Zometa, Research
3 Research Report AL-1975-11.


Assistant.


Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$ 88.00 or .08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.





- 2 -


Results and Discussion

The results of experiments 1 and 2 are summarized in Tables 2 and 3,
respectively.

Experiment 1 Pigs fed the diets containing supplementary salt levels of
0, 0.05 and 0.10 percent gained significantly (P < .05) less and required signi-
ficantly (P < .05) more feed per unit gain than pigs given either 0.20 or 0.50
percent salt. The previous study (Res. Rept. 75-11) showed no difference in rate
of gain when pigs were given either 0.12, 0.25 or 0.50 percent supplementary salt.
The finding that 0.12 percent salt permitted satisfactory gain in the first study
and that 0.10 percent depressed gain in this experiment, would indicate this to
be a borderline level and that for consistent optimal response, the supplementary
salt level should be 0.20 percent of the diet.

Experiment 2 The rate and efficiency of gain with pigs given supplementary
salt as sodium chloride (NaCl) or as a combination of sodium sulfate (Na2S04) and
r:tassium chloride (KC1) was not significantly different (P < .05). Pigs given
only sodium (Na) gained significantly less (P < .05) and required significantly
more feed per unit gain than either treatment 1 or 4, but were superior in per-
formance to treatment 3. The rate and efficiency of gain with the group given
only chlorine (KC1) was significantly less (P < .05) than the other treatment
groups. These data would confirm the need for supplementing swine diets with
both sodium and chlorine.

Summary

Two experiments involving 138 early weaned pigs were conducted to re-evaluate
the quantity of and source of supplementary sodium and chlorine for swine diets.
The rate and efficiency of gain with pigs given diets containing 0, 0.05 or 0.10
percent supplementary salt (NaC1) was significantly less (P < .05) than with pigs
given 0.20 or 0.50 percent salt. As was previously observed, the pigs in this
study performed similarly when fed diets containing either 0.20 or 0.50 percent
salt. Pigs given sodium and chlorine as salt (NaC1) or as sodium sulfate (Na2S04)
plus chlorine (KC1) had similar rates and efficiencies of gain, whereas those
given only sodium (Na2S04) or chlorine (KC1) showed a definite depression in per-
formance. These data would confirm the finding that 0.20 percent supplementary
salt (NaCI) produces satisfactory results with swine diets and that both elements,
Na and Cl are needed to optimize performance.





- 2 -


Results and Discussion

The results of experiments 1 and 2 are summarized in Tables 2 and 3,
respectively.

Experiment 1 Pigs fed the diets containing supplementary salt levels of
0, 0.05 and 0.10 percent gained significantly (P < .05) less and required signi-
ficantly (P < .05) more feed per unit gain than pigs given either 0.20 or 0.50
percent salt. The previous study (Res. Rept. 75-11) showed no difference in rate
of gain when pigs were given either 0.12, 0.25 or 0.50 percent supplementary salt.
The finding that 0.12 percent salt permitted satisfactory gain in the first study
and that 0.10 percent depressed gain in this experiment, would indicate this to
be a borderline level and that for consistent optimal response, the supplementary
salt level should be 0.20 percent of the diet.

Experiment 2 The rate and efficiency of gain with pigs given supplementary
salt as sodium chloride (NaCl) or as a combination of sodium sulfate (Na2S04) and
r:tassium chloride (KC1) was not significantly different (P < .05). Pigs given
only sodium (Na) gained significantly less (P < .05) and required significantly
more feed per unit gain than either treatment 1 or 4, but were superior in per-
formance to treatment 3. The rate and efficiency of gain with the group given
only chlorine (KC1) was significantly less (P < .05) than the other treatment
groups. These data would confirm the need for supplementing swine diets with
both sodium and chlorine.

Summary

Two experiments involving 138 early weaned pigs were conducted to re-evaluate
the quantity of and source of supplementary sodium and chlorine for swine diets.
The rate and efficiency of gain with pigs given diets containing 0, 0.05 or 0.10
percent supplementary salt (NaC1) was significantly less (P < .05) than with pigs
given 0.20 or 0.50 percent salt. As was previously observed, the pigs in this
study performed similarly when fed diets containing either 0.20 or 0.50 percent
salt. Pigs given sodium and chlorine as salt (NaC1) or as sodium sulfate (Na2S04)
plus chlorine (KC1) had similar rates and efficiencies of gain, whereas those
given only sodium (Na2S04) or chlorine (KC1) showed a definite depression in per-
formance. These data would confirm the finding that 0.20 percent supplementary
salt (NaCI) produces satisfactory results with swine diets and that both elements,
Na and Cl are needed to optimize performance.





- 3 -


Table 1. Treatments and Diet Composition


Experiment 1

Treatment No. 1 2 3 4 5
Salt % 0 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.50

Ingredient, lb.
Yellow corn 80.27 80.22 80.17 80.07 79.77
Soybean meal 16.78 16.78 16.78 16.78 16.78
Bio-phos 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90
Trace mineralsI 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin mix (UF)2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Tylan-Sulfa 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Salt 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.50
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


Experiment 2

Treatment No. 1 2 3 4
NaCl Na Cl NaC1
(Na2S04) (KC1) (Na2S04)
+
(KC1)
Ingredient, lb.
Yellow corn 72.66 72.36 72.56 72.06
Soybean meal 24.19 24.19 24.19 24.19
Dynafos 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90
Trace minerals1 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin mix (UF)2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Tylan-Sulfa 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

Salt 0.20 -
Na2SO,3 0.50 0.50
KC14 0.30 0.30
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00


1 Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained
20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.1%
cobalt and 2% calcium.
2 Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic
acid, 80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mcg vitamin B12, 2,500,000
IU vitamin A, 400,000 ICU vitamin 03 and 10,000 IU vitamin E per lb.
of premix.
3 Contributes 0.15% Na.
4 Contributes 0.14% C1.





- 4 -


Table 2. Dietary Salt Levels
(Experiment 1)1


For Young Swine


Treatment No. 1 2 3 4 5
Salt % 0 0.05 0.10 0.20 0.50


Av. initial wt., lb. 12.60 12.57 12.57 12.63 12.60
Av. final wt., lb. 32.40 55.43 70.80 93.67 87.17
Av. daily gain, lb. 0.28 0.60 0.81 1.13 0.99
Av. daily feed, lb. 1.26 2.44 2.56 2.06 1.97
Av. feed/gain, lb. 4.5 4.07 3.16 1.82 1.99


1 Fifteen pigs per treatment.
aSignificantly (P < .05) different from other treatments.













Table 3. Sources of Sodium (Na) and Chlorine (Cl)
For Young Swine (Experiment 2)1


Treatment No. 1 2 3 4
Source of Na and C1 NaC1 Na C1 NaCl
(Salt) (Na2S04) (KC1) (Na2S04)
+
(KC1)


Av. initial wt., lb. 16.33 16.33 16.33 16.33
Av. final wt., lb. 72.58 57.84 33.79 72.42
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.15a 0.85b 0.36c 1.15a
Av. daily feed, lb. 2.16 1.84 1.42 2.23
Av. feed/gain, lb. 1.88a 2.16a 4.00b 1.96a


superscripts


1 Twelve pigs per treatment.
abc Means on same line bearing different
differ significantly (P < .05).




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