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Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Dept. of Animal Science ; AL-1975-11
Title: Salt levels in swine diets
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073078/00001
 Material Information
Title: Salt levels in swine diets
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Salt in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1975."
General Note: Typescript.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073078
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50681766

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V Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
7 / Research Report AL-1975-11 Experiment Station
July, 1975 Gainesville, Florida


SALT LEVELS IN SWINE DIETS1

G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace2

The essentiality of sodium and chlorine for swine was established in the
1920's. Then in 1950 it was determined that the minimum requirement for optimum
growth was 0.10 percent for sodium and 0.13 percent for chlorine. Since this
study in 1950 the number of reported research findings concerned with optimum
salt levels in swine diet has been limited.

Presently most swine diets are supplemented with 0.5 percent salt and the
present study was conducted to determine if this is the most efficacious level.

Experimental

Experiment 1 Thirty-six early weaned pigs having an initial weight of 13.6
pounds were fed diets containing 0.50 percent or 0 percent supplemental salt.
After six weeks 12 of the 18 pigs on the no salt diet were switched to the 0.5
salt diet. The remaining pigs continued on their initial dietary treatments.

Experiment 2 Seventy-two pigs weighing an average of 12.5 pounds were
divided into 4 treatments of 18 pigs each on the basis of weight, sex and litter.

All pigs were self-fed and water was supplied by automatic watering devices.
Diet composition and treatment for both experiments is presented in Table 1.

Results and Discussion

The results of experiments 1 and 2 are summarized in Tables 2 and 3 respec-
tively.

The absence of supplementary salt became evident quite early in the experi-
ment. The daily gain of the 0 percent salt groups at the end of 6 weeks was
about 25 to 30 percent of that for the salt supplemented treatment. Those pigs
switched to the supplemental salt diet at the end of 6 weeks showed a response


1 Experiments 233 and 233A.
2 Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists.



This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$80.00, or .04 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.

Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences






-2-


but the stunting experienced earlier prevented their equaling the performance of
the control group. The group that continued on the no salt diet for the entire
period continued to gain very slowly. The mortality rate for pigs in this
group was 33 percent as compared to 0 percent for the remaining treatments.

In experiment 2 the gains were not significantly (P < .05) different among
the 4 supplemental salt levels. Feed consumption and feed efficiency figures
were also comparable for all dietary treatments. These data demonstrate that
the lower supplementary salt levels (0.12 and 0.25%) were as effective as the
more commonly used 0.5 percent level in increasing rate and efficiency of gain.

Summary

Two experiments involving 108 early weaned pigs were conducted to re-evaluate
the quantity of supplemental salt required to optimize rate and efficiency of
gain.

Experiment 1 The adverse effects of no supplemental salt were expressed
within 6 weeks after the experiment was initiated; daily gains for this treat-
ment were about 25% of that found with the 0.5 percent supplemental salt treatment.

Experiment 2 The rate and efficiency of gain for pigs fed diets containing
0.12, 0.25, 0.50 and 2.0 percent supplemental salt were not significantly (P < .05)
different.

These data indicate that the often used figure of 0.5 percent supplemen-
tary salt may be reduced in starter, grower and finisher diets.

Table 1. Treatments and Diet Composition

Experiment 11 Experiment 21
Salt, % 0.5 0 0.12 0.25 0.50 2.00

Ingredient, lb.
Yellow corn 72.36 72.86 72.73 72.61 72.36 70.86
Soybean meal 24.19 24.19 24.19 24.19 24.19 24.19
Bio-phos 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60
Limestone 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90
Trace minerals2 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin mix (UF)3 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Tylan-Sulfa 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Salt 0.50 0.00 0.12 0.25 0.50 2.00
1 Protein content 18%, reduced to 15% during finishing period.
2 Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.1% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3 Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mcg vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A,
400,000 ICU vitamin 03 and 10,000 IU vitamin E per lb. of premix.








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Table 2. Influence of Supplemental Salt on Pig
Performance (Experiment 1)

0.5% No Salt
Treatment Salt 1st 6 weeks Entire Period

Av. initial weight, lb. 13.56 13.57 13.55
Av. final weight, lb. 194.97 145.00 48.30
Av. daily gain, lb.:
1st 6 weeks 1.04 0.29 0.24
18 weeks 1.44 1.04 0.28
Av. daily feed, lb. 3.95 2.81 0.98
Av. feed/gain, lb. 2.74 2.69 3.50











Table 3. Dietary Salt Levels For Growing-Finishing
Swine (Experiment 2)

Salt % 0.12 0.25 0.50 2.00

Av. initial weight, lb. 12.50 12.50 12.60 12.60
Av. final weight, lb. 213.70 206.50 209.00 205.90
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.51 1.46 1.47 1.45
Av. daily feed, lb. 4.17 4.08 4.15 4.06
Av. feed/gain, lb. 2.75 2.80 2.81 2.79







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