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 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary and literature cited














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Dept. of Animal Science ; AL-1975-10
Title: Nutrient utilization of swine diets as influenced by various levels of rice bran and the addition of fat
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073077/00001
 Material Information
Title: Nutrient utilization of swine diets as influenced by various levels of rice bran and the addition of fat
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campabadal, Carlos Miguel, 1950-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Rice bran as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 5).
Statement of Responsibility: C.M. Campabadal, H.D. Wallace and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1975."
General Note: Typescript on yellow paper.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073077
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50681726

Table of Contents
    Experimental
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Results and discussion
        Page 4
    Summary and literature cited
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text
'00
5 .;K Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
/ Research Report AL-1975-10 Experiment Station
July, 1975 Gainesville, Florida

NUTRIENT UTILIZATION OF SWINE DIETS AS INFLUENCED BY VARIOUS
LEVELS OF RICE BRAN AND THE ADDITION OF FAT1

C. M. Campabadal, H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs2


In two previous reports (1) (2) the value of rice bran as an ingredient in
pig diets has been discussed. Levels up to 30% of the diet were tolerated quite
well. Higher levels caused a reduction in feed intake and performance. Associated
with the feeding of rice bran has been a watery stool and irritated gastro-
intestinal tract linings.

The present study was undertaken to determine the influence of rice bran
additions on total nutrient digestibility. Fat was added in one case to ascertain
its effect on specific nutrient utilization. It was reasoned that fat could
enhance the level of energy available or improve nutrient utilization by altering
the rate of food passage, or simply improve the physical environment of the
digestive tract which in turn could effect total diet utilization.

Experimental Ll i-

Experiment 1

Forty-five crossbred pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire x Hampshire); averaging approxi-
mately 16 pounds initially, were divided into three treatment groups according
to weight and sex. Three pens of five pigs each were allotted to-.eah,,treatment..,:
Pigs were housed in raised expanded metal floored pens equipped'wth ;sd?- feedes '
and automatic waterers. The dietary treatments were as follows:

1 Control (corn-soybean meal diet)
2 20% rice bran diet
3 20% rice bran diet plus fat



1 Data presented in this report were from Swine Unit Experiments 235-C and 235-D.
2 Campabadal, graduate assistant; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists, Animal
Science Department, University of Florida.


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$120.00, or .04 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.

Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences






-2-


The experiment was of six weeks duration. During the last week of the experi-
ment chromium oxide was added to the diets to facilitate a measurement of nutrient
digestibility. Gross energy values of feed and feces were determined by use of
the bomb calorimeter. Composition and calculated chemical analyses for the diets
are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Ingredient and Chemical Composition
of Diets (Experiment 1)

Levels of Rice Bran (%)
Ingredients 0 20 20

Yellow corn meal 72.92 54.47 53.00
Soybean meal (49%) 22.88 21.40 21.65
Rice bran 20.00 20.00
Fat (lard) 1.19
Bio-phosi 2.72 2.60 2.63
Ground limestone 0.48 0.53 0.53
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals2 0.15 0.15 0.15
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.10 0.10 0.10
Aureo-SP-2504 0.25 0.25 0.25

Chemical Composition (%)
Dry matter 88.66 89.13 88.88
Crude fiber 2.01 3.47 3.45
Crude protein 18.00 18.03 18.01
Ether extract 3.18 4.83 6.04
Calciums 0.72 0.72 0.72
Phosphorus5 0.69 0.69 0.69
1 Product of International Minerals and Chemical
Corporation, Skokie, Illinois.
2 Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy,
Illinois. Contained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5%
manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.1%
cobalt and 2% calcium.
3 Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin,
12,000 mg pantothenic acid, 80,000 mg choline
chloride, 10,000 mcg Vitamin B12, 2,500,000 I.U.
Vitamin A, 400,000 ICU Vitamin 03 and 10,000 IU
Vitamin E per lb. of premix.
4 Supplied by American Cyanamid Co., Princeton,
New Jersey.
5 Calculated.

Dietary treatments one and three were formulated to be isocaloric. All diets
were approximately isonitrogenous.

Experiment 2

Twenty-eight crossbred pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire x Hampshire) averaging approxi-
mately 145 pounds initially, were divided into seven groups of four pigs each
according to weight and sex. All pigs were individually fed in concrete floored
pens for a period of thirteen days. Chromium oxide was added to all diets to







facilitate determination of nutrient digestibility. Dietary treatments were as
follows:

1 Control (corn-soybean meal diet)
2 20% rice bran diet
3 25% rice bran diet
4 30% rice bran diet
5 35% rice bran diet
6 40% rice bran diet
7 45% rice bran diet

Composition and calculated chemical analyses for the diets are shown in Table 2.
All diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous but not isocaloric.

Table 2. Ingredient and Chemical Composition
of Diets (Experiment 2)

Level of Rice Bran (%)
Ingredients 0 20 25 30 35 40 45

Yellow corn meal 83.90 65.50 60.87 56.20 51.51 46.87 42.28
Soybean meal (49%) 12.90 11.40 11.04 10.70 10.35 10.00 9.60
Rice bran 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00
Bio-phos' 1.85 1.72 1.70 1.70 1.64 1.63 1.62
Ground limestone 0.60 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.75 0.75 0.75
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10

Chemical Composition (%)
Dry matter 89.59 89.06 88.71 89.24 88.82 88.59 88.56
Crude fiber 2.04 3.74 4.21 4.66 5.01 5.46 5.93
Crude protein 14.09 14.14 13.96 14.03 14.07 13.90 14.05
Ether extract 3.78 5.15 5.22 5.88 6.14 6.83 7.19
1 Product of International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Skokie, Illinois.
2 Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.1% cobalt and 2% calciun.
3 Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mcg Vitamin B12, 2,500,000 I.U. Vitamin A,
400,000 ICU Vitamin D3 and 10,000 IU Vitamin E per lb. of premix.

Results and Discussion

Feedlot performance and digestibility data for experiment 1 are summarized
in Table 3. The control pigs and pigs fed the diet with 20 percent rice bran
plus fat gained significantly faster (P < .01) than the other group given the
20% rice bran diet with no added fat. This latter group was also less efficient
in feed conversion (P < .05). Dry matter and protein digestibility were signifi-
cantly depressed, (P < .01) and (P < .05) respectively, when 20% rice bran was
added to the diets. The addition of lard significantly (P < .01) improved the
dry matter and energy digestibility of this diet but not the protein digestibility.






-4-


Table 3. Feedlot Performance and Digestibility
of Nutrients as Influenced by Rice
Bran and Fat Additions to Young Pig
Diets (Experiment 1)

Level of rice bran (%
0 20 20


Fat added
Number of pigs
Days on test
Av. initial wt., lb.
Av. final wt., lb.
Daily gain, lb.
Daily feed intake, 1
Feed per lb. gain, 1


15
42
16.2
65.2
1.17
2.26
1.93d


15
42
16.2
56.6
0.96
2.13
2.22c


15
42
16.2
64.2
1.14a
2.15
1.89d


"'" Means in the same horizontal line bearing different
d superscript letters differ significantly (P < .01).
SMeans in the same horizontal line bearing different
superscript letters differ significantly (P < .05).


The improved performance of pigs fed the 20% rice bran diet with supplemen-
tary lard (only 1.19%) over pigs fed the same diet without lard is rather remarkable.
It was observed that the pigs on the latter diet showed a tendency toward watery
feces throughout the experiment. The addition of lard prevented this condition.
It is reasoned that the fat may have slowed the rate of passage of feed through
the gastro-intestinal tract thus permitting better utilization of dietary energy.

Digestibility data for experiment 2 are presented in Table 4.


Table 4. Dry Matter, Crude Protein and Ether
Extract Digestibility of Diets
Containing Varying Levels of Rice
Bran (Experiment 2)

Dry Crude Ether
Diet Matter Protein Extract
Control 87.24a 75.94 67.74
20% rice bran 86.83ab 75.28f9 67.43
25% rice bran 86.39 74.529 67.65d
30% rice bran 84.15c 73.62gh 68.34c
35% rice bran 83.68 71.88h 68.63
d 6*ab
40% rice bran 83.29d 70.94 69.05
45% rice bran 81.89e 69.97i 69.58a
a,b,c,d,e Mn nm I k I ,f,. + _


'Ca(iis 3i salllm Ic UluIIII UCn IIIa j UI I I clII
script letters differ significantly (P
f,g,h,i,j Means in same column bearing different
script letters differ significantly (P


upCI -
< .01).
super-
< .05).






-5-


Dry matter digestibility decreased as the level of rice bran was increased.
Similarly protein digestibility decreased with increased increments of rice
bran. These lowered digestibilities are likely associated with increased levels
of crude fiber in the diets coincident with the higher levels of rice bran. Ether
extract digestibility increased with added increments of rice bran. This would
be unexpected since it has been observed by other workers that fat digestibility
tends to increase as dietary fat level increased, especially where relatively
low fat levels are involved. It seems clear that a decreased carbohydrate and
protein utilization accounted for the marked depression in dry matter digesti-
bility. Greater concentrations of silica in the higher level rice bran diets
could well be a contributing factor also. Soft feces were voided by pigs fed
diets containing 35% and above rice bran.

Summary

Two experiments, involving a total of 52 pigs, were conducted to determine
the influence of rice bran on nutrient utilization.

Young pigs fed a diet containing 20% rice bran gained significantly slower
and less efficiently (P < .01) than pigs fed a control diet. Digestibility data
indicated that dry matter, energy and crude protein were utilized less efficiently.
Ether extract digestibility was enhanced slightly. When a small amount of lard
(1.19%) was added to the diet containing 20% rice bran, enough to make it iso-
caloric with the control diet, performance was restored and nutrient utilization,
except for protein, was improved.

Finishing pigs fed diets containing levels of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45% rice
bran showed decreased digestibilities for dry matter and protein with each incre-
ment increase in rice bran. Conversely ether extract digestibilities improved
as the amount of dietary rice bran increased.


Literature Cited

1. Campabadal, C. M., H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs. 1975. Response of Young
Pigs to Different Levels of Dietary Rice Bran. Fla. Animal Sci. Research
Rpt. AL-1975-5.

2. Campabadal, C. M., H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs. 1975. An Evaluation of
Rice Bran as a Feed Ingredient for Growing-Finishing Pigs. Fla. Animal Sci.
Research Rpt. AL-1975-9.







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