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 Introduction and experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Dept. of Animal Science ; AL-1975-9
Title: An evaluation of rice bran as a feed ingredient for growing-finishing pigs
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073076/00001
 Material Information
Title: An evaluation of rice bran as a feed ingredient for growing-finishing pigs
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Campabadal, Carlos Miguel, 1950-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1975
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Rice bran as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: C.M. Campabadal, H.D. Wallace and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June, 1975."
General Note: Typescript.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073076
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50681597

Table of Contents
    Introduction and experimental
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Results and discussion
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Summary
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text

Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1975-9 Experiment Station
June, 1975 Gainesville, Florida
AN EVALUATION OF RICE BRAN AS A FEED
INGREDIENT FOR GROWING-FINISHING PIGS1
C. N. Campabadal, H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs2

Rice bran is a by-product of rice grain consisting primarily of the outer
layers. The chemical composition varies widely due to contamination and
differences in milling processes. Rice bran contains high levels of fiber (10-15%)
but even so is considered primarily as an energy feed. Unless the product is
solvent extracted the fat content will run about 10-15%. Rice bran also contains
significant quantities of protein (12-15%). The TDN value is approximately 75%
for the pig.
Previous swine feeding experiments at other stations have shown some depression
in the gain and/or feed conversion of pigs fed rice bran at levels of 20% and
above. The experiments summarized in the present report were part of an overall
study designed to further define potentials and limitations of this product as
a feed for growing-finishing pigs. --....

Experimental
Experiment 1

Twenty-four crossbred pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire x Hampshire) with an average
initial weight of 145 pounds were divided into four treatment groups according
to weight and sex and assigned to one of the following dietary treatment ;
1 Control (corn-soybean meal diet)
2 35% rice bran diet
3 40% rice bran diet
4 45% rice bran diet
Composition and chemical analyses of the diets are presented in Table 1.
Feed was offered by self feeders and water was provided by automatic watering
devices. The pigs were individually penned and fed in concrete floored units.


1 Data presented in this report were from Swine Unit Experiments Nos. 238-A
and 238-B.
2 Campabadal, graduate assistant; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists,
Animal Science Department, University of Florida.

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$120.00, or .04 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results -
in swine management and nutrition.

Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences






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Table 1. Ingredient and Chemical Composition
of Diets (Experiment 1)

Level of rice bran (%)
Ingredients 0 35 40 45

Yellow corn meal 83.90 51.51 46.87 42.28
Soybean meal (49%) 12.90 10.35 10.00 9.60
Rice bran -35.00 40.00 45.00
Bio-phos1 1.85 1.64 1.63 1.62
Ground limestone 0.60 0.75 0.75 0.75
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10

Chemical Composition
Moisture 11.76 11.49 11.54 11.18
Crude fiber 2.11 5.01 5.46 5.93
Crude protein 14.07 14.11 14.07 14.09
Ether extract 3.72 6.34 6.94 7.49
Nitrogen-free-extract 64.05 55.11 53.48 52.32
Ash 4.29 7.94 8.46 8.99
Calcium 0.59 0.60 0.60 0.60
Phosphorus 0.49 0.50 0.50 0.50
1 Product of International Minerals and Chemical Corporation,
Skokie, Illinois.
2 Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Con-
tained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15%
iodine, 0.1% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3 Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg
pantothenic acid, 80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mcg
vitamin B12, 2,500,000 IU vitamin A, 400,000 ICU vitamin D3
and 10,000 IU vitamin E per lb. of premix.


Experiment 2

Forty-eight crossbred pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire x Hampshire), were divided into
four treatment groups according to weight and sex and allotted to eight pens of
six pigs each. Two pens of pigs were designated for each of the following
treatments:

1 Control (corn-soybean meal diet)
2 20% rice bran diet
3 25% rice bran diet
4 30% rice bran diet

When the average weight of the pigs ranged between 130 and 140 pounds the
grower diets were replaced by finishing diets. Rice bran levels remained the same.
Composition and chemical analyses of the diets are presented in Table 2. All pigs
were self fed in concrete-floored pens with water furnished by automatic watering
devices. At the termination of the experiment all pigs were slaughtered and the
gastro-intestinal tracts were examined to determine the presence of irritation of
the mucosa and the presence of ulcers.






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Table 2. Ingredient and Chemical
of Diets (Experiment 2)


Composition


Growing Finishing
Levels of rice bran () Levels of rice bran (
Ingredients 0 20 25 30 0 20 25 30

Yellow corn meal 78.17 59.73 55.10 50.45 83.90 65.50 60.87 56.20
Soybean meal (49%) 17.95 16.45 16.10 15.75 12.90 11.40 11.04 10.70
Rice bran 20.00 25.00 30.00 20.00 25.00 30.00
Bio-phos1 2.20 2.10 2.05 2.04 1.85 1.72 1.70 1.70
Ground limestone 0.68 0.72 0.75 0.76 0.60 0.63 0.64 0.65
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Tylan 10 + Sulfa4 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 -

Chemical Composition (%)
Dry matter 88.79 89.04 89.27 88.82 88.77 89.07 89.41 89.07
Crude fiber 2.06 3.80 4.22 4.68 2.04 3.74 4.21 4.66
Crude protein 16.06 16.08 16.08 16.10 14.07 14.03 14.18 14.05
Calcium 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.69 0.58 0.57 0.58 0.58
Phosphorus 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.58 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.50
1 Product of International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Skokie, Illinois.
2 Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy, Illinois. Contained 20% zinc,
10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.1% cobalt and 2%
calcium.
3 Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin, 20,000 mg niacin, 12,000 mg pantothenic acid,
80,000 mg choline chloride, 10,000 mcg Vitamin B12, 2,500,000 I.U. Vitamin A,
400,000 ICU Vitamin D3 and 10,000 IU Vitamin E per lb. of premix.
4 Supplied by Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, Indiana.


Results and Discussion


Performance data for Experiment 1 are presented in Table 3. Pigs fed the
control diet containing no rice bran ate more feed (P < .05) and gained faster
(P < .01) than any of the groups fed diets containing rice bran. Feed efficiency
was also best for the control diet and was significantly better (P < .05) than
for diets containing 40 and 45 percent rice bran. Pigs fed the diet containing
45% rice bran converted feed less efficiently (P < .05) than all other groups.

The feces of pigs fed the rice bran diets were watery, especially the group
fed the diet containing 45% rice bran. The condition gradually improved during
the course of the experiment but the feces of all pigs fed the rice bran diets
remained softer to the termination of the experiment.

A summary of the performance data for Experiment 2 is presented in Table 4.
There were no statistically significant differences in feed intake or rate of
gain between treatments for either the growing period or the finishing period.
Pigs adjusted well to levels of rice bran up to 30 percent and were able to
perform much like the control pigs.





- 4 -


Table 3. Daily Gain, Feed Intake and Feed Efficiency
of Finishing Pigs Fed High Levels of Rice
Bran (Experiment 1)
Level of Rice Bran (%)
0 35 40 45

Number of pigs 6 6 6 6
Days on test 49 49 49 49
Av. initial wt., lb. 146.9 147.0 147.2 147.2
Av. final wt., lb. 239.2 224.R 222.1 221.A
Daily gain, lb. 1.88c 1.58d 1.53d 1.51d
Daily feed intake, lb. 6.38c 5.49 5.46 5.49
Feed per lb. gain, lb. 3.39e 3.47 3.57 3.64
a,b Means in the same row bearing different superscript letters
differ significantly (P < .01).
c,d,e Means in the same row bearing different superscript letters
differ significantly (P < .05).

Table 4. Daily Gain, Feed Intake and Feed Efficiency
of Finishing Pigs Fed Various Levels of
Rice Bran (Experiment 2)

Growing Period Finishing Period
Level of Rice Bran 0 20 25 30 0 20 25 30

Number of pigs 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
Days on test 40 40 40 40 42 42 42 42
Av. initial wt., lb. 66.1 66.2 67.3 61.3 138.4 136.7 139.5 132.5
Av. final wt., lb. 138.4 136.7 139.5 132.5 212.8 215.2 216.9 203.2
Daily gain, lb. 1.81 1.76 1.80 1.78 1.79 1.82 1.82 1.72
Daily feed intake, lb. 5.27 5.05 5.14 5.02 5.80 5.92 5.88 5.77
Feed per lb. gain, lb. 2.91 2.87 2.85 2.82 3.24 3.25 3.23 3.35

The influence of rice bran on severity of gastro-intestinal tract irritation
and a comparison of barrow and gilt gains are presented in Table 5. The degree
of gastro-intestinal irritation was pronounced on all diets containing rice bran
and tended to increase linearly with an increase in level of rice bran. Irritation
was more pronounced in gilts than in barrows at all levels of rice bran supplemen-
tation. The implications of these observations are not clear. Although overall
performance did not show a significant performance depression due to rice bran,
a breakdown of individual pig performance in relation to degree of irritation
showed a definite pattern. Average gains for pigs whose gastro-intestinal tracts
were coded 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.86, 1.83, 1.70 and 1.55 pounds per day respectively.
Thus the greater the irritation the poorer was performance. This problem likely
becomes more severe at higher levels of rice bran and may explain much of the
performance depression reported by various researchers. Rice bran contains a
high level of silica, which may be the main causative agent for the irritation.
Also the fine particle size of rice bran could contribute in this regard.






-5-


Table 5. Influence of Rice Bran on
Severity of Gastro-Intes-
tinal Irritation


Level of Severity of Irritationr
Rice Bran (%) Barrows Gilts Mean

0 1.00 1.50 1.25
20 2.00 2.75 2.37
25 2.50 3.50 3.00
30 3.50 3.75 3.62
1 Code numbers used to reflect degree of
observed irritation:

1 = normal
2 = slightly irritated
3 = irritated
4 = severely irritated


Summary
Two feeding trials, involving a total of 72 growing-finishing pigs, have
been conducted to further define the value of rice bran as a feed ingredient.

In the first trial, using pigs with heavy initial weights (147 lb.), it was
observed that rice bran levels of 35, 40 and 45 percent fed in isonitrogenous
corn-soybean meal type diets caused a significant reduction in gains (P < .01)
and daily feed intake (P < .05). The most severe depression was observed at
45% rice bran.

In the second trial rice bran levels of 20, 25 and 30 percent were fed to
pigs during both the growing and finishing phases with no statistically signifi-
cant effects on performance. A check on irritation of the gastro-intestinal
tracts however indicated a clear inverse relationship between degree of irrita-
tion and rate of gain for individual pigs. There was a high degree of irritation
for pigs fed the rice bran diets and this increased as the rice bran level
increased.







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