SDepartment of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
1 Research Report AL-1975-5 Experiment Station
June, 1975 Gainesville, Florida
RESPONSE OF YOUNG PIGS TO DIFFERENT
LEVELS OF DIETARY RICE BRAN1
C. M. Campabadal, H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs2
The total by-products of rice milling are referred to as "irfce mil feed'
and contain about 61 percent hulls, 35 percent bran and 4% polish (1); Although
hulls are the most abundant of the by-products it has a very limited value as a
feed for pigs due to the very high fiber content. Rice bran is widely used as
a livestock feed in tropical regions where it is available in large quantities.
Its full feeding potential is often not realized due to contamination with hulls,
deterioration in storage rancidityy develops readily because of high lipid con-
tent) and incorrect diet formulation. Rice bran is considered primarily as a
source of energy but also contains meaningful amounts of protein (12-15%). The
fiber level (11-14%) is higher than for most grains.
The objectives of this experiment were to define the potential and limita-
tions for rice bran usage in pig starter diets.
The rice bran used was purchased on the open market. It was processed in
Louisiana and was labelled 12% minimum crude protein, 12% minimum fat and 12%
maximum crude fiber.
Forty-eight crossbred pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire X Hampshire) four to five weeks
of age weighing approximately 18 pounds were allotted to 8 pens of 6 pigs each
according to weight and sex. Two pens were assigned to each of the following
1 Control (Fortified corn-soybean meal)
2 5 percent rice bran
3 10 percent rice bran
4 15 percent rice bran
1 Data summarized in this report were taken from Swine Unit Experiment No. 235.
2 Campabadal, graduate assistant, and Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists,
Animal Science Department, University of Florida.
This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$80.00 or .04 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.
Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous but not isocaloric. Composi-
tion and chemical analyses are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Composition and Chemical Analyses of Diets
Ingredients Levels of Rice Bran (%)
0 5 10 15
Ground yellow corn 73.05 68.40 63.75 59.10
Soybean oilmeal (49%) 22.85 22.50 22.15 21.80
Rice bran 5.00 10.00 15.00
Bio-phos' 2.60 2.60 2.60 2.60
Ground limestone 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals (CCC)2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Vitamin premix (UF)3 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Antibiotic4 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Chemical Composition (%)
Dry matter 89.20 89.04 88.99 89.02
Crude protein 17.94 18.01 17.96 17.98
Crude fiber 1.98 2.26 2.53 2.95
Ether extract 3.11 3.60 3.91 4.38
Calciums 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.71
Phosphorus5 0.67 0.67 0.68 0.68
1 Product of International Minerals and Chemical Corpora-
tion Skokie, Illinois.
2 Supplied by Calcium Carbonate Company, Quincy,
Illinois. Contained 20% zinc, 5.5% manganese, 1.1%
copper, 10% iron, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2%
3 Contained 6,000 mg. riboflavin, 20,000 mg. niacin,
12,000 mg. pantothenic acid, 80,000 mg. choline
chloride, 10,000 mcg. Vitamin B12, 2,500,000 I.U.
Vitamin A, 400,000 ICU Vitamin D3 and 10,000 I.U.
Vitamin E per lb. of premix.
4 Aureo SP-250 (Supplied by American Cyanamid Co.,
Princeton, New Jersey).
Pigs were penned, in chain wire cages equipped with expanded metal floors,
in an exhaust fan-equipped nursery building. Feed and water were available ad
libitum. Weight gains and feed consumption were recorded at two week intervaTs
and the experiment lasted for 43 days. Performance data were statistically
analyzed using the analysis of variance.
Results and Discussion
Performance data for the combined replicates are shown in Table 2. There
were no statistically significant differences for daily gain or feed intake
between any of the groups involved in the experiment. There was an indication
however that 10% rice bran was about the upper limit of usage without causing
some depression in performance. The overall gains of control pigs and pigs fed
5 or 10% rice bran diets were very similar. Pigs fed a 15% rice bran diet gained
fairly well but somewhat slower than the other groups.
The diets containing rice bran caused pigs to void watery feces early in the
experiment. This was most noticeable in the groups fed the 15% rice bran diet.
The condition had subsided largely by the time the experiment was terminated.
Table 2. Performance of Young Pigs Fed Diets Containing
Various Levels of Rice Bran
Percent rice bran 0 5 10 15
Number of pigs 12 12 12 12
Av. initial wt., lb. 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8
Av. final wt., lb. 66.1 66.2 67.3 62.0
Av. daily gain, lb.:
First two weeks 0.93 0.88 0.89 0.79
First four weeks 1.03 1.01 1.00 0.90
Entire experiment 1.12 1.13 1.15 1.03
Av. daily feed intake, lb.:
First two weeks 1.52 1.46 1.53 1.51
First four weeks 1.87 1.80 1.88 1.83
Entire experiment 2.30 2.21 2.32 2.17
Av. feed required per lb.,
First two weeks 1.63 1.66 1.72 1.91
First four weeks 1.81 1.78 1.88 2.03
Entire experiment 2.05 1.96 2.02 2.11
A feeding experiment, involving 48 pigs, was conducted to evaluate the effect
of substituting three levels (5, 10 and 15%) of rice bran in isonitrogenous corn-
soybean meal type diets on the performance of young pigs.
Performance data suggested that 5 or 10% rice bran can be included in starter
diets with essentially no adverse or beneficial effect on pig response. When
the level was increased to 15% there was a slight slowing of gain and a slight
reduction in feed conversion efficiency. These latter observations coupled
with a strong tendency of pigs on this higher level to void watery feces,
especially early in the experiment, indicate that 10% rice bran might be considered
a maximum suitable level for use in starter diets.
1. Houston, D. F. 1972. Rice Chemistry and Technology. American Association
of Cereal Chemistry, Inc. St. Paul, Minnesota.