• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Introduction
 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 List of Tables
 Literature cited














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Dept. of Animal Science ; AL-1974-16
Title: Effects of supplemental methionine and iodine in cassava diets for growing pigs
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073067/00001
 Material Information
Title: Effects of supplemental methionine and iodine in cassava diets for growing pigs
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 7 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Calderon, F. L
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Piglets -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cassava as feed   ( lcsh )
Methionine   ( lcsh )
Iodine   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 7).
Statement of Responsibility: F.L. Calderon ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December, 1974."
General Note: Typescript.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073067
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50674398

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Experimental
        Page 2
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Summary
        Page 3
    List of Tables
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Literature cited
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text
\60

c'74 -)6
Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report AL-1974-16 Experiment Station
December, 1974 Gainesville, Florida


EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL METHIONINE AND IODINE IN
CASSAVA DIETS FOR GROWING PIGSI/

F. L. Calderon, D. C. Creswell, J. H. Maner,
G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace.2/


Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is grown widely in tropical regions
where its tuberous roots provide a valuable source of carbohydrates in human and
livestock diets. The high yields and high energy value of cassava suggest great
potential of this crop for livestock feeding. Yields are commonly 1.3-8.9 tons
per acre (fresh weight of tubers) but with improved varieties, reasonable soil
fertility and good management, yields of 20 tons are not uncommon and varieties
have been identified which produce 33-36 tons per acre per year (1). The whole
root has a digestible energy value for swine of approximately 1705 kcal per pound
of dry matter (2). These figures indicate that cassava ranks first above all
other crops in calories produced per acre.

Recent work by Maner and Colombian coworkers (3) has begun to demonstrate
clearly the potential of the cassava root as an energy source for swine. Feeding
fresh cassava roots together with a protein supplement resulted in excellent per-
formance of growing-finishing swine. When the cassava was dried and fed in a
balanced diet, performance was again good but gains were depressed with each
increase in the level of cassava meal. Where cassava meal was the sole energy
source, gains were reduced 11 percent compared to the control diet. Feed effi-
ciency did not appear to be affected by level of cassava meal. This poorer
performance of pigs fed high levels of cassava has been reported by other workers
(4,5,6).

Cassava roots contain variable quantitiesoftwo ya ic~glucosides,
linamarin and lotaustralin. The contentof t g' es varies widely between
varieties and is the basis for classificatioAinto "sweet" and betterr" types.
On hydrolysis with the enzyme linamarinase or with organic -acids, the glucosides
yield hydrocyanic acid (HCN). HCN is a powerful respiratory poison, being fatal

1/ The data reported here were obtained in an experiment conducted at Centro
International de Agricultura Tropical, Call, Colombia, South America.
2/ Calderon and Creswell, graduate assistants in Animal Science, University of
Florida; Maner, Director of Swine Production, Centro Internacional de Agri-
cultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia and Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists,
Animal Science, University of Florida.


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$126.11, or 12.6 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.


Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences







-2-


in high doses (7) and depressing performance following continuous ingestion of
lower doses (8).

The animal body detoxifies cyanide (HCN) via several pathways but principally
by reaction with thiosulfate to form thiocyanate and sulfite (9). Cystine and
methionine act as sulfur donors in these reactions. It is apparent therefore,
that higher than normal levels of the sulfur containing amino acids may be
necessary when feeding cassava diets.

Cassava has been reported as having antithyroid activity (10). Uptake
of iodine by the thyroid is inhibited by high levels of plasma thiocyanate,
a condition present during detoxification.

This trial was designed to determine the value of methionine and iodine
in the detoxification of cyanide in cassava based diets fed to growing pigs.
Additions of DL-methionine (0 and 0.2 percent) and iodine iodizedd salt or
sodium chloride in the mineral mixture) were made to a bitter cassava-soybean
meal basal diet. Feed consumption, weight gain, urinary thiocyanate excretion,
plasma thiocyanate concentration, hemoglobin and serum protein bound iodine
were measured.

Experimental

Twelve pigs weighing from 25.3 to 46.0 pounds were randomly allotted to
four experimental groups. The pigs were individually housed in metabolism
cages designed for separate collection of urine and feces and were offered
amounts of feed based on bodyweight (3.5 percent of bodyweight). Demineralized
water was given.

The trial consisted of an eight day pre-experimental period during which
an 18 percent protein corn-soybean meal diet was fed, and a 34 day experimental
period during which the following diets were fed:

1. Basal cassava diet.
2. Basal cassava diet plus iodine.
3. Basal cassava diet plus 0.2% DL-methionine.
4. Basal cassava diet plus 0.2% DL-methionine plus iodine.

Composition of diets is shown in Table 1. Cassava meal was prepared from
a bitter variety by washing the whole roots, chopping into small pieces and
drying in a forced air oven at 600 C. for 24 hours. During the last 28 days of
the experimental period, 20 percent sucrose and 20 percent water were added to
the diets to improve consumption.

Feed consumption, weight gains and daily urinary excretion were measured
throughout the trial and urine samples were analyzed for thiocyanate (11). At
the end of the pre-experimental and experimental periods, orbital blood samples
were taken and analyzed for hemoglobin and thiocyanate. Serum protein bound
iodine was determined (12) at the end of the trial.

Results and Discussion

Effects of supplemental methionine and iodine in cassava diets on perfor-
mance, urine and blood parameters measured in growing pigs are shown in Table 2.







-2-


in high doses (7) and depressing performance following continuous ingestion of
lower doses (8).

The animal body detoxifies cyanide (HCN) via several pathways but principally
by reaction with thiosulfate to form thiocyanate and sulfite (9). Cystine and
methionine act as sulfur donors in these reactions. It is apparent therefore,
that higher than normal levels of the sulfur containing amino acids may be
necessary when feeding cassava diets.

Cassava has been reported as having antithyroid activity (10). Uptake
of iodine by the thyroid is inhibited by high levels of plasma thiocyanate,
a condition present during detoxification.

This trial was designed to determine the value of methionine and iodine
in the detoxification of cyanide in cassava based diets fed to growing pigs.
Additions of DL-methionine (0 and 0.2 percent) and iodine iodizedd salt or
sodium chloride in the mineral mixture) were made to a bitter cassava-soybean
meal basal diet. Feed consumption, weight gain, urinary thiocyanate excretion,
plasma thiocyanate concentration, hemoglobin and serum protein bound iodine
were measured.

Experimental

Twelve pigs weighing from 25.3 to 46.0 pounds were randomly allotted to
four experimental groups. The pigs were individually housed in metabolism
cages designed for separate collection of urine and feces and were offered
amounts of feed based on bodyweight (3.5 percent of bodyweight). Demineralized
water was given.

The trial consisted of an eight day pre-experimental period during which
an 18 percent protein corn-soybean meal diet was fed, and a 34 day experimental
period during which the following diets were fed:

1. Basal cassava diet.
2. Basal cassava diet plus iodine.
3. Basal cassava diet plus 0.2% DL-methionine.
4. Basal cassava diet plus 0.2% DL-methionine plus iodine.

Composition of diets is shown in Table 1. Cassava meal was prepared from
a bitter variety by washing the whole roots, chopping into small pieces and
drying in a forced air oven at 600 C. for 24 hours. During the last 28 days of
the experimental period, 20 percent sucrose and 20 percent water were added to
the diets to improve consumption.

Feed consumption, weight gains and daily urinary excretion were measured
throughout the trial and urine samples were analyzed for thiocyanate (11). At
the end of the pre-experimental and experimental periods, orbital blood samples
were taken and analyzed for hemoglobin and thiocyanate. Serum protein bound
iodine was determined (12) at the end of the trial.

Results and Discussion

Effects of supplemental methionine and iodine in cassava diets on perfor-
mance, urine and blood parameters measured in growing pigs are shown in Table 2.






-3-


Weight gain data are also presented graphically in Figure 1.

Supplemental methionine significantly (P < 0.01) improved both feed consump-
tion and bodyweight gains in the presence or absence of iodine. This beneficial
effect of supplemental methionine in improving performance of animals fed cassava
diets has been reported previously for chickens (13), rats (8) and pigs (14).

The presence of high levels of residual cyanogenic glucoside in cassava meal
was suggested by low consumption and weight loss during the first six days of the
experimental period and was confirmed by the increase in plasma thiocyanate con-
centration and urinary thiocyanate excretion in pigs fed the cassava based diets.

Urinary thiocyanate excretion was consistently low (1.6 + 0.1 mg/lb feed
consumed) during the pre-experimental period but increased rapidly on ingestion
of the cassava based diets. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) values were observed
in pigs fed methionine supplemented diets than in those not supplemented with
methionine. Plasma thiocyanate values obtained during the pre-experimental
period were also increased when the pigs were fed the experimental diets. At
the end of the experimental period, plasma thiocyanate concentration was signifi-
cantly lower (P < 0.01) for pigs fed diets supplemented with methionine.

Supplemental methionine in the presence of dietary cyanide appears to
have enhanced the production of thiocyanate. It is possible that methionine
increased the rate of plasma thiocyanate formation leading to increased disposal
rate of plasma thiocyanate and as a consequence an increase in urinary thio-
cyanate excretion. The beneficial effects of methionine on feed consumption
and weight gains would then result from improvement in the pig's mechanism for
detoxifying dietary cyanide.

No significant differences (P > 0.05) were obtained in hemoglobin and pro-
tein bound iodine levels between the four groups.

While there was no measurable effect of dietary iodine per se on the parame-
ters studied, there was a significant (P < 0.05) methionine-iodine interaction
for plasma thiocyanate. The highest concentration of plasma thiocyanate was
present in pigs fed the diet supplemented with iodine but containing no added
methionine. This high level may have been caused by a slower rate of thiocyanate
formation and as a consequence, a slower disposal rate of thiocyanate from
plasma. In the absence of dietary iodine, some of the thiocyanate formed may
have been held by the thyroid iodine "trap" where competition between iodine
and thiocyanate occurs. This would then reduce the concentration of thiocyanate
in the plasma.

Summary

Effects of supplemental methionine (0.2%) and iodine in cassava based diets
on feed consumption, weight gain, plasma and urine thiocyanate, hemoglobin and
serum protein bound iodine were measured in growing pigs. High levels of cyanide
in the cassava meal resulted in elevated plasma and urinary thiocyanate levels.

Supplemental methionine improved feed consumption and weight gains and was
accompanied by low plasma thiocyanate and high urinary thiocyanate values, thus
indicating increased detoxification of the ingested cyanide.






-3-


Weight gain data are also presented graphically in Figure 1.

Supplemental methionine significantly (P < 0.01) improved both feed consump-
tion and bodyweight gains in the presence or absence of iodine. This beneficial
effect of supplemental methionine in improving performance of animals fed cassava
diets has been reported previously for chickens (13), rats (8) and pigs (14).

The presence of high levels of residual cyanogenic glucoside in cassava meal
was suggested by low consumption and weight loss during the first six days of the
experimental period and was confirmed by the increase in plasma thiocyanate con-
centration and urinary thiocyanate excretion in pigs fed the cassava based diets.

Urinary thiocyanate excretion was consistently low (1.6 + 0.1 mg/lb feed
consumed) during the pre-experimental period but increased rapidly on ingestion
of the cassava based diets. Significantly higher (P < 0.05) values were observed
in pigs fed methionine supplemented diets than in those not supplemented with
methionine. Plasma thiocyanate values obtained during the pre-experimental
period were also increased when the pigs were fed the experimental diets. At
the end of the experimental period, plasma thiocyanate concentration was signifi-
cantly lower (P < 0.01) for pigs fed diets supplemented with methionine.

Supplemental methionine in the presence of dietary cyanide appears to
have enhanced the production of thiocyanate. It is possible that methionine
increased the rate of plasma thiocyanate formation leading to increased disposal
rate of plasma thiocyanate and as a consequence an increase in urinary thio-
cyanate excretion. The beneficial effects of methionine on feed consumption
and weight gains would then result from improvement in the pig's mechanism for
detoxifying dietary cyanide.

No significant differences (P > 0.05) were obtained in hemoglobin and pro-
tein bound iodine levels between the four groups.

While there was no measurable effect of dietary iodine per se on the parame-
ters studied, there was a significant (P < 0.05) methionine-iodine interaction
for plasma thiocyanate. The highest concentration of plasma thiocyanate was
present in pigs fed the diet supplemented with iodine but containing no added
methionine. This high level may have been caused by a slower rate of thiocyanate
formation and as a consequence, a slower disposal rate of thiocyanate from
plasma. In the absence of dietary iodine, some of the thiocyanate formed may
have been held by the thyroid iodine "trap" where competition between iodine
and thiocyanate occurs. This would then reduce the concentration of thiocyanate
in the plasma.

Summary

Effects of supplemental methionine (0.2%) and iodine in cassava based diets
on feed consumption, weight gain, plasma and urine thiocyanate, hemoglobin and
serum protein bound iodine were measured in growing pigs. High levels of cyanide
in the cassava meal resulted in elevated plasma and urinary thiocyanate levels.

Supplemental methionine improved feed consumption and weight gains and was
accompanied by low plasma thiocyanate and high urinary thiocyanate values, thus
indicating increased detoxification of the ingested cyanide.






-4-


Addition of iodine had no effect per se on the parameters studied, but a
significant (P < 0.05) methionine-iodine interaction for plasma thiocyanate was
present. The highest value for plasma thiocyanate was measured in pigs fed
the cassava diet supplemented with iodine but without supplemental methionine.






Table 1. Percentage Composition of Dietsl/


Basal Basal Basal Basal +
+ + methionine +
iodine2/ methionine iodine2/
Ingredient 1. 2. 3. 4.


Cassava meal, CMC-84 75.3 75.3 75.3 75.3
Soybean meal 20.4 20.4 20.4 20.4
Bone meal 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
Calcium carbonate 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Vitamin antibiotic premix3/ 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Mineral premix4/ 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
DL-methionine 0.2 0.2

1/ Diets were calculated to contain 13% crude protein.
2/ Addition of iodized (0.005% 12) salt or sodium chloride to the mineral
premix.
3/ The vitamin-antibiotic premix contained (g/300g): Vitamin A and D3 (A =
750,000 IU/g; D3 = 150,000 IU/g), 0.2; vitamin A (750,000 IU/g), 0.2;
vitamin E (500 IU/g), 2.0; riboflavin, 0.4; niacin, 3.0; calcium pantothenate,
1.2; choline chloride (50%), 200.0; vitamin B12, 0.002; Aurofac-40 (88g per
kg), 500; cassava starch, 43.0.
4/ The mineral premix contained (g/500g): Manganese sulfate, 12.0; copper
sulfate, 4.0; zinc oxide, 8.0; ferrous sulfate, 25.0 and salt iodizedd
salt or sodium chloride), 451.0.












Table 2. Effects of Methionine and Iodine in Cassava Based Diets on Parameters Studied in Growing PigsI/



Dietary variables

DL-methionine, % 0 0.2

Iodine-/ + +

Total weight gain, lb. 12.9 + 0.5 13.8 + 2.2 24.6 + 1.5 19.6 + 2.4

Total feed consumed, lb. 27.3 + 2.7 26.2 + 3.4 42.9 + 0.6 35.6 + 4.1

Urinary thiocyanate excretion 23.4 + 1.9(1.8)3/ 16.8 + 2.8(1.5) 32.1 + 6.6(1.6) 30.3 + 0.1(1.5)
(mg/lb feed consumed)

Plasma thiocyanate cone. 4.9 + 0.7(0.4) 7.4 + 0.6(0.4) 4.5 + 0.4(0.3) 3.4 + 0.1(0.4)
(mg/100cc plasma)

Hemoglobin (g/100cc blood) 8.9 + 0.7(9.9) 8.7 + 0.5(11.0) 10.1 + 0.4(10.2) 9.1 + 0.4(10.9)

Protein bound iodine 3.2 + 0.1 2.4 + 0.7 2.6 + 0.3 2.6 + 0.3
(Gg/100cc serum)


1/ Each value represents the mean of 3 pigs per treatment + S.E.M.
2/ Addition of iodized salt (+) or sodium chloride (-) to the mineral pr
3/ Numbers in brackets represent values for the pre-experimental period.


emix.





-6-


Bodyweight,lb.
Methionine Iodine
61
So + +

A + -
56
---- +


51



46 -




41



36



31

0

0 4 6 11 31 34
Days on experiment



experimental Experimental diets + 20% sucrose and 20% water
diets


Figure 1.


Effect of supplemental methionine and iodine to bitter
cassava meal-soybean meal based diets on body growth
in growing pigs.






-7-


Literature Cited

1. Varon, L. A. 1968. Annual Report Potato and Yuca programs. Institute
Colombiano Agropecuario.

2. Mesa, J. and J. H. Maner. Unpublished data. Centro Internacional de Agricultura
Tropical, Call, Colombia.

3. Maner, J. H., J. Buitrago and I. Jiminez. 1967. Utilization of Yuca in Swine
Feeding. Proc. Int. Symp. on Trop. Root Crops. University West Indies,
St. Augustine, Trinidad, 2:62-71.

4. Oyenuga, V. A. and L. K. Opeke. 1957. The value of cassava rations for pork
and bacon production. West Afr. J. Biol. Chem. 1:3.

5. Shimada, A. S. 1970. IV Dia del Ganadero INIP. Veracruz, Mexico, Nov. 21-22,
1970.

6. Chou, K. C., K. C. Nah and Z. Muller. 1973. Replacement of maize by high
level of tapioca meal in rations for growing/finishing pigs. Kajian Vetinaire
5(1):3-10.

7. Salter, W. T. 1952. A textbook of pharmacology. W. B. Saunders Company.
Philadelphia and London.

8. Calderon, F. L. 1973. Evaluation of the nitrogen fraction of the cassava
roots and factors affecting its biological value. MSA thesis. Department
of Animal Science, University of Florida.

9. Montgomery, R. D. 1969. 'Cyanogens' in Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs.
Liener, I.E. (ed.), Academic Press, New York.

10. Thilly, C. H., F. Delange and A. M. Ermans. 1972. Further investigations of
iodine deficiency in the etiology of endemic goiter. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.,
25:30.

11. Bowler, R. G. 1944. The determination of thiocyanate in blood serum. Biochem.
J. 38:385.

12. Barker, S. B., M. J. Humphrey and M. H. Soley. 1951. The chemical determination
of protein-bound iodine. J. Clin. Invest. 30:55.

13. Olson, D. W., M. L. Sunde and H. R. Bird. 1969. Amino acid supplementation of
mandioca meal chick diets. Poultry Sci. 48:1950.

14. Zoby, J., L. Fernandes, J. Campos, V. Mayrose and P. Melgaco A. Costa. 1971.
Raspa de mandioca con suplementacao de gordura e metionina, na alimentacao
de suinos. Revista Ceres 18:195.







University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs