• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Introduction
 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary and literature cited
 List of Tables














Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Dept. of Animal Science ; AL-1974-14
Title: Influence of lysine on performance and carcass characteristics of boars and barrows
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073065/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of lysine on performance and carcass characteristics of boars and barrows
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 7 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Creswell, David Charles, 1943-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1974
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Lysine in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 4).
Statement of Responsibility: D.C. Creswell ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "December, 1974."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073065
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50674216

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Experimental
        Page 2
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Summary and literature cited
        Page 4
    List of Tables
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text
\co

1~4-)Lepartment of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report No. AL-1974-14 Experiment Station
December, 1974 Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE OF LYSINE ON PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS
CHARACTERISTICS OF BOARS AND BARROWS,1/

D. C. Creswell, H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs,
A. Z. Palmer and R. L. West/



Previous work at this station established consistent differences between
barrows and gilts. Barrows were reported to grow slightly faster than gilts
but were less efficient in conversion of feed (1). Gilts tended to have less
backfat and a greater amount of lean. Because of this, gilts had a slightly
higher requirement for dietary protein (2,3,4).

In a study reported las ty-b rS.. rmed significantly better due
to additions of lysine to a to '4 p b' Q h e gilts did not (5).
Carcass leanness was improved in both sexes b ysin additions.

In the present experiment, boars'!have beep included for comparative pur-
poses. Boars were reported to grow as fast or faster than barrows; they were
more efficient feed converters and had less backfat and more lean than either
gilts or barrows (6,7). When fed ad libitum, boars had a higher requirement
for protein than barrows (8).

The purpose of this experiment was to determine if differences existed
between boars and barrows in the response to varying levels of dietary lysine.
A low protein corn-soybean meal diet was used as the lysine deficient basal
diet to which additions of L-lysine monohydrochloride were made. A 17 percent
protein corn-soybean meal diet provided a positive control. Lysine was added
to this latter diet to give a treatment designed to determine whether boars would
respond to a higher level of lysine than that in the 17% protein diet. Since
the lower protein diets were calculated to be slightly deficient in tryptophan,
0.02% L-tryptophan was added to these diets. A final treatment had the trypto-
phan omitted.



1/ The data presented in this paper were from swine unit experiment No. 228A.
2/ Creswell, graduate assistant, Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists,
Palmer, Meat Scientist and West, Assistant Meat Scientist, Department of
Animal Science.



This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$125.11, or.13 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.


Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences






- 2 -


Experimental

Eighty-four pigs with an average initial weight of 55 pounds were divided
according to weight and sex into 12 treatment groups. Six groups were boars and
six were barrows. The pigs were placed in concrete floored pens equipped with
automatic waterers.

Each of six diets was fed to a group of boars and a group of barrows. Diets
were as follows:

Diet 1. Positive control protein sequence 17-15%.
Diet 2. Diet 1 plus 0.15% lysine monohydrochloride.
Diet 3. Negative control protein sequence 13-11% plus 0.02% tryptophan.
Diet 4. Diet 3 plus 0.15% lysine monohydrochloride.
Diet 5. Diet 3 plus 0.27% Ivsine monohydrochloride.
Diet 6. Diet 4 without addition of tryptophan.

Composition of the diets is shown in Table 1. Feeding was ad libitum. The
change to the lower protein finisher diets was made at 125 pound average pen
weight.

Weight gains and feed consumption were measured at two week intervals. Pigs
were removed for slaughter at a liveweight of 210 + 10 pounds and carcass data
were obtained. Carcass measurements and cut out methods have been described
previously (9).

Results and Discussion

The effects of lysine supplementation to corn-soybean meal diets on perfor-
mance and carcass composition of boars and barrows are shown in Tables 2 and 3.
Four boars out of each treatment group of 7 were castrated 2-3 weeks prior to
slaughter. For each parameter measured, a t-test was applied to determine
whether this late castration had any significant effect on the particular para-
meter. The only parameter which late castration affected was backfat thickness
and hence the backfat data in Table 2 does not include the late castrates. For
all other parameters, the data for boars is that of boars and late castrates
combined.

Feedlot performance
Addition of lysine to the normal protein diet (17-15%) did not influence
daily gains. Gains were reduced (P < 0.05) when the low protein diet (13-11%)
was fed and were restored to the level of the higher protein diet by additions
of 0.15 and 0.27 percent lysine. The higher level of addition gave no addi-
tional response over the lower level. Feed conversion followed a similar pattern
with the addition of lysine decreasing feed required per unit of gain. These
improvements did not however fully restore the feed efficiency of the high pro-
tein diets.

Addition of tryptophan to the low protein diets was without effect. Gains
and feed conversion for treatments 4 (+ tryptophan) and 6 (- tryptophan) were
similar.

There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in daily gain between
boars and barrows although boars were more efficient in feed conversion. Due
to the presence of a significant (P < 0.05) diets-sex interaction for daily gain,






- 2 -


Experimental

Eighty-four pigs with an average initial weight of 55 pounds were divided
according to weight and sex into 12 treatment groups. Six groups were boars and
six were barrows. The pigs were placed in concrete floored pens equipped with
automatic waterers.

Each of six diets was fed to a group of boars and a group of barrows. Diets
were as follows:

Diet 1. Positive control protein sequence 17-15%.
Diet 2. Diet 1 plus 0.15% lysine monohydrochloride.
Diet 3. Negative control protein sequence 13-11% plus 0.02% tryptophan.
Diet 4. Diet 3 plus 0.15% lysine monohydrochloride.
Diet 5. Diet 3 plus 0.27% Ivsine monohydrochloride.
Diet 6. Diet 4 without addition of tryptophan.

Composition of the diets is shown in Table 1. Feeding was ad libitum. The
change to the lower protein finisher diets was made at 125 pound average pen
weight.

Weight gains and feed consumption were measured at two week intervals. Pigs
were removed for slaughter at a liveweight of 210 + 10 pounds and carcass data
were obtained. Carcass measurements and cut out methods have been described
previously (9).

Results and Discussion

The effects of lysine supplementation to corn-soybean meal diets on perfor-
mance and carcass composition of boars and barrows are shown in Tables 2 and 3.
Four boars out of each treatment group of 7 were castrated 2-3 weeks prior to
slaughter. For each parameter measured, a t-test was applied to determine
whether this late castration had any significant effect on the particular para-
meter. The only parameter which late castration affected was backfat thickness
and hence the backfat data in Table 2 does not include the late castrates. For
all other parameters, the data for boars is that of boars and late castrates
combined.

Feedlot performance
Addition of lysine to the normal protein diet (17-15%) did not influence
daily gains. Gains were reduced (P < 0.05) when the low protein diet (13-11%)
was fed and were restored to the level of the higher protein diet by additions
of 0.15 and 0.27 percent lysine. The higher level of addition gave no addi-
tional response over the lower level. Feed conversion followed a similar pattern
with the addition of lysine decreasing feed required per unit of gain. These
improvements did not however fully restore the feed efficiency of the high pro-
tein diets.

Addition of tryptophan to the low protein diets was without effect. Gains
and feed conversion for treatments 4 (+ tryptophan) and 6 (- tryptophan) were
similar.

There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in daily gain between
boars and barrows although boars were more efficient in feed conversion. Due
to the presence of a significant (P < 0.05) diets-sex interaction for daily gain,






-3-


Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (10) was applied to the 12 diet-sex means in
Table 3. Feeding the low protein diet without additional lysine resulted in a
significantly greater (P < 0.05) depression in daily gain for boars than for
barrows. The improvements in gain due to lysine were significant (P < 0.05)
in the case of boars only.

The superior efficiency of the boar was most noticeable when the high pro-
tein diets were fed. For these diets, boars required 12.2 percent less feed
per unit of gain than barrows.

Carcass data
There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between diets in dressing
percentage. However a sex difference was present, with boars being significantly
lower (P < 0.05) than barrows. Boars were significantly longer (P < 0.05) than
barrows but the differences in carcass length due to diets were not significant
(P > 0.05).

Lysine additions affected percent 4 lean cuts and loin eye area in a similar
manner. Supplementing the high protein diet with lysine had no effect on these
parameters which were depressed however, in pigs fed the low protein diet without
additional lysine. Lysine additions to the low protein diet resulted in signifi-
cant improvements (P < 0.05). Boars had a slightly higher value for percent lean
cuts than barrows while no sex difference was present for loin eye area.

Statistical analysis of backfat data revealed no significant differences
(P > 0.05) due to diets. Boars had less backfat than barrows. Pigs fed the
low protein diet without supplemental lysine exhibited a greater degree of
marbling than all other groups.

Tryptophan supplementation of the low protein diets did not influence any
of the carcass characteristics measured.

The lack of any diet-sex interactions for any of the carcass measurements
indicated that both boars and barrows were affected by the diets in a similar
manner. Statistical analysis was therefore not applied to the diet-sex means
in Table 3.

The results of this experiment have illustrated many of the differences
between boars and barrows reported by other workers. These include a more
efficient feed conversion, similar growth rate, lower daily feed intake,
greater length, lower dressing percentage and a leaner carcass for boars.

Lysine was confirmed as the first limiting amino acid in the low protein
diet. Tryptophan was apparently not second limiting. Carcass results indicated
that pigs fattened faster when their lysine requirements were not met.

The greater depression in performance of boars fed the low protein diet
without additional lysine suggested a greater sensitivity in their require-
ments for protein when compared with barrows. Presumably this sensitivity is
related to the better efficiency and leaner carcass of the boar. For the carcass
characteristics measured, both boars and barrows responded to the diets in a
generally similar manner.







-4-


It was anticipated that boars may have a higher requirement for lysine than
barrows. While this was not shown in the present study, it should be noted that
boars fed the high protein diet with additional lysine had slightly higher, though
statistically nonsignificant values for rate of gain, percent 4 lean cuts and loin
eye area when compared with boars fed the high protein unsupplemented diet. For
barrows fed these diets there was no such trend.

Summary

Eighty-four pigs averaging 55 pounds initially were used to evaluate the
effects of lysine supplementation to corn-soybean meal diets on performance and
carcass measurements of boars and barrows. Dietary treatments were: 1) 17-15%
ptn; 2) 17-15% ptn + 0.15% lysine; 3) 13-11% ptn + 0.02% tryptophan; 4) 13-11%
ptn + 0.02% tryptophan + 0.15% lysine; 5) 13-11% ptn + 0.02% tryptophan + 0.27%
lysine; 6) 13-11% ptn + 0.15% lysine. Within each treatment, change to the lower
protein level was made at 125 pound average pen weight.

Lysine added to the high protein diet sequence did not improve gains, feed
conversion or carcass measurements. Performance was depressed due to feeding
the low protein sequence without additional lysine and was improved by added
lysine. Gain, but not feed conversion was restored to the level of the high pro-
tein sequence. A significant (P < 0.05) diet-sex interaction for gain was
present. Gain of boars was depressed more than barrows by the low protein diet
without additional lysine.

Several indices of carcass leanness were depressed by the low protein diet
without added lysine and these were improved when lysine was added. Carcass
measurements of boars and barrows responded to the dietary treatments in a
similar manner.

No effect of added tryptophan was seen on performance or carcass measure-
ments, thus indicating it was not a second limiting amino acid in the low protein
diet.

Literature Cited

1. Lucas, E. W., H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1968. The influence of sex, protein level, and hormone supplementation
during the finishing period on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics
and pork acceptability. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo Series AN69-5.
2. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1971. The
influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine. Fla.
Animal Sci. Mimeo Series No. AN71-7.
3. Wallace, H. D., E. M. Hervas, A. Z. Palmer and G. E. Combs. 1972. Influence
of protein level, slaughter weight and sex on feedlot performance and carcass
measurements of swine. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo Report No. AL-1972-3.
4. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1972. Influ-
ence of sex, pen space and feeder holes per pig on protein consumption, feedlot
performance and carcasses of pigs fed shelled corn and supplement free-choice.
Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo Report No. AL-1972-4.
5. Creswell, D. C., H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs and R. L. West. 1973. Influence
of sex and lysine on performance and carcass characteristics of growing-
finishing swine. Fla. Animal Sci. Research Report AL-1973-9.






- 5-


6. Walstra, P. and D. Kroeske. 1968. The effect of castration on meat produ
tion in male pigs. World Rev. Anim. Prod. 4:59.
7. Wismer-Pedersen, J. 1968. Boars as meat producers. World Rev. Anim. Pro
4:100.
8. Newell, J. A. and J. P. Bowland. 1972. Performance, carcass composition,
and fat composition of boars, gilts and barrows fed two levels of protein.
Can. J. Anim. Sci. 52:543.
9. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1966. Fee
restriction of swine during the finishing period. Fla. Bul. 706.
10. Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11:


c-

d.


d

1.


Table 1. Percentage Composition of Diets!/

Diets./
Ingredient 1 2 3 4 5 6

Ground yellow corn 75.39 75.24 85.38 85.23 85.11 85.25
Soybean meal (50%) 20.76 20.76 10.75 10.75 10.75 10.75
Biofos3/ 2.60 2.60 2.60 2.60 2.60 2.60
Limestone 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace mineral 4emix4/ 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Vitamin premix31 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0,10 0.10
L-lysine monohydrochloride6/ 0.15 0.15 0.27 0.15
Tryptophan/ 0.02 0.02 0.02 -

Calculated lysine content, % .76 .91 .49 .64 .76 .64

1/ At a liveweight of 125 pounds, the protein level of all diets was
lowered 2 percentage units by adjusting the amounts of corn and
soybean meal.
2/ Diet 1 17% protein.
Diet 2 diet 1 plus 0.15% lysine monohydrochloride.
Diet 3 13% protein plus 0.02% tryptophan.
Diet 4 diet 3 plus 0.15% lysine monohydrochloride.
Diet 5 diet 3 plus 0.27% lysine monohydrochloride.
Diet 6 diet 4 without tryptophan addition.
3/ 21% phosphorus, 18% calcium.
4/ Premix contained 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper,
0.15% iodine, 0.1% cobalt and 2% calcium.
5/ Premix contained 6000 mg riboflavin; 20,000 mg niacin; 12,000 mg
pantothenic acid; 80,000 mg choline chloride; 10,000 mcg vitamin
B12; 2,500,000 IU vitamin A; 400,000 ICU vitamin D3 and 10,000 IU
vitamin E per pound of premix.
6/ L-lysine monohydrochloride. Courtesy of Merck Chemical Division,
Rahway, New Jersey.
7/ L-tryptophan.












Table 2. Effects of Lysine Supplementation on Performance and Carcass
Characteristics of Boars and Barrowsl/


Sex
Dietary treatments2/
No. pigs
Initial wt., lb.
Final wt., lb.
Daily gain, Ib.3/
Daily feed, lb.
Feed/gain, lb.
Dressing %
4 lean cuts, %
Carcass length, in.
Backfat, in.
Loin eye area, sq. i
Marbling score L
Color scored.
Firmness score-6


1/ Diet means for boars
2/ Dietary treatments:


1
14
55
216
1.76ab
5.23
2.98
71.5
55.4a
31.1
1.16
4.56a
8a
3.1
3.9a


2
14
55
215
1.80a
5.59
3.12
71.8
54.5a
31.2
1.22
4.52ab
8a
3
3.4ab


and barrows combined.
1. 17-15% protein.
2. 17-15% protein plus
3. 13-11% protein plus
4. 13-11% protein plus
5. 13-11% protein plus
6. 13-11% protein plus


Boars and Barrows


3
14
55
201
1.39c
4.93
3.60
71.5
52.9b
31.1
1.27
3.88c
18b
3
2.5c


0.15%
0.02%
0.02%
0.02%


4
14
55
217
1.65b
5.36
3.28
71.9
54.0ab
31.3
1.29
4.24abc
10a
3.1
3.0bc


5
14
55
216
1.68ab
5.29
3.17
72.2
54.8a
31.4
1.24
4.44ab
10a
3.1
3.labc


6
14
55
215
1.63b
5.24
3.25
71.4
54.2ab
31.3
1.23
4.15bc
10a
3.2
3. labc


I or ~ arw


42
54
214
1.64a
5.05
3.14
72.9a
54.9a
31.6a
1. 11a
4.27
11
3.1
3.3


42
56
212
1.67a
5.49
3.32
70.5b
53.6b
30.8b
1.29b
4.35
11
3.0
3.0


L-lysine monohydrochloride.
L-tryptophan.
L-tryptophan plus 0.15% L-lysine monohydrochloride
L-tryptophan plus 0.27% L-lysine monohydrochloride.


0.15% L-lysine monohydrochloride.


3/ abc Values in the same line with a common or no superscript letter are not significantly different -
P > 0.05 (Duncan, 1955).
4/ Scores were coded from 0 to 33; small = 10-12, modest = 13-15, moderate = 16-18, etc.
5/ Very dark color designated by 1; slightly dark, 2; greyish-pink, ideal, 3; slightly light, 4;
very light, 5.
6/ Very firm designated by 1; firm, 2; slightly soft, 3; very soft, 4.


Boars and Barrows


,


Boars Barrows











Table 3. Effects of Lysine Supplementation on Performance and Carcass
Characteristics of Boars and Barrows/'


Sex
Dietary treatment2/ 1
No. pigs 7
Initial wt., lb. 54
Final wt., lb. 216
Daily gain, Ib./ 1.76ab
Daily feed, lb. 4.88
Feed/gain, lb. 2.79
Dressing % 70.1
4 lean cuts, % 55.8
Carcass length, in. 31.3
Backfat, in. 0.96
Loin eye area, sq. in. 4.65
Marbling score4/ 9
Color score./ 3.1
Firmness score6l/ 4.1
1/ Diet means for boars and b;
2/ Dietary treatments: 1. 17-


3/ abc Values in the


Boars
4
7


Barrows


54 54 54 53 55
221 193 222 217 219
1.85a 1.24d 1.68abc 1.66abc 1.63bc
5.37 4.41 5.39 5.15 5.09
2.91 3.61 3.24 3.13 3.15
70.4 70.3 70.7 71.2 70.2
56.3 53.2 53.6 55.2 55.1
31.8 31.5 31.6 31.8 31.7
1.01 1.09 1.20 1.20 1.18
4.78 3.70 4.11 4.29 4.08
7 16 11 11 10
3 3 3.1 3.1 3.3
4.1 2.6 2.9 2.7 3.5
arrows shown separately.


15% protein.


2. 17-15%
3. 13-11%
4. 13-11%
5. 13-11%
6. 13-11%
same line


57
216
1.76ab
5.57
3.17
72.8
54.5
30.8
1.25
4.47
8
3
3.6


56
209
1.75ab
5.80
3.32
73.2
52.7
30.6
1.30
4.38
9
3
2.7


55
209
1.54c
5.45
3.58
72.6
52.6
30.7
1.35
4.00
19
3
2.4


56
211
1.61bc
5.32
3.32
73.1
54.3
31.0
1.30
4.36
9
3
3


57
214
1.71abc
5.43
3.20
73.1
54.4
30.9
1.27
4.67
8
3
3.4


56
211
1.63bc
5.39
3.35
72.5
53.3
30.9
1.27
4.21
10
3
2.7


protein plus 0.15% L-lysine monohydrochloride.
protein plus 0.02% L-tryptophan.
protein plus 0.02% L-tryptophan plus 0.15% L-lysine monohydrochloride.
protein plus 0.02% L-tryptophan plus 0.27% L-lysine monohydrochloride.
protein plus 0.15% L-lysine monohydrochloride.
with a common or no superscript letter are not significantly different -


P > 0.05 (Duncan, 1955).
4/ Scores were coded from 0 to 33; small = 10-12, modest = 13-15, moderate = 16-18, etc.
/ Very dark color designated by 1; slightly dark, 2; greyish-pink, ideal, 3; slightly light, 4;
very light, 5.
6/ Very firm designated by 1; firm, 2; slightly soft, 3; very soft, 4.


a


-- --
I I -----~ --------` --~--` ~-~~~ -~`-I----~--


--


a







University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs