SDepartment of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
''Kesearch Report No. AL-1974-11 Experiment Station
September, 1974 Gainesville, Florida
FLORIDA GROWN BIRD RESISTANT GRAIN SORGHUM AND NON BIRD
RESISTANT GRAIN SORGHUM FOR GROWING-FINISHING SWINE 1/
H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs and R. H. Houser /
In 1972 Houser and Lundy (1) summarized a swine feeding trial in which a
bird resistant (BR) sorghum variety (Funk 79) was compared to a non bird
resistant (NBR) variety (McNair 652). Pigs fed the BR sorghum grain gained
significantly slower and required more feed per unit of gain than pigs fed the
NBR sorghum grain. The relatively higher content of tannic acid in bird
resistant grain is thought to be responsible for the poorer pig performance.
The present experiment was undertaken to obtain more precise information
on the above mentioned varieties of sorghum grain with particular emphasis on
Thirty crossbred (Duroc-Yorkshire x Hampshire) pigs were divided according
to weight and sex into three treatment groups of ten pigs each. All pigs were
housed in individual concrete pens and self fed with water provided by automatic
devices. The treatments were as follows:
1. CONTROL Fortified Corn-Soybean Meal diet.
2. BR SORGHUM GRAIN (FUNK 79) substituted fQr.t be covin. of ~trfet- et 1.
3. NBR SORGHUM GRAIN (McNAIR 652) substituted for the corn of treatment 1.
Composition of the feed mixtures is presented in Table ,|P 2 5 1974
Results and Discuss on
-.1 .. 1 L'iv. of Florida
Performance data are summarized in Table 2. b, v.ofFoda
1/ Data summarized in this report were taken from swine unit Experiment No. 225.
2/ Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists, Department of Animal Science; Houser
present address, American Embassy, Brasilia USAID/ARDO APO New York 09676.
This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$ 70.89, or .07 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.
Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
- 2 -
Table 1. Composition of Dietsl/
Grower Finisher Grower Finisher
BR Sorghum grain
NBR Sorghum grain
Soybean meal (49%)
Stabilized animal fat
Trace minerals (CQC)2/
Vitamin mix (UF)3/
1/ Grower diets were fed
and then the finisher
pigs averaged 125
2/ Contained 20% zinc, 10. iron, 5.5% manganese,
0.1% cobalt and 2% calcium.
Table 2. Performance of Growing-Finishing Pigs Fed Diets
Based on Yellow Corn, Bird Resistant Sorghum
Grain and Non Bird Resistant Sorghum Grain
Item Corn Sorghum Sorghum
Number of pigs 10 10 10
Av. initial wt., lb. 58.2 58.2 58.2
Av. final wt., lb. 242.8 228.9 240.6
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.89 1.74 1.86
Barrows 1.93 1.81 1.92
Gilts 1.84 1.67 1.81
Av. daily feed intake, lb. 5.76 6.43 6.24
Feed per lb. gain, lb. 3.06 3.71 3.36
Barrows 3.13 3.74 3.42
Gilts 2.98 3.67 3.31
Number days on test 98 98 98
Corn vs. BR Sorghum NS
Corn vs. NBR Sorghum NS
BR Sorghum vs. NBR Sorghum NS
Barrows vs. gilts P < .05
Feed efficiency (feed per lb. gain)
Corn vs. BR Sorghum P < .01
Corn vs. NBR Sorghum P < .01
BR Sorghum vs. NBR Sorghum P < .01
Barrows vs. gilt' NS
lb. in each treatment group
1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine,
3/ Contained 6,000 mg. riboflavin, 20,000 mg. niacin, 12,000 mg. pantothenic
acid, 80,000 mg. choline chloride, 10,000 mcg. Vitamin B12, 2,500,000 I.U.
Vitamin A, 400,000 ICU Vitamin D3 and 10,000 IU Vitamin E per lb. of
Pigs fed the corn diet and the NBR sorghum grain diet gained at approxi-
mately the same rate, 1.89 and 1.86 lb. per day respectively. Pigs fed the BR
sorghum grain diet gained markedly slower, 1.74 lb. per day. This slower gain
approached statistical significance and most likely reflects a real difference.
An examination of the average daily feed intake figures, 5.76, 6.43 and
6.24 respectively for the corn, BR and NBR diets suggests that palatability was
not a problem with the sorghum diets. Pigs ate considerably more of these diets
than of the corn diet. However, some factor or factors influenced the utiliza-
tion of the sorghum diets, especially the BR diet. Feeding efficiency was
markedly depressed (P < .01) by both varieties of sorghum grain when compared
Barrows gained more rapidly (P < .05) than gilts but were somewhat less
efficient in feed conversion. There were no significant diet-sex interactions.
Thirty growing-finishing pigs, fed individually, were used to evaluate two
varieties of sorghum grain as an energy feed. Corn was superior to both a bird
resistant variety (Funk 79) and a non bird resistant variety (McNair 652). Pigs
were able to gain reasonably well on both varieties of sorghum grain but feed
conversion was poor, especially for the BR variety. Barrows gained faster than
gilts but were slightly less efficient on all diets.
1. Houser, R. H. and H. W. Lundy. 1972. Florida grown corn, bird-resistant
grain sorghum and non bird-resistant grain sorghum for growing-finishing
swine. ARC Mimeo Rpt. SW-1972-3. Live Oak, Florida.