• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Influence of sex, dietary protein...
 Experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited














Group Title: Animal science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL-1973-7
Title: Influence of sex, dietary protein level and potassium supplementation on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of pigs
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073048/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of sex, dietary protein level and potassium supplementation on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of pigs
Series Title: Animal science research report
Physical Description: 8 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1973
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Potassium   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 7-8).
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October, 1973."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073048
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80015592

Table of Contents
    Influence of sex, dietary protein level and potassium supplementation on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of pigs
        Page 1
    Experimental
        Page 2
    Results and discussion
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Summary
        Page 6
    Literature cited
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text


D Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Animal Science Research Report AL-1973-7 Experiment Station
0i& October, 1973 Gainesville, Florida


1' INFLUENCE OF SEX, DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL AND POTASSIUM
SUPPLEMENTATION ON FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE AND
CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF PIGS 1

H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter
and G. E. Combs


Differences in the feedlot performance and carcasses of barrows and gilts

are well documented. Barrows gain faster but less efficiently. Gilts yield

leaner carcasses. Recently, data obtained at this station (1, 2, 3 and 4)

indicate that gilts require more dietary proAbarrw for optimum

performance and carcass development. LIV

Several publications from this st tion 5 6, (,59, 10 11 and 12) have

emphasized the significance of protein nutrition. The importa ce has been

demonstrated from the standpoint of eff ee, economy of

production and desirable carcass characteristics.

The primary objectives of this study were to further explore the sex

influence on protein requirement and to determine if potassium supplementation

would affect performance or carcass development. Potassium is rather widely

distributed in feed materials and a natural deficiency seemed quite remote.

However, since the element is closely associated with protein in metabolism it


1/ The data presented in this report were generated in swine unit experiment
No. 195-F, Barn No. 4.
2/ Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists; Palmer and Carpenter, Meat Scientists,
Department of Animal Science.




This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$ 0.00, or .08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.


Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences






2 -

was of interest to determine if additional dietary potassium might prove

beneficial.

Experimental

Twenty-eight barrows and twenty-eight gilts averaging approximately 60

pounds initially were used in the study. The barrows were divided into four

pens of 7 pigs each, as were the gilts. Two pens of barrows and two pens of

gilts were fed a 17-15% protein sequence and two pens of barrows and two pens

of gilts were fed a 14-12% protein sequence. One pen of barrows and one pen of

gilts on each protein level were supplemented with potassium.

All pigs were self fed in an open shed type barn on partially slotted floors

over deep anaerobic storage pits.

Composition of the experimental diets is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Composition of Mixed Diets A

Ingredient Percent Protein

12 14 15 17

Ground yellow corn 89.30 84.30 81.80 77.30
Soybean oilmeal (49%) 8.00 13.00 15.50 20.00
Defluorinated phosphate 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals (CCC) b/ 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamins (UF) c' 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

a/ Pigs fed the 17-15% protein sequence were started on 17% protein
and changed to 15% at approximately 125 lb. average weight.
Pigs fed the 14-12% protein sequence were started on 14% protein
and changed to 12% at approximately 125 lb. average weight.
POTASSIUM ADDITIONS
Dyna-K, a product produced and generously supplied by International
Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Skokie, Illinois, was used as a
source of potassium. Potassium was added at a rate of .25% to the
diets of supplemented pigs.
b/ Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, Ill. Formula 35Z-95. Contains
20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine,
0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
c/ Contains 6,000 mg. riboflavin; 20,000 mg. niacin; 12,000 mg.
pantothenic acid; 80,000 mg. choline chloride; 10,000 mcg.
Vitamin B12; 2,500,000 I.U. of Vitamin A; 400,000 I.C.U.
Vitamin D3 and 10,000 I.U. of Vitamin E per pound of premix.






3 -

All pigs were weighed and feed consumption determined at two week intervals.

Slaughtering and carcass measurements were according to previously described

procedures (13).

Data were analyzed statistically using the analysis of variance.

Results and Discussion

Results of the experiment are summarized by lots in Table 2 and according

to main variables in Table 3.

Daily Gain Barrows and gilts gained at about the same rate on the high

protein level sequence but barrows gained much better (1.51 vs. 1.32) on the low

protein sequence. The data suggest first that gilts would likely gain about as

fast as barrows if adequate protein is provided and indicates clearly that gilts

are penalized much more severely by marginal levels of protein. However, both

sexes gained much more rapidly on the higher levels of protein. Potassium supple-

mentation did not influence rate of gain under any combination of variables.

Feed/gain Feed conversion data were not statistically analyzed due to

experimental design. The values obtained suggest a slight advantage for gilts

over barrows but a marked advantage for the high protein diets (3.20 vs. 3.49).

Potassium supplementation caused little change in feed utilization.

Dressing percent Dressing percent was not significantly affected by any

of the variables imposed.

Backfat Barrow carcasses measured significantly more backfat (P < .05)

than gilt carcasses. Protein level and potassium supplementation did not alter

significantly this measurement.

Carcass length This parameter was not influenced significantly by sex,

protein level or potassium supplementation, except that a significant (P < .05)

interaction was observed for protein level and potassium supplementation. Potassium

supplementation increased carcass length on the low protein regime but not on the

high regime.













Table 2. Influence of Sex, Dietary Protein Level and Potassium
Supplementation on Feedlot Performance and Carcass
Characteristics of Pigs


Lot No. 1 1A 2 2A 3 3A 4 4A
Sex (M = Barrow) M F M F M F M F
(F = Gilt)
Protein level (%) 17-15 17-15 17-15 17-15 14-12 14-12 14-12 14-12
Potassium + + + +


Number pigs 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
Initial wt., lb. 59.7 58.9 59.9 59.2 59.6 59.2 59.7 59.4
Final wt., lb. 220.1 219.8 225.9 220.0 222.4 211.1 222.2 216.5
Daily gain, lb. 1.66 1.63 1.73 1.56 1.48 1.30 1.54 1.33
Feed/gain, lb. 3.14 3.23 3.25 3.16 3.66 3.46 3.45 3.39
Number carcasses 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 6
Dressing % 72.5 72.1 72.6 73.1 73.3 72.7 72.1 73.2
Backfat, in. 1.31 1.25 1.36 1.26 1.37 1.24 1.39 1.30
Carcass length, in. 31.0 31.7 31.3 31.2 31.2 31.0 31.8 31.6
Loin eye, sq. in. 4.46 4.79 4.43 5.00 4.21 4.03 3.90 4.03
% lean cuts 53.0 55.4 52.9 55.2 52.5 52.9 52.5 52.3
Marbling scores 11.9 12.2 13.0 11.0 16.9 14.0 13.7 15.0
a/ Scores were coded from 0 to 33; small = 10-12, modest = 13-15, moderate = 16-18, etc.






-5-

Table 3. Summary of Combined Performance and Carcass
Characteristics As Influenced by Sex, Protein
Level and Potassium Supplementation


Variable
Comparisons
Number pigs
Av. initial wt., lb.
Av. final wt., lb.
Daily gain, lb.
Feed/gain, lb.
Number carcasses
Dressing %
Backfat, in.
Carcass length, in.
Loin eye, sq. in.
% lean cuts
Marbling scores


Sex
M F
28 28
59.7 59.2
222.7 216.9
1.60** 1.46
3.38 3.31
28 26
72.6 72.8
1.36* 1.26
31.3 31.4
4.25 4.46
52.7 54.0**
13.9 13.0


4 4


Protein level
17-15 14-12
28 28
59.4 59.5
221.5 218.1
1.65** 1.41
3.20 3.49
27 27
72.6 72.8
1.29 1.32
31.3 31.4
4.67** 4.04
54.1** 52.6
12.0 14.9*


Potassium
+
28 28
59.4 59.5
218.4 221.2
1.52 1.54
3.37 3.31
27 27
72.6 72.8
1.29 1.33
31.2 31.5
4.37 4.34
53.5 53.2
13.8 13.2


* P < .05
** P < .01


Loin eye area The high protein regime increased loin eye areas very markedly

over the low protein regime (4.67 vs. 4.04). This difference was highly signifi-

cant (P < .01). Overall differences due to sex were not significant but a signifi-

cant interaction (sex x protein) was significant (P < .05). Loin eye areas for

gilts fed the high protein level were significantly greater than barrows fed high

protein diets, but a slight trend toward the reverse was observed on the low pro-

tein diets.

Percent lean cuts Gilts yielded significantly higher (P < .01) percent of

lean cuts than barrows (54.0 vs. 52.7). The 17-15% protein sequence fed pigs

also yielded significantly greater (P < .01) percent of lean cuts than pigs fed

the 14-12% protein sequence (54.1 vs. 52.6). Once again a significant interaction

(sex x protein) was observed (P < .05). Lean cut out was greater in gilts than

barrows on high protein but not so on low protein.

Marbling scores Pigs fed the lower dietary protein sequence showed higher

marbling scores (P < .05) which indicated that more fat was deposited in the lean

tissue. This observation is typical of past experiments in which inadequate or






6 -

borderline dietary protein levels have induced greater and sometimes excessive

marbling.

Summary

An experiment involving 56 pigs was conducted to determine the influence of

two protein levels (17-15 and 14-12 percent), sex (barrows vs. gilts), and potassium

supplementation on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

The higher protein sequence (17-15%) resulted in faster gains (1.65 vs. 1.41

lb./day), more efficient gains (3.20 vs. 3.49 lb. feed per lb. gain), and leaner

more desirable carcasses as indicated by loin eye areas (4.67 vs. 4.04 sq. in.)

and % lean cuts (54.1 vs. 52.6). The high protein diet allowed gilts to gain

almost as fast as barrows, to gain just as efficiently as barrows, and to exert

their usual superiority in carcass characteristics. However, on the low protein

diet gains of gilts were markedly depressed compared to barrows and carcass

leanness measurements reflected an adverse influence that was more pronounced

than in case of the barrows. These results tend to confirm previous experiments

which indicate that gilts have a greater requirement for protein than barrows.

The assumption that the potassium requirements of the pig are met by commonly

used corn-soybean meal type diets was confirmed in this study. Potassium supple-

mentation was ineffective at both protein levels and for both barrows and gilts.





-7-


Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D., E. W. Lucas, A. Z. Palmer and G. E. Combs. 1970. The
influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine.
Fla. An. Sci. Mimeo. Series No. AN71-1.

2. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1971. The
influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine.
Fla. An. Sci. Mimeo. Series No. AN71-7.

3. Wallace, H. D., E. M. Hervas, A. Z. Palmer and G. E. Combs. 1972. Influence
of protein level, slaughter weight and sex on feedlot performance and carcass
measurements of swine. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Report No. AL-1972-3.

4. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1972. Influence
of sex, pen space and feeder holes per pig on protein consumption, feedlot per-
formance and carcasses of pigs fed shelled corn and supplement free-choice.
Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo Report No. AL-1972-4.

5. Wallace, H. D., M. E. Palmer, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1963. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass
characteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN64-7.

6. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter, Ghazi Taki and G. E. Combs.
1964. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass
characteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN64-16.

7. Crum, R. C., Jr., H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1964. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass char-
acteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN65-3.

8. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1965. A
study of the relationship of feed restriction and dietary protein level in
finishing hogs. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN65-9.

9. Wallace, H. D., L. A. Britt, J. W. Carpenter, A. Z. Palmer and G. E. Combs.
1966. Effects of dietary protein levels and amino acid supplementation on
the feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing
swine. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN67-3.

10. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter, L. A. Britt, A. C. Warnick
and G. E. Combs. 1967. Influence of protein level and hormone supplemen-
tation during the finishing period on feedlot performance, carcass character-
istics and pork acceptability. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN67-10.

11. Lucas, E. W., H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1968. The influence of sex, protein level, and hormone supplementation on
the feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing
swine. Fla. Animal Science Mimeo. Series AN69-5.

12. Wallace, H. D. 1968. Nutritional and Management Effects on Muscle
Characteristics and Quality. Chapt. 8. The Pork Industry: Problems
and Progress. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa.






-8-

13. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1966. Feed
restriction of swine during the finishing period. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul.
706.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs