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 Introduction and experimental
 Results, discussion, and summa...
 Literature cited
 List of Tables














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeo report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AL-1972-8
Title: The influence of lysine andor methionine supplementation on the growth and carcass leanness and quality of swine fed a diet containing 27% wheat bran
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073044/00001
 Material Information
Title: The influence of lysine andor methionine supplementation on the growth and carcass leanness and quality of swine fed a diet containing 27% wheat bran
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeo report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Neufville, Mortimer Hugh, 1939-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Amino acids in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Lysine in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: M.H. Neufville ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September, 1972."
Funding: Animal Science Department mimeograph report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073044
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79875104

Table of Contents
    Introduction and experimental
        Page 1
    Results, discussion, and summary
        Page 2
    Literature cited
        Page 3
    List of Tables
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text
/UL)


Department of Animal Science UilVi LI3ARY Florida Agricultural
Mimeo Report No. AL-1972-8 Experiment Station
September, 1972 6 19-7 Gainesville, Florida
00ri 1 6 1972

THE INFLUENCE OF LYSINE d/or METHIONINE SUPPLE NNTATION ON THE
GROWTH AND CARCASS LEA SSi.ND I eFSW' FED A DIET
CONTA TNi....27%

M. H. Neufville, H. D. Wallace
G. E. Combs and A. Z. Palmer 27


In supplying the protein requirement of the growing pig a proper amino acid
balance is of major importance. The limiting amino acids in order in wheat bran
were found to be: lysine, tryptophan, methionine, isoleucine, valine, and
threonine. Addition of lysine to swine diets produced a sustained nitrogen
retention sometimes similar to that obtained with milk feeding (1). It was
assumed that nitrogen balance was a linear function of lysine intake (3) and the
availability of lysine was a more important factor than either protein level or
energy in controlling nitrogen retention and lean deposits in pigs (2). Results
of Ostrowski's (5) experiment revealed that supplementation of swine diets with
synthetic lysine and methionine significantly improved feedlot performance and
carcass quality. Other reports have shown that addition of 0.1% lysine,
methionine or tryptophan increased growth rate and feed efficiency but a combina-
tion of 2 or 3 amino acids did not give as great a response as lysine alone (6).

This study was conducted to determine the effect of the supplementation of
0.1% L-lysine and/or 0.1% DL-methionine on the growth and carcass quality of
growing finishing swine fed a diet containing 27% wheat bran. Reasons for the
selection of the 27% level of wheat bran was previously documented (4).

Experimental

A total of 24 crossbred pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire x Hampshire) was randomly
selected according to sex and weight, and placed on treatments consisting of
the following: lysine and methionine additions, 0% L-lysine, 0% DL-methionine,
0.1% L-lysine, 0.1% DL-methionine and 0.1% L-lysine + 0.1% DL-methionine added
to diets whose compositions are shown in table 1.

There were 3 gilts and 3 barrows per treatment. Pigs were individually
housed and self fed in concrete floored pens containing automatic watering devices.
Pigs were slaughtered at 220 + 5 Ibs. live weight and carcass data obtained.

1/ The data presented in this paper were from swine unit experiment No. 201A.
2/ Neufville, graduate assistant; Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists;
and Palmer, Meat Scientist, Department of Animal Science.



This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
148.-3, or 15 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.

Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences









- 2-


Results and Discussion

A summary of the responses measured is presented in table 2.

In this experiment gilts had a lower rate of gain than barrows, however,
the gilts also ate less feed per day. Addition of 0.1% L-lysine or 0.1% DL-
methionine to the diets of barrows caused a significant (P < .05) increase in
the daily gain. Addition of both amino acids did not increase growth rate
significantly. The combined treatment effect on barrows and gilts showed a non-
significant increase in daily gain when lysine and/or methionine were added.

The feed gain ratio was also improved when either or both of the amino
acids were added, but, this was not significant. There was no significant
treatment effect on metabolizable energy consumed per lb. of gain but an increase
in efficiency was observed when either or both amino acids were added.

Carcass characteristics were not significantly affected by dietary amino
acid supplementation. Carcasses of gilts yielded significantly (P < .05) more
% lean cuts and loin eye area than barrows. Observable differences in carcass
measurements resulting from treatment effects were an increase in dressing
percentage when lysine alone was added, and an increase in % lean cuts when
lysine and or methionine were added.

Marbling scores of pigs fed added lysine or methionine were reduced, but,
the wide individual variation prevented any significant effect. Chemical
composition of loin samples showed no significant treatment effect, however,
samples from pigs fed added lysine or methionine had less total fat as indicated
in the marbling scores.

Summary

A study involving 24 pigs was designed to determine the effect of the
addition of 0.1% L-lysine and 0.1% DL-methionine on growth and carcass quality.

The only significant treatment effect observed was an increase in the daily
gain of barrows when lysine or methionine was added to the diet. However, the
overall improvements in feedlot performance and carcass leanness were great
enough to be considered economically important. The literature have suggested
that these improvements may be due to increased protein digestibility and nitrogen
retention.








-3-


Literature Cited


1. Bressani, R., D. L. Wilson, M. Behar and N. S. Scrimshaw. 1960. Supple-
mentation of cereal proteins with amino acids. J. Nutr. 70:176.


2. Jones, A. S. 1970. Importance of lysine in pig production. Feedstuffs
42:20.


3. Nassett, E. S. and M. T. Ely. 1952. Nitrogen balance of adult rats fed
diets low in L-and DL-lysine or devoid of arginine. J. Nutr. 48:391.


4. Neufville, M. H., H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs and A. Z. Palmer. 1972. The
influence of high levels of wheat bran on the performance and carcass
leanness and quality of growing-finishing swine. Fla. An. Sci. Mimeo
Series No. AL-1972-7.


5. Ostrowski, H. 1969. The effects of dietary supplementation with lysine
and methionine on body and tissue composition in the pig. J. Brit. Soc. Ani.
Prod. 11:52.


6. Pfander, W. H. and L. E. Tribble. 1955. Some effects of adding supple-
ments of lysine, methionine and tryptophan to practical swine rations.
J. An. Sci. 14:545.










TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS a/


Ingredients % 0 Lysine 0.1% DL- 0.1% L- 0.1% DL-Methionine
0 Methionine Methionine Lysine 0.1% L-Lysine


Ground yellow corn 54.75 54.65 54.65 54.55

Soybean meal dehulled 15.25 15.25 15.25 15.25

Iodized salt 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Trace mineral premix /0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15

Vitamin premix c/ 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Defluorinated rock phosphate 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Ground limestone 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25

Wheat bran 27.0 27.0 27.0 27.0

DL-Methionine 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1

L-Lysine 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1

a/ 1 lb. Baciferm-25 added per ton of feed to all diets.
1 lb. Baciferm-25 supplies 25 grams of Zinc Bacitracin antibiotic.
b/ Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, Illinois. Formula 35Z-95 contained: 20% Zinc; 10% Iron,
5.5% Manganese; 1.1% Copper; 0.15% Iodine; 0.1% Cobalt and 2% Calcium.
c/ Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin; 20,000 mg niacin; 12,000 mg pantothenic acid; 80,000 mg
choline chloride; 10,000 mcg Vitamin B12; 2,500,000 IU of Vitamin A; 400,000 ICU Vitamin
D3 and 10,000 IU of Vitamin E per pound of premix.








TABLE 2. EFFECTS OF AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION IN A 27% WHEAT
BRAN RATION FED TO GROWING-FINISHING SWINE


Gilts Barrows Gilts and Barrows Combined


Item la 2b 3c 4d la 2b 3c 4d la 2b 3c 4d


Initial wt., lb. 59.0 58.3 58.3 61.3 66.7 67.0 67.0 66.7 62.8 62.7 62.7 64.00
Final wt., lb. 217.3 217.7 217.0 219.0 218.3 222.7 220.0 218.7 217.8 220.2 218.5 218.80
Avg. daily gain, lb. 1.71 1.65 1.61 1.69 1.68ef 1.95e 1.96f 1.87 1.69 1.80 1.79 1.78
Avg. daily feed, lb. 5.72 5.46 5.1 5.08 6.24 6.35 6.4 6.49 5.98 5.90 5.75 5.78
Avg. feed/gain 3.33 3.31 3.17 3.01 3.72 3.26 3.25 3.47 3.53 3.28 3.21 '3.24
Avg. M.E. mcal/gain, lb. 4.43 4.39 4.21 3.99 4.95 4.32 4.32 4.61 4.69 4.36 4.26 4.30
Dressing % 69.33 69.7 70.97 70.27 70.13 68.77 69.9 67.67 69.73 69.23 70.43 68.97
4 lean cuts % 57.97 57.47 58.33 58.1 53.57 55.5 55.53 55.03 55.77 56.48 56.93 56.57
Ham % 21.03 21.03 21.63 21.43 19.7 20.77 20.73 19.97 20.37 20.9 21.18 20.70
Loin % 17.5 19.03 19.37 19.47 17.37 17.87 18.37 18.2 17.43 18.45 18.87 18.83
Carcass length, in. 30.63 30.7 31.17 30.6 30.23 30.93 31.00 30.83 30.43 30.82 31.18 30.72
Backfat in. 1.23 1.3 1.33 1.33 1.57 1.43 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.37 1.37 1.42
Loin eye area sq. in. 5.19 5.12 5.48 5.45 4.57 4.65 4.44 4.16 4.88 4.89 4.97 4.81
Marbling score 8.0 9.33 6.0 4.33 11.67 5.00 8.33 10.33 9.83 7.17 7.17 7.33
Color score 3.33 3.33 3.33 2.83 3.0 3.33 3.0 3.17 3.17 3.33 3.17 2.93
Firmness score 2.33 2.67 3.33 2.67 2.33 3.00 2.0 2.33 2.4 2.83 2.67 2.5

Laboratory analysis of
Longissimus dorsi

Moisture % 74.51 74.55 73.8 74.02 73.25 74.21 72.79 73.48 73.88 74.38 73.3 73.75
Fat % 2.51 2.29 2.61 1.74 3.57 2.29 3.38 3.52 3.04 2.29 3.0 2.63
Protein % 21.11 20.66 22.53 22.16 23.02 22.05 21.99 22.55 22.06 21.36 22.21 22.36

a,b,c,d The numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 represent the respective treatments:


0 Lysine, 0 Methionine
0.1% DL-methionine
0.1% L-lysine
0.1% DL-methionine + 0.1% L-lysine


e,f Values with same superscript in same line are significantly different (P < .05).







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