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Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AL-1972-6
Title: Cane molasses for finishing pigs
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073043/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cane molasses for finishing pigs
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph report
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Molasses as feed   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1972."
Funding: Animal Science Department mimeograph report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073043
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79874583

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Full Text

a;w3rtment of Animal Science
j Mimeograph Report No. AL-1972-6
August, 1972

CANE MOLASSES FOR FINISHING PIGS

G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace 2/


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station




AUG 15 1972


The price of cane molasses is often sufficiently con Ittjfti.e tt1101otlOridaI
sidered as the major source of energy in swine diets. Whin mulasa uo Zd ifn
this capacity special mixing equipment is required since most vertical mixers
cannot adequately mix formulations containing molasses in excess of 25 percent.
An alternative to this procedure would be free choice feeding of molasses.

The present study was designed to evaluate various methods of feeding cane
molasses to finishing swine.

Experimental

Pigs in all experiments were housed in concrete-floored pens and water was
supplied by automatic waterers.

The composition of the diets and protein supplements is presented in:Table 1.
Diets containing 30 or 40% molasses were mixed in a horizontal mixer modified to
mix high-density ingredients.

Experiment 1 Forty pigs weighing approximately 97 pounds were allotted to
four dietary treatments. The treatments were as follows:

Treatment 1 Corn-soybean meal diet containing 0% molasses.
Treatment 2 Molasses offered free-choice in a feeding trough.
Protein supplement available ad libitum in self
feeder.
Treatment 3 Molasses paste (60 pounds mixed with 40 pounds of
protein supplement in a feeding trough).
Treatment 4 Complete mixed diet containing 40% molasses fed
ad libitum.

Experiment 2 Sixty pigs having an average initial weight of 113 pounds were
divided equally among four treatment groups:


Treatment 1 -
Treatment 2 -
Treatment 3 -
Treatment 4 -


0% molasses.
Molasses free choice (67 lb, molasses:33 lb. water).
(80 lb. molasses:20 lb. water).
(89 lb. molasses:ll lb. water).


Pigs on treatments 2, 3 and 4 were fed a protein supplement at the rate of
2 pounds per head daily. The supplement was fed twice weekly.

Experiment 3 Forty pigs weighing about 136 pounds were allotted to five
treatments from outcome groups. The treatments were diets containing 0, 10,

1/ Other Fla. An. Sci. Reports on this subject include Mimeo Series No. 69-13
and 70-10.
2/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Dept., University
of Florida. Data obtained from Experiments 174A, 174D and 174E.





- 2-


20, 30 and 40% molasses. Chromic oxide was incorporated into all diets during
the final week and fecal samples collected from each pig for digestibility
determinations.

Results and Discussion

A summary of the results of experiments 1, 2 and 3 is presented in Tables
2, 3 and 4 respectively.

In experiment 1 the daily gains of pigs fed 0 and 40% molasses were not
significantly different. Increasing the molasses to 60% significantly reduced
daily gains when compared to either the 0 or 40% groups. Pigs fed molasses
free choice gained significantly less than any other treatment group. Feed
required per pound of gain increased with increasing levels of dietary molasses.

As shown in table 2 the pigs fed molasses-supplement free choice consumed
an excess of protein supplement which was primarily due to the inability of the
pig to consume sufficient quantities of the molasses. Observations indicated
that the consistency (Brix 79.6) rather than taste of the molasses was the
limiting factor in that the pigs tried to consume the molasses but it appeared
to be too dense for consumption as a liquid and too fluid to be eaten as a
solid. Consequently experiment 2 was designed to determine if diluting the
molasses with water would permit and/or encourage increased consumption.

The pigs fed the 0% molasses diet in experiment 2 gained significantly
faster and required considerably less feed per pound of gain than any other
treatment group. Pigs given free choice molasses with molasses:water ratios
of 67:33 or 80:20 gained significantly faster and were about 28% more efficient
in converting feed to gain than were pigs fed the 89:11 ratio.

The difference in growth rate of the free-choice fed pigs in experiments
1 and 2 may be attributed to the 1.5 pounds of additional protein supplement
consumed daily by the pigs in experiment 1.

The data in table 4 shows that the addition of molasses at any level tested
did not adversely influence rate of gain. In fact one of the two most rapid
gaining groups consumed the diet containing 40% molasses. In general feed
efficiencies were comparable for all groups. Digestibility of fat and protein
was significantly different among treatments but the differences were not
associated with level of dietary molasses.

Summary

Three experiments involving 140 finishing pigs were conducted to evaluate
methods of utilizing cane molasses as the sole or major source of energy in
swine diets.

Daily gain and feed efficiency were reduced when molasses was fed free-
choice in liquid form or when fed as a paste. However the comparative cost of
molasses as an energy source is such that it may be economically feasible to
feed molasses free choice or as a paste. Molasses:water ratios of 67:30 and
80:20 permitted more rapid and efficient gains than the 89:11 ratio.

In the studies where molasses constituted as much as 40% of the mixed diet
rate and efficiency of gain was comparable to that found with 0% molasses diet.














Table 1. Composition of Diets and Supplements


Experiment No.
Treatment No.


Cane molasses % 1'


Ground yellow corn
Soybean meal (50%)
Alfalfa meal
Ground limestone
Defluorinated phosphate
Salt
Trace mineral mix -
Vitamin-antibiotic mix .2
Methionine


1 2 3 4


:0 Free
Choice


71.20
24.00


2.50
0.50
0.10
1.70


74.00
16.00
2.67
2.67
2.66
0.20
1.80


60 40


23.20
35.00 32.00


S2.50, 2.50
0.50 0.50
*0.10 0.10
1.70 1.70
0.20


2
1 2-3-4

0 Free
Choice


77.10
18.00


2.50
0.50
0.10
1.70


j
:87.55!


6.35;
1. 251
0.20
4.25
0.40


S 3
2 3


4 5


0 10 20 30 40


-77.20
18.00


2.50
0.50
0.10
1.70


64.70 52.7Q 40.70 28.20
20.50 22."50 24.50 27.00


2.50 2.50
0.50 0.50
0.10 0.10
1.70 1.70
- -


2.50
0.50
0.10
1.70


2.50
0.50
0.10
1.70


1/ Standard molasses.
2/ Contained 10% manganese, 10% iron, 10% zinc, 1% copper,
3/ Contained 800, 1470, 3600, 4000 and 1 (mg) respectively
choline chloride and vitamin B12; 138,000 I.U. of vitam:
penicillin and 15 gm streptomycin for all mixed diets.
dient was increased 4 times the quantity shown.


0.3% iodine, 0.1% cobalt and 11% calcium.
of riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin,
in A and 50,000 I.U. vitamin D2; 5 gm procaine
With protein supplements each listed ingre-


--


4


I







Table 2. Effects of High Levels of Molasses On
Pig Performance (Experiment 1)


Treatment No.
Dietary Treatment


initial weight, lb.
final weight, lb.
daily gain, lb.
daily feed, lb.
feed/gain, lb.


1
0%
Molasses


96.8
212.1
1.65a
5.86
3.55


2
Free Choice
Molasses and
Supplement


96.6
183.5
1.24c
7.191/
5.80


abc/ Treatment means on same line bearing different superscript letters differ
significantly (P < .05).
1/ Av. daily molasses intake 3.67 lb.; Av. daily supplement intake 3.52 lb.









Table 3. Influence of Several Molasses:Water Ratios On
Performance of Finishing Pigs (Experiment 2)


Treatment No. 1 2 3 4
Dietary Treatment 0% Free Choice Free Choice Free Choice
Molasses Molasses Molasses Molasses
Molasses % -67 80 89
Water % 33 20 11


Av. initial weight, lb. 112.9 113.0 113.2 113.1
Av. final weight, lb. 226.7 176.1 174.2 162.5
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.78 0.98b 0.95b 0.77
Av. daily feed, lb.:
Molasses 3.99 4.50 5.04
Supplement 2.04 2.04 2.04
Total 6.33 6.03 6.54 7.08
Av. feed/gain, 'b. 3.56 6.15 6.88 9.11

abc/ Treatment means on same line bearing different superscript letters
differ significantly (P < .05).


Av.
Av.
Av.
Av.
Av.


3
60%
Molasses
(Paste)


96.7
200.0
1.48b
7.07
4.78


4
40%
Molasses


96.9
209.9
1.61ab
7.55
4.69


1_1_1___





- 5 -


Table 4. Performance Of Finishing Pigs Fed Diets Containing
Various Levels Of Cane Molasses (Experiment 3)



Level of Molasses

0 10 20 30 40


Av. initial weight, lb. 136.1 136.4 136.6 135.8 136.6
Av. final weight, lb. 206.0 212.6 203.0 203.5 211.8
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.63 1.77 1.54 1.58 1.75
Av. daily feed, lb. 8.69 7.77 9.24 8.25 9.50
Av. feed/gain, lb. 5.33 4.33 6.00 5.22 5.43

Av. digestibility %
Dry matter 93.7 93.9 94.3 94.6 94.9
Ether extract 46.3b 48.9b 75.5a 46.7b 77.8a
Crude protein 79.2a 70.1b 81.3a 73.4b 68.7b

ab Treatment means on the same line bearing different superscript
letters differ significantly.


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$162.00, or .0162 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.









































































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