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 Introduction and experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeo report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AL-1972-4
Title: Influence of sex, pen space and feeder holes per pig on protein consumption, feedlot performance and carcasses of pigs fed shelled corn and supplement free-choice
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073041/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of sex, pen space and feeder holes per pig on protein consumption, feedlot performance and carcasses of pigs fed shelled corn and supplement free-choice
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeo report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Housing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 6).
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1972."
Funding: Animal Science Department mimeograph report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073041
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79846688

Table of Contents
    Introduction and experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Summary
        Page 5
    Literature cited
        Page 6
Full Text


'$apartment of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
J Mimeo Report No. AL-1972-4 Experiment Station
July, 1972 Gainesville, Florida


INFLUENCE ON SEX, PEN SPACE AND FEEDER HOLES PEP PIG CNRU
CONSUMPTION, FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE AND CARCASSES OF P JME LIBRARY.
FED SHELLED CORN AND SUPPLEMENT FREE-C1OICE 1

H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter AUG 4 1972
and G. E. Combs 2/

I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florid

In previous reports from this station (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) the
importance of adequate protein nutrition in growing finishing swine has been
emphasized. This importance has been demonstrated from the standpoint of
feedlot performance, economy of production and especially in regard to desirable
carcass characteristics.

Differences in the performance of barrows and gilts has been a consistent
observation. Barrows gain faster but less efficiently. Gilts yield leaner
carcasses. Data have been obtained (10, 11, 12) to suggest that gilts require
more dietary protein than barrows for optimum performance and carcass development.

The primary objective of this experiment was to determine if gilts would by
choice consume a higher level of protein than barrows when allowed access to
shelled corn and supplement. Superimposed on the feeding regime were pen space
and feeder hole differences. The objective in the latter case was to establish
optimal feeding conditions for the new finishing barn facility and at the same
time provide replicated pens for the protein intake study.

Experimental

Seventy-two pigs averaging about 60 pounds were divided according to sex,
weight and litter into eight feeding groups. The groups consisted of 6, 8, 10
and 12 barrows and similarly 6, 8, 10 and 12 gilts. All groups were placed in
the same sized pens. These pens were 14 ft. long and 4.5 ft. wide. The upper
6 ft. of the floor was of solid concrete and the lower 8 feet was of 4 in.
aluminum slats. All pens were equipped with automatic watering devices and one
three-hole double compartmented self feeder. Shelled corn was supplied through
two holes and supplement through one hole of each feeder in all pens. The space
per pig and feeder holes per pig for each pen are shown in tables 2 and 3.

Composition of the protein supplement is shown in table 1.

All pigs were weighed and feed consumption determined at two week intervals.

Slaughtering was according to previously described procedures (5).




I/ The data presented in this paper were from swine unit experiment No. 195-E.
2/ Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists; Palmer and Carpenter, Meat Scientists,
Department of Animal Science.






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Table 1. Composition of Protein Supplement

Soybean oilmeal (50%) 47.20
Meat scraps (45%) 25.00
Alfalfa meal (20%) 25.00
Iodized salt 2.00
Trace mineral supplement 1! 0.40
Vitamin premix (UF) 2/ 0.40
100.00
1/ Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, Illinois.
Formula 35Z-95. Contains: 20% zinc, 10%
iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15%
iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
2/ Contains 6,000 mg. riboflavin; 20,000 mg.
niacin; 12,000 mg. pantothenic acid;
80,000 mg. choline chloride; 10,000 mcg.
Vitamin B12; 2,500,000 I.U. Vitamin A;
400,000 I.C.U. Vitamin D3 and 10,000 I.U.
of Vitamin E per pound premix.

Results and Discussion

Results are summarized in tables 2 and 3 respectively for barrows and gilts.

Sex and Protein Consumption Differences in protein consumption between barrows
and gilts were clearly evident. During the first four weeks of the trial the
barrows consumed shelled corn and supplement at a rate which provided a total
feed mixture containing approximately 15.1 percent protein. Gilts on the other
hand consumed shelled corn and supplement at a rate which approximated a feed
mixture containing 16.2 percent protein. For the first eight weeks the average
protein consumption dropped to 14.8 percent for the barrows and 15.9 percent for
the gilts. For the entire feeding period the respective figures were 13.8 and
14.8 percent. These data illustrate the well established downward trend in protein
requirement as the pig moves toward slaughter weight. Also, the data emphasize
the greater need of gilts for protein. This greater need seems to be manifested
fairly early in the feeding period.

Sex and Feedlot Performance Barrows gained considerably faster than gilts in
this experiment. In fact the difference in gains was greater than normally
anticipated. It is possible that the free-choice system of feeding placed a bit
more of a burden on the gilts since protein requirements may be greater for gilts.
Although the gilts did consume more protein than the barrows there may well have
been a limitation associated with total protein intake or protein quality which
placed the gilts at a disadvantage. Total feed required per pound of gain tended
to favor the gilts but this was not consistent in all groups.

Pen Space and Performance Males performed similarly with 9.7 and 7.3 sq. ft. of
pen floor space per pig. Gains were markedly reduced when space was reduced to
5.8 or 5.3 sq. ft. per pig. Gilts performed best with 9.7 sq. ft. of space,
similarly with 7.3 and 5.8 sq. ft., but dropped off markedly when allowed only
4.8 sq. ft. of space per pig. There was no clear pattern of relationship between
pen space and feed conversion. Barrows with the most limited space allowance
required more feed per unit of gain than any other experinmot-r 1 gLoup. However,
feed conversion values for the gilt girotpo wc eri quite similar.







Table 2. Influence of Sex, Pen Space, and Feeder Holes Per Pig on Protein Consumption, Feedlot
Performance and Carcasses of Pigs Fed Shelled Corn and Supplement Free Choice


(Males)

Number of pigs per pen 6 8 10 111'
Pen space.per pig, sq. ft. 9.7 7.3 5.8 5.3
Feeder holes per pig 0.50 0.38 0.33 0.27
Av. initial wt., lb. 60.3 60.3 60.8 60.6
Av. final wt., lb. 216.0 215.0 211.1 213.2

Performance 1st 4 weeks
Daily gain, lb. 1.21 1.33 1.20 1.08
Shelled corn consumed/lb. gain, lb. 2.43 2.18 2.40 2.55
Supplement consumed/lb. gain, lb. 0.59 0.59 0.57 0.59
% protein consumed 15.07 15.60 14.95 14.81

Performance I.t 8 weeks
Daily -ain, lb. 1.61 1.58 1.46 1.30
Shelled corn consumed/lb. gain, lb. 2.52 2.46 2.63 2.84 '
Supplement consumed/lb. gain, lb. 0.56 0.58 0.62 0.63
% protein consumed 14.64 14.90 14.92 14.64

Performance entire period
Daily gain, lb. 1.71 1.71 1.58 1.49
Fhel!ed corn consumed/lb. gain, lb. 2.86 2.77 2.93 3.19
Supplement consumed/lb. gain, lb. 0.54 0.52 0.56 0.51
% protein consumed 13.91 13.89 13.98 13.27

Dressing percent 70.2 71.1 71.4 71.6
Backfat thickness, in. 1.23 1.18 1.18 1.18
Carcass length, in. 30 5 30.1 30.6 30.6
Marbling score 2/ 16 15 12 12
Loin eye area, sq. in. 4.14 4.33 4.30 4.19
% 4 Lean cuts 54.8 54.2 55.4 54.5

1/ On.e pig died after five days on test cause undetermined.
2/ Small degree of marbling designated by 10-12, modest 13-15 and moderate 16-18.








Table 3. Influence of Sex, Pen Space, and Feeder Holes Per Pig on Protein Consumption, Feedlot
Performance and Carcasses of Pigs Fed Shelled Corn and Supplement Free Choice


(Females)

Number of pigs per pen 61' 8 10 12
Pen space per pig, sq. ft. 9.7 7.3 5.8 4.8
Feeder holes per pig 0.50 0.38 0.33 0.25
Initial wt., lb. 64.8 62.0 61.3 62.3
Final wt., lb. 210.8 208.1 210.9 203.9

Performance 1st 4 weeks
Daily gain, lb. 1.27 1.02 1.07 0.96
Shelled corn consumed/lb. gain, lb. 2.16 2.64 2.28 2.20
Supplement consumed/lb. gain, lb. 0.60 0.84 0.62 0.76
% protein consumed 15.74 16.49 15.63 16.96

Performance 1st 8 weeks
Daily gain, lb. 1.49 1.34 1.32 1.24
Shelled corn consumed/lb. gain, lb. 2.30 2.51 2.38 2.25
Supplement consumed/lb. gain, lb. 0.61 0.65 0.66 0.76
% protein consumed 15.49 15.38 15.73 16.83

Performance entire period
Daily gain, lb. 1.54 1.46 1.46 1.34
Shelled corn consumed/lb. gain, lb. 2.67 2.79 2.81 2.68
Supplement consumed/lb. gain, lb. 0.59 0.63 0.63 0.67
% protein consumed 14.61 14.70 14.67 15.20

Dressing percent 72.3 72.3 71.9 71.2
Backfat thickness, in. 1.16 1.03 1.00 0.92
Carcass length, in. 30.5 30.7 30.9 30.9
Marbling score 2/ 16 8 12 10
Loin eye area, sq. in. 4.77 4.85 4.92 4.63
% 4 lean cuts 56.1 57.1 58.0 58.9

1/ Carcass data based on only 5 pigs.
2/ Small degree of marbling designated by 10-12, modest 13-15 and moderate 16-18.





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Feeder Hole Allowance and Performance It must be pointed out that pen space
and feeder hole-allowance were confounded-,in this experiment. It cannot be stated
with certainty that pen space or feeder hole allowance was the first limiting
factor. If we can assume that one feeder hole would adequately feed four finishing
hogs then feeder hole allowance probably had little influence in this experiment.
Observation of the pigs during the experiment did not indicate that feeder hole
allowance was jeopardizing performance.

Carcass Data The expected sex differences were evident. Carcasses from barrows
were less lean as indicated by more backfat, higher average marbling scores,
smaller loin eye areas and less percent of four' lean cuts. Gilt carcasses aver-
aged slightly longer than barrow carcasses. 'There were no great differences in
carcasses as influenced by pen and feeder allowance space. In the case of gilts
leanness, as measured by backfat thickness.and percent four lean cuts, appeared
to be a function of rate of gain. Slower gaining gilt groups produced leaner
carcasses. This relationship did not hold for the barrow groups.

Summary

Seventy-two pigs were used in a feeding trial designed primarily to study
differences in voluntary protein consumption of barrows and gilts. Shelled corn
and a completely fortified protein supplement were fed free choice. A secondary
objective was to determine optimal pen capacity in a new research barn.

Gilts consumed approximately one percent moresprotein than barrows as calcu-
lated in the total feed mixture consumed. This difference was manifested in the
feed consumption pattern during-the first four weeks (from approximately 60 100
lbs. body weight) and was maintained throughout the feeding trial. Gilt gains
were more below those of barrows than normally,observed suggesting that the free-
choice feeding regime may place more of.a diet balancing burden on the gilt due
to greater protein requirements. It appears that the pens in the new research
barn, each containing approximately 57 sq. ft. of pig space and equipped with one
three-hole self feeder, will accomodate'at optimal performance.efficiency no more
than 7-8 pigs from weaning to market weight.

Barrows yielded shorter carcasses with more backfat thickness, higher
marbling scores, smaller loin eye areas and less percent of four lean cuts than
gilts. The imposed pen space restrictions did.not seem to affect carcasses from
barrows but in case of the gilts the slower gains resulting from greater crowding
was reflected in leaner carcasses.





- 6-


Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D., M. E. Palmer, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1963. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass
characteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN64-7.

2. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter, Ghazi Taki and G. E. Combs.
1964. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass
characteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN64-16.

3. Crum, R. C., Jr., H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer,.J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1964. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass char-.
acteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN65-3.

4. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1965. A
study of the relationship of feed restriction and dietary protein level in
finishing hogs. Fla. Animal Sci'. Mimeo. Series AN65-9.

5. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1966. Feed
restriction of swine during the finishing period. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul.
706.

6. Wallace, H. D., L. A. Britt, J. W. Carpenter, A. Z. Palmer and G. E., Combs.
1966. Effects of dietary protein levels and amino acid supplementation on
the feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing
swine. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN67-3.

7. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter, L. A. Britt, A. C. Warnick
and G. E. Combs. 1967. Influence of protein level and hormone supplemen-
tation during the finishing period on feedlot performance, carcass charac-
teristics and pork acceptability. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN67-10.

8. Lucas, E. W., H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1968. The influence of sex, protein level, and hormone supplementation on
the feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing
swine. Fla. Animal Science Mimeo. Series AN69-5.

9. Wallace, H. D. 1968. Nutritional and Management Effects on Muscle Charac-
teristics and Quality. Chapter 8. The Pork Industry: Problems and Progress.
Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa.

10. Wallace, H. D., E. W. Lucas, A. Z. Palmer and G. E. Combs. 1970. The
influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine. Fla.
An. Sci. Mimeo. Series No. AN71-1.

11. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1971. The
influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine.
Fla. An. Sci. Mimeo. Series No. AN71-7.

12. Wallace, H. D., E. M. Hervas, A. Z. Palmer and G. E. Combs. 1972. Influence
of protein level, slaughter weight and sex on feedlot performance and carcass
measurements of swine. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimco. Report No. AL-1972-3.




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