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 Introduction and experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeo report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AL-1972-3
Title: Influence of protein level, slaughter weight and sex on feedlot performance and carcass measurements of swine
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073040/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of protein level, slaughter weight and sex on feedlot performance and carcass measurements of swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeo report
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1972
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Carcasses -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 6).
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1972."
Funding: Animal Science Department mimeograph report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073040
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79846034

Table of Contents
    Introduction and experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Summary
        Page 5
    Literature cited
        Page 6
Full Text


"ce-Dertment of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeo Report No. AL-1972-3 Exp riment Station
July, 1972 Gai eft IME A

INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN LEVEL, SLAUGHTER WEIGHT AND S X ON
FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS MEASUREMENTS OF SW NE1 G 4
AUG 4 1972
H. D. Wallace, E. M. Hervas,
A. Z. Palmer and G. E. Combs2/
I.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida

Individual amino acid and total protein requirements of the pig are quite
well established in terms of diet percentage, and it is recognized that these
requirements gradually become less as the pig gains weight. Therefore, in
order to have the most efficient feeding program, a general procedure of
adjusting protein levels downward from levels of-18-20% at.weaning to 15-17%
during early growth to 12-14% during the finishing period has been recommended.

The leaner heavier muscled hog appears to need higher levels of dietary
protein, especially during the finishing period. Finishing levels of 14-16%
are common recommendations today in contrast to levels of 10-12% a few years
ago. The relationship of desirable carcass characteristics and adequate protein
nutrition has been emphasized in several recent reports from this station (1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6' 7, 8, 9).

At the'present time the most desirable weight for finished hogs is generally
accepted as ranging from 200-220 pounds. A 1960 Florida report (10) described
results of slaughtering hogs at 150, 180, 210 and 240 pounds. Returns over feed
cost and the initial cost of the pig indicated an increase in total returns but
at a diminishing rate with each.increase in slaughter weight. Dressing percent,
carcass length, backfat thickness, loin-eye area and percent fat trim increased
with increased slaughter weight. Light weight pigs (150 and 180 pounds) pro-
duced more valuable carcasses per unit of weight than did the heavier pigs (210
and 240 pounds).. A more recent report (11) discusses the feasibility of feeding
meaty hogs to heavier weights. The data indicated that very acceptable carcasses
were obtained from hogs fed to 260 pounds.

The performance and carcass differences of barrows and gilts are well
documented. Sex differences relative to protein requirements have also been
studied (12 and 13).

Experiments reported herein were undertaken to provide information on
protein level, slaughter weight, sex and interrelationships of these factors
relative to feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.

Experimental

This study consisted of two similar experiments and involved a total of
48 crossbred pigs of Duroc, Hampshire and Yorkshire breeding. Each experiment
involved 24 pigs which were individually penned and fed on concrete floors.
Dietary protein level sequences fed were 14-12-10 percent and 16-14-12 percent.

1/ The data presented in this paper were from swine unit experiments 195-C and
195-D.
2/ Wallace, Animal Nutritionist; Hervas, graduate assistant; Palmer, Meats
SScientist and Combs, Animnl Nutritioniit, Dopart.menct of Animal Science,
University of Florida.





2 -
-2-

Pigs were started on the first protein level of the sequence, changed to the
second level at 100 Ibs. and to the third level at 150 lbs. For each experiment
six barrows and six gilts were assigned to each of the protein level sequences.
Three barrows and three gilts from each sequence were slaughtered at 200 pounds
and the other three barrows and gilts were slaughtered at 240 lbs.

All pigs were self fed. Compositions of the diets used are shown in Table 1.

The pigs were weighed and feed consumption determined at two week intervals.
Slaughtering and analytical procedures were as previously described (5).

Table 1. Percent Composition of Diets-

Percent Protein

Ingredient 10 12 14 16 '

SGround yellow corn 94.00 89.25 84.25 79.25
Soybean oilmeal (50%) 3.25 8.00 13.00 18.00
Defluorinated phosphate 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace mineral supplement 0.15 0.15 0. 15 0.15
Vitamin premix (UF)_/ 0.10 0.10 0.10 010
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
1/ Copper oxide was added at a level of 0.19 gm. per lb. of
feed to all diets as a growth stimulant.
2/ Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, Ill. Formula 35Z-95.
Contains 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, ,
0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3/ Contains 6,000 mg. riboflavin; 20,000 mg. niacin; 20,000
mg. pantothenic acid; 80,000 mg. choline chloride; 10,000
mcg. vitamin B12; 2,500,000 I.U. Vitamin A; 400,000 I.C.U.
Vitamin D3 and 10,000 I.U. of vitamin E per pound of
premix.

Results and Discussion

Results of the two experiments are summarized respectively in Tables 2'
and 3.

Daily gain Daily weight gain was not affected significantly by protein
level in Expt. 1. However there was an overall numerical advantage for pigs
on the higher protein sequence. In Expt. 2 the influence was highly significant
(P < .01) with.greater gains observed for pigs on the higher protein level regime. ,
Initial weights were lower in Expt. 2 and this may have in part'acc6unted for the
clearer affect of dietary protein level in this experiment.

Barrows gained significantly faster than gilts in both experiments. Protein
and sex interaction showed significance (P < .05) in Expt. 1. Males gained
faster at both protein levels and responded markedly to the higher protein regime
whereas the gilts did not. This was a somewhat unexpected result. Variation in
performance due to relatively small cperimoitaln groups may offer some explanation.







TABLE 2. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL, SLAUGHTER WEIGHT AND SEX ON FEEDLOT


PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS MEASUREMENTS OF SWINE.


(Experiment


Dietary protein sequence, % ,- 14 12 10 16 14 12


Slaughter wt. lb.
Sex, F = female M = male

No. animals

Initial wt., lb.

Aversce daily feed intake, lb.

Average daily gain, lb.

Feed conversion, Feed/gain lb.

Actual slaughter wt., lb.

Days on test

Dressing percentage

Backfat thickness, in.

Carcass length, in.

Percent four lean cuts

Loin-eye area, sq. in.

Marbling score I/

L. dorsi moisture, %

L. dorsi protein, fresh basis %


fat, fresh basis %


200 230 200 230
F F M M.


200 230 200 230
F F-.. M M

3 -3 .. 3 3

68 -68 .67 66

5.12 5.78 5.69 5.87

1.59 1.75 1.77 1.65

3.22 3.30 3.21 3.55

202 233 198 231

86 95 74 100

71.6 72.3 71.9 72.8

0.93 1.40 1.23 1.50

31.5 32,2 30.4 31.0

56.2 53.6 53.7 51.5

4.31 4.33 3.69 4.07

17.5 16.8 13.0 14.7

74.4 74.4 74.4 74.2

19.6 19.6 19.6 '19.5

5-.30 '5.21. 5,42 5.53


3

65

4.99

1.58

3.15

201

86

71.4

1.20

31.2

54.8

4.16

7.7

74.9

19.4

5.23


3

68

5.37

1.59

3.37

226

100

72.9

1.30

31.5

54.4

5.15

7.7

74.6

19.4

5.11


3

70

5.90

1.90

3.10

200

69

70.3

1.27

30.3

54.6

4.20

9.7

74.2

20.1


5.36 5.27


1/ Slight degree of marbling designated by 7-9, small 10-12, modest 13-15 and moderate 16-18.


L. dorsi


7-9, small 10-12, modest 13-15 and moderate 16-18.


68

5.7?

1.81

3.0 G

23A

88

71.7

1.4:

32.C

53.4

4.45

13.7

74.3

19.7


I/ Slight degree of marbling designated by









TABLE 3. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROTEIN LEVEL, SLAUGHTER WEIGHT AND:SEX-ON FEEDLOT
PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS MEASUREMENTS OF SWINE. (Experiment 2)

Dietary protein sequence, % 14 12 10 16 14 12
Slaughter wt., lb. 200 230 200 230 200 230 200 230
Sex, F = female M = male F. F M M F F M M


No. animals

Initial wt., lb.

Average daily feed intake, lb.

Average daily gain, lb.

Feed conversion, Feed/gain lb.

Actual slaughter wt., lb.

Days on test

Dressing percentage

Backfat thickness, in.

Carcass length, in.

Percent four lean cuts


Loin-eye

Marbling

L. dorsi

L. dorsi


5












6



2

5



1

-j


area, sq. in.

score -/

moisture, %

protein, fresh basis %


L. dorsi fat, fresh basis %


3 3 3 3

3.3 54.0 47.0 47.7

5.15 5.35 5.89 6.18

.1.36 1.41 1.61 1.61

3,77 3.79 3.64 3.85

195 230 196 227

104 124 92 112

9.6 72.5 70.8 70.8

1.27 1.70 1.37 1.80

!9.6 29.9 29.0 30.8

5.4. 50.3 51.2 50.1

4.00 4.69 4.06 4.06

.5.0 18.0 23.3 16.7

3;0-. 72.3 72.1. 72.6

21.3 21.6 21.1 20.4

4.91 5.17 5.15 5.51


1/ Slight degree of marbling designated by 7-9, small 10-12, modest


3

54.0

5.53

1.62

3.43

197

89

69.7

1.23

29.5

55.6

4.64

16.7

72.9

21.0

4.78


3

54.0

5.72

1.70

3.37

228

103

70.2

1.40

31.9

55.0

4.91

10.7

73.4

21.5

5.05


3

41.

5.10

1.66

3.08

198

95

71.3

1.20

29.6

56.8

4.70

9.7

73.1

20.5

5.19


3

53.0

6.13

1.85

3.30

230

S97

70.9

1.53

29.9

52.8

4.75

10.7

73.5

21.3

5.40


-


13-15 and moderate 16-18.






-5-


Overall rate of gain was nt influenced significantly by slaughter weight.

Feed conversion Feed required per pound of gain was affected by dietary
protein level (P < .01) in Expt. 2. Pigs fed the higher protein sequence were
more efficient. In Expt. 1 a similar but non-significant trend was observed. -f
Differences in feed conversion between barrows and gilts were very small. Pigs
fed to 230 pounds required 0.13 more pounds of feed per pound of gain than pigs
fed to 200 pounds.

Carcass characteristics Dressing percentage was not influenced significantly -
by protein level or sex. Pigs slaughtered at the 230 pound weight dressed higher
than those slaughtered at 200 pounds. In Expt. 2 pigs fed the lower protein
sequence showed greater backfat thicknesses (P < .01). Pigs slaughtered at the
heavier weight and barrows showed greater backfat thicknesses in both experiments
(P < .01). Carcass lengths were greater for gilts and for pigs slaughtered at
the heavier weight but were not significantly affected by protein level. Percent
lean cuts tended to increase on the higher protein sequence. This difference
was highly significant in Expt. 2. Animals slaughtered at 200 pounds yielded a
higher percentage of lean cuts in both experiments (P < .05). There were no
statistically significant differences due to sex, nevertheless differences favored
gilts in both experiments.

Data on loin eye area, marbling scores and chemical determinations, L. dorsi
muscle samples for water, protein and fat were variable but in general tended to
supplement the carcass measurements discussed above.

Summary

Two experiments were conducted.to determine the effect of dietary protein
level (16-14-12 and 14-12-10 % sequences), slaughter weight (200 and 230 pounds),
sex (barrows and gilts) and interrelationships of these factors.

The higher protein sequence generally increased rate of gain and improved
feed conversion. Surprisingly however, barrows tended to respond even more than
gilts. Lower marbling scores, less muscle fat and reduced backfat thicknesses
were clearly evident in the higher protein-fed pigs. Loin eye areas and percent ..
four lean cuts also illustrated the superiority of the higher protein regime
for development of greater carcass leanness.

Pigs slaughtered at 200 pounds gained at approximately the same rate and
required 0.13 pounds less feed per pound gain than pigs slaughtered at 230 pounds.
Lighter weight:pigs also yielded a greater percent of four lean cuts (54.80 vs.
52.63). Pigs slaughtered at;.230 pounds yielded carcasses with greater length,
more backfat thickness, and larger loin eye areas. Dressing percentage also
favored the heavier hogs.

Barrows gained much faster than gilts'but-feed conversions were quite
similar. Although differences were generally not statistically significant
carcass measurements slhowdc tlhe t*s'il t-.rld t CS :tri .e.nne *-IcanOes for gilts.






Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D., M. E. Palmer, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1963. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass
characteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN64-7.

2. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter, Ghazi Taki and G. E. Combs.
1964. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass
characteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN64-16.

3. Crum, R. C., Jr., H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1964. The influence of protein level on feedlot performance and carcass char-.
acteristics of barrows and gilts. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN65-3.

4. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1965. A
study of the relationship of feed restriction and dietary protein level in
finishing hogs. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN65-9.

5. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1966. Feed
restriction of swine during the finishing period. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 706.

6. Wallace, H. D., L. A. Britt, J. W. Carpenter, A. Z. Palmer and G. E. Combs.
1966. Effects of dietary protein levels and amino acid supplementation on
the feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.of growing-finishing
swine. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN67-3....

7. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carptenter, L. A. Britt, A. C. Warnick
and G. E. Combs. 1967. Influence of protein level and hormone supplemen-
tation during the finishing period on feedlot performance, carcass character-
istics and pork acceptability. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series AN67-10.

8. Lucas, E. W., H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs.
1968. The influence of sex, protein level, and hormone supplementation on
the feedlot.performance and carcass characteristics.of growing-finishing
swine. Fla. Animal Science Mimeo. Series AN69-5.

9. Wallace, H. D. 1968. Nutritional and Management Effects .on Muscle
Characteristics and Quality. Chapt. 8. The Pork Industry: Problems
and Progress. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa.

10 Wallace, H. D., G. E. McCabe, A. Z. Palmer, M. Koger, J. W. Carpenterand
G. E. Combs. 1960. The influence of slaughter weight on economy of pro-
duction and carcass value of swine. Fla. An. Husb, and Nutr. Mimeo. Series
No. 60-12.

11. Hollis, G. R., J. S. Scott, A. Z. Palmer and J. W. Carpenter. 1969. Effect
of slaughter weight on feed cost and carcass value of meat-type barrows and
gilts. Suwannee Valley Expt. Sta. Mimeo.,Series No. SVS 70-2.

12. Wallace, H. D., E. W. Lucas, A. Z. Palmer an&:G. ,E. Combs. 1970. The
influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine.
Fla. An. Sci. Mimeo. Series No. AN 71-1.

13. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1971. The
influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine.
Fla. An. Sci. Mimeo. Series No. AN71-7.




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