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 Introduction and experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 List of Tables














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AN71-8
Title: Dichlorvos as a late gestation dietary supplement for sows
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073038/00001
 Material Information
Title: Dichlorvos as a late gestation dietary supplement for sows
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subject: Sows -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Phosphorus in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September , 1971."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073038
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79843701

Table of Contents
    Introduction and experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 3
    Literature cited
        Page 3
    List of Tables
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text


S/Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN71-8 Experiment Station
September, 1971 Gainesville, Florida

DICHLORVOS AS A LATE GESTATION DIETARY SUPPLEMENT FOR SOWS a/

H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs b/


Studies by Batte et al. (1) Foster (2) and Singh et al. (3) have indicated
that 2,2 dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (Dichlorvos) improved the reproductive
performance of sows when administered during the last 3-4 weeks of gestation. The
improvement was associated with more live pigs per litter and heavier birth weights.
Blood and tissue data suggested that the improvement may be related to increased
blood glucose and liver glycogen levels in pigs from dichlorvos treated sows. More
recently Hollis (4) and Anderson and Wahlstrom (5) failed to confirm the beneficial
effects of dichlorvos on sow reproduction.

In December of 1967 a study was initiated at the Florida Station to determine
if dichlorvos would improve the reproductive performance of sows and gilts. The
main objective was to measure reproductive response from the feeding of dichlorvos
over and above that which might accrue from the anthelmintic properties of the
compound. In other words, it was our purpose to determine the practical impact
of the reported improvement in carbohydrate metabolism of pigs farrowed from
dichlorvos fed sows.

Experimental

A total of twelve farrowings were involved in this study. The first was in
January of 1968 and the final in March of 1970. Twenty one days prior to the
time the first sow was due to farrow in each farrowing sows were divided into
similar groups according to breed, age and previous performance. One group was
designated control and the other treated.

In an effort to control internal parasites in both groups so that the
anthelmintic effect of the dichlorvos would be eliminated from the response
differences hygromycin was fed to both groups in the first eight farrowings.
In the final four farrowings this compound was fed to the control sows only.
Hygromycin was fed at a level of 24 gm. per ton of feed commencing 21 days
prior to the farrowing of the first sow and continued through the two week
lactation period. Sows in the treated groups were fed dichlorvos at a level
calculated t'o"provide a daily intake per sow of 800 mg. This supplementation
commenced 21 days prior to the farrowing of the first sow. Each farrowing
covered a maximum of three weeks. Thus some sows were treated for as long as
42 days. The average period of individual sow supplementation was about 30
days. Dichlorvos was discontinued on the day of parturition.

a/ This study was supported in part by grants from Shell Chemical Company,
Princeton, New Jersey. The authors are also grateful to Merck and Company,
Rahway, New Jersey and Chas. Pfizer and Company, Terre Haute, Indiana for
supplying vitamin supplements and to Eli Lilly and Company, Greenfield
Indiana for supplying Hygromix. Theda&ta.resented in this paper were from
swine unit experiment No. 188. : DIV
b/ Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutrltion i-s -Dl mi f animal Science.

OCT 2 1371


i.FA.S. Univ. of Florida






- 2 -


The basal feed mixture is described in Table 1. During the final year of
the study the vitamin supplementation was altered slightly. This accounts for
the two feed mixtures designated as Diet 1 and Diet 2. The change in vitamin
supplementation was of routine nature and was considered to be of no consequence
relative to effect on experimental results.

During gestation all sows were maintained in pasture lots and fed once per
day in individual feeding stalls. The level of feeding was 4 lb. per head per
day during early gestation and 5 lb. per head per day late in gestation when
the dichlorvos supplementation was begun. During lactation all sows were fed
twice per day, being driven from farrowing stalls in the barn to individual
feeding stalls in an adjoining wing, except for the final two farrowings in
which sows were fed in the farrowing stalls. During lactation sows were given
as much feed as they would consume.

The pigs were weighed and ear notched on the day of birth. Needle teeth
were clipped and navel cords were tied off, clipped and treated with iodine.
At 5-7 days of age all pigs received a single injection containing 100 mg. of
iron. Creep feed was made available to all litters at one week of age. All
litters were weaned at two weeks of age.

Results and Discussion

Results of the study are summarized in Tables 2 and 3. Performance of
control sows is summarized in Table 2 and for treated sows in Table 3.

The treated sows farrowed an average of 10.42 live pigs per litter while
control sows farrowed 9.76 live pigs. This is a sizable difference but cannot
be interpreted as a treatment effect since litter size was established well
before the dichlorvos treatment was initiated. Also there were no significant
differences in the numbers of pigs born dead or numbers of observed mummified
fetuses to suggest any beneficial effect of the dichlorvos on late utero
survival. The difference in number of live pigs born per litter which favored
the treated sows may have been due to age difference of sows. The treated sows
averaged slightly more mature (2.75 litters vs. 2.50 litters farrowed). This
may account in part for the difference in average litter size.

Average birth weight of pigs from treated sows was 2.92 pounds compared
to 2.98 pounds for pigs from control sows. It is apparent that the dichlorvos
did not increase birth weights.

The numbers of pigs weaned per litter were 8.66 and 8.14 for treated and
control sows respectively. This difference is readily accounted for by the
initial difference which existed in litter size at birth. Percent survival
was very similar for the two groups.

Average pig weaning weights were 7.59 and 7.87 pounds for treated and
control litters respectively. The somewhat heavier pigs weaned from the control
sows is at least partially explained by the smaller litter size. However, it
is quite clear that dichlorvos did not improve the growth of suckling pigs
during the two week period studied.






- 3 -


Summary

Two hundred and twenty four litters of pigs, farrowed over a 26 month
period, were utilized to evaluate the supplemental effects of dichlorvos
during late gestation.

Live pigs born per litter, average birth weight per pig, number of pigs
born dead, number of resorbing fetuses, number of pigs weaned per litter,
average weaning weight at two weeks of age and survival percentage were the
measurement criteria involved. None of these measurements confirmed previous
reports of beneficial effects from dichlorvos feeding. These data indicate
that if carbohydrate metabolism was favorably influenced by the supplemental
feeding of dichlorvos as indicated by other studies, the effect was of no
practical consequence under the conditions of this study.














Literature Cited


1. Batte, E. G., 0. W. Robinson and D. J. Moncol.
fed to sows upon pig survival and growth rates.
Animal Prod. p. 472..


1968. Effects of dichlorvos
Proc. 2nd World Conf. on


2. Foster, J. R. 1968. Effect of 2,2 dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate on
reproductive performance of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 27; 1774 (Abstract).


3. Singh, V. K.,
fed to gravid
Sci 27; 1779


C. T. Perkins and M. A. Schooley. 1968. Effects of dichlorvos
sows on performance of their offspring to weaning. J. Anim.
(Abstract). .


4. Hollis, G. R. 1969. Effect of dichlorvos fed to sows upon reproductive
performance. Fla. Suwannee Valley Expt. Sta. Mimeo. Series No. SVS70-4.

5. Anderson, R. H. and R. C. Wahlstrom. 1970. :Effects. of energy.intake and
dichlorvos during gestation on reproductive performance of gilts and some
chemical characteristics of the offspring. J. Anim. Sci. 31; 907 916.






- 3 -


Summary

Two hundred and twenty four litters of pigs, farrowed over a 26 month
period, were utilized to evaluate the supplemental effects of dichlorvos
during late gestation.

Live pigs born per litter, average birth weight per pig, number of pigs
born dead, number of resorbing fetuses, number of pigs weaned per litter,
average weaning weight at two weeks of age and survival percentage were the
measurement criteria involved. None of these measurements confirmed previous
reports of beneficial effects from dichlorvos feeding. These data indicate
that if carbohydrate metabolism was favorably influenced by the supplemental
feeding of dichlorvos as indicated by other studies, the effect was of no
practical consequence under the conditions of this study.














Literature Cited


1. Batte, E. G., 0. W. Robinson and D. J. Moncol.
fed to sows upon pig survival and growth rates.
Animal Prod. p. 472..


1968. Effects of dichlorvos
Proc. 2nd World Conf. on


2. Foster, J. R. 1968. Effect of 2,2 dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate on
reproductive performance of swine. J. Anim. Sci. 27; 1774 (Abstract).


3. Singh, V. K.,
fed to gravid
Sci 27; 1779


C. T. Perkins and M. A. Schooley. 1968. Effects of dichlorvos
sows on performance of their offspring to weaning. J. Anim.
(Abstract). .


4. Hollis, G. R. 1969. Effect of dichlorvos fed to sows upon reproductive
performance. Fla. Suwannee Valley Expt. Sta. Mimeo. Series No. SVS70-4.

5. Anderson, R. H. and R. C. Wahlstrom. 1970. :Effects. of energy.intake and
dichlorvos during gestation on reproductive performance of gilts and some
chemical characteristics of the offspring. J. Anim. Sci. 31; 907 916.






-4 -


Table 1. Composition of Basal Feed Mixtures Fed During
Gestation and Lactation


Diet 1 a/ Diet 2 b/
Ground yellow corn 61.45 62.55
Ground whole oats 20.00 20.00
Soybean oilmeal (50%) 15.30 15.30
Ground limestone 0.75 0.75
Defluorinated phosphate 0.75 0.75
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace mineral mix (CCC) C/ 0.10 0.10
Vitamin supplement (Merck) d/ 0.05
Vitamin supplement (UF) e 0.05
Vitamin B12 supplement (Merck) / 0.10 -
Vitamin A and D supplement & 1.00 -
100.00 100.00
a/ Fed in January 1968 through January 1969 farrowings.
b/ Fed in March 1969 through March 1970 farrowings.
c/ Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, Ill. Contained 11%
calcium, 10% manganese, 10% iron, 10% zinc, 1% copper,
0.3% iodine and 0.1% cobalt.
d/ Contained 8,000 mg. riboflavin; 14,720 mg. pantothenic
acid; 36,000 mg. niacin and 40,000 mg. choline chloride
per pound of supplement.
e/ Contained 6,000 mg. riboflavin, 20,000 mg. niacin,
12,000 mg. pantothenic acid; 80,000 mg. choline chloride;
10,000 mcg. vitamin B12; 2,500,000 I.U. of vitamin A;
400,000 I.C.U. vitamin D3 and 10,000 I.U. of vitamin E
per pound of supplement.
f/ Contained 20 mg. B12 per pound.
g/ Contained 4.6 gm. Vitamin A supplement (30,000 I.U./
gm.); 0.25 gm. Vitamin D supplement (200,000 I.U./gm.)
and 449 gm. yellow corn per pound.













Table 2. Influence of Dichlorvos on the Reproductive Performance
of Sows (Control Animals)


No.
Av. Birth No. Pigs Resorbing No. Pigs Av. Pig Wt.
Farrowing No. No. Live Wt./Pig Born Dead Fetuses Weaned At Weaning %
Period Litters Pigs/Litter (lb.) Per Litter Per Litter Per Litter (lb.) Survival


Jan. 1968 6 9.50 2.90 0.67 0.87 8.80 8.40 92.6
Mar. 1968 14" 9.64 3.02 0.50 1.00 8.64 7.62 89.6
May 1968 10 8.90 3.21 0.30 0.50 7.10 7.76 79.8
Aug. 1968 9 9.56 2.98 0.33 0.22 7.67 7.27 80.2
Oct. 1968 12 9.58 3.22 0.17 0.25 8.25 7.47 86.1
Jan. 1969 10 10.50 3.00 0.80 0.90 8.70 8.04 82.9
Mar. 1969 10 10.50 2.81 0.80 0.40 8.40 7.58 80.0
June 1969 13 9.85 2.94 0.46 0.31 8.38 7.50 85.1
Aug. 1969 5 7.80 3.16 0.40 0.40 5.60 7.31 71.8
Nov. 1969 7 11.29 2.58 0.14 0.00 9.14 7.00 81.0
Jan. 1970 5 10.60 2.89 0.60 0.40 9.20 9.31 86.8
ilar. 1970 11 9.27 2.91 1.00 0.45 7.36 8.99 79.4


WEIGHTEDD MEANS 9.76


0.52 0.49


8.14 7.87 83.4


2.98















"Table 3.


Influence of Dichlorvos on the Reproductive-Performance
of Sows (Treated Animals)


No.
Av. Birth No. Pigs Resorbing No. Pigs Av. Pig Wt.
Farrowing No. No. Live Wt./Pig Born Dead Fetuses Weaned At Weaning %
Period Litters Pigs/Litter (lb.) Per Litter Per Litter Per Litter (lb.) Survival


Jan. 1968 9 10.00 t.10 0.89 0.67 8.10 8.10 81.0
Mar. 1968 14 10.64 2.88 0.07 0.93 9.29 7.19 87.3
May 1968 9 9.89 ?.01 1.22 0.22 8.22 7.36 83.1
Aug. 1968 9 11.33 ,.02 0.56 0.22 9.44 7.09 33.3
Oct. 1968 14 10.64 2.93 0.43 0.71 9.21 7.32 86.6
Tan. 1969 10 10.60 3.01 0.60 0.30 8.50 8.21 30.2
lar. 1969 j3 9.70 2.93 0.50 0.10 3.60 7.96 88.7
June 1969 8 10.75 2.84 0.38 0.50 8.75 6.52 81.4
Xug. 1^99 8 10.38 2.92 1.00 0.50 7.62 6.66 73.4
Aov. 1969 5 9.40 2.89 0.20 0.00 7.80 8.09 83.0
Jan 1970 7 11.58 2.71 0.43 0.43 8.86 7.94 76.5
.4ar. 1970 9 9.78 2.77 0.22 0.22 8.44 8.78 85.4


2.92 9.53 0.45


WEIGHTED MEANS 10.42


8.66 7.59 83.1




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