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 Introduction and experimental
 Results, discussion, and summa...
 Literature cited
 List of Tables














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AN71-7
Title: The influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073037/00001
 Material Information
Title: The influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1971."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073037
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79843550

Table of Contents
    Introduction and experimental
        Page 1
    Results, discussion, and summary
        Page 2
    Literature cited
        Page 3
    List of Tables
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text
U -

/ Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
'Mimeograph Series No. AN 71-7 Experiment Station
-.- August, 1971 Gainesville, Florida

THE INFLUENCE OF SEX ON THE PROTEIN RQUIREMENT
OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE a

H. D. Wallace, A. Z. Palmer,
J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs /


It is common practice to feed barrows and gilts in mixed groups. But this
may not be the optimal procedure in terms of enterprise efficiency. For several
years marked differences in feedlot performance and carcass characteristics have
been recognized. Barrows eat more and gain faster. Gilts gain more efficiently
and produce carcasses which yield more lean meat. Such differences are well
documented (1).

Since gilts yield more lean meat it is reasonable to assume that protein
requirements may be somewhat more critical. In a previous report (1) it was
stated that gilts were penalized more than barrows when dietary protein levels
were low. A more recent experiment (2) substantiated the observation that
suboptimal protein levels affected daily gains and feed conversion more adversely
for gilts' than for barrows. The two experiments summarized here are a part of
a continuing effort to determine if gilts do need .more protein in the diet and
to define thd~practical implications involved.

S '' Experimental

In the first experiment 64 crossbred pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire .x Hampshire) were
randomly allotted by outcome groups, formed on the basis of sex,;'litter and
weight, to eight pens of eight pigs each. The experiment involved four pens of
gilts and four pens of barrows.

In the second experiment 48 crossbred pigs (Duroc-Yorkshire x Hampshire)
were randomly allotted by outcome groups, formed on the basis of sex, litter
and weight to four pens of seven gilts each and four pens of 5 barrows each.

Four protein level sequences (17-15-13, 16-14-12, 15-13-11, and 14-12-10%)
were studied in both experiments. Protein levels were adjusted downward as the
average pig weight in each pen reached 100 pounds and then a second downward
adjustment was made when weights averaged 150 pounds.

All pigs were self fed in concrete pens with .water furnished by automatic
watering devices.

Composition of the feed mixtures is presented 'in' Table 1.

Animals were slaughtered at a final weight o!f 220 + 5 pounds according to
standard'procedure and carcass data were obtained according to previously described
procedures (3).

a/ The data presented in this paper were from swine unit experiment Nos. 195-A
and 195-B. -- -r,
b/ Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists; Pa me dJ|ar aet Scientists,
Department of Animal Science. .
S AU 3! 9 /


lF.A.S. Uv.of o







- 2 -


Results and Discussion

Summaries of results for Experiments 1 and 2 are presented in Tables 2
and 3 respectively.

In Experiment 1 barrows consumed more feed and gained faster than gilts.
Feed intake for gilts was quite consistent at all levels of protein while
barrows consumed less feed as protein levels were reduced. The influence of
protein level on rate of gain was a consistent effect for gilts, with each
reduction in protein causing a reduction in gain. For barrows gains were
similar at the three higher protein sequences but much reduced for the 14-12-10
sequence. Differences in gains were highly significant (P < .01) for both sexes
when the high and low protein sequences were compared. Based on performance it
would appear that the 17-15-13 was optimal for gilts while barrows did as well
on 15-13-11 as they did on the higher levels. The 14-12-10 sequence was
inadequate for both sexes. Dressing percentages, backfat thicknesses and carcass
lengths were all somewhat variable and..showed no consistent patterns due to sex
or dietary protein level influences. .Loin eye muscle size tended to decrease
with reduced protein level. This was evident with both sexes but somewhat more
pronounced in gilts. Carcasses from gilts fed the low level protein diet yielded
significantly less (P < .01) percent 4 lean cuts. Similarly, barrows on the low
protein diet yielded less lean meat, but there was little difference in yield
from pigs fed the three higher protein regimes. Marbling scores indicated that
both gilts and barrows fed the high protein sequence showed the least marbling
and the most marbling was recorded for the animals fed the 15-13-11% protein.
In general, gilts yielded slightly longer and heavier muscled carcasses than
barrows.

In Experiment 2, as in Experiment 1, barrows consumed more feed and gained
faster than gilts. Gilts on the low protein regime consumed considerably less
feed than gilts on the other protein levels. Barrows fed the 16-14-12 and
14-12-10 protein sequences consumed the most feed. However, feed conversion for
both gilts and barrows, showed little influence of dietary protein level. As in
Experiment 1, gilts gained slower at each reduced protein level. Barrows showed
no particular pattern of gains,as influenced by protein level and results did not
complement those of Experiment. Barrows gained significantly faster than gilts
(P < .05). In terms of feedlot performance gilts performed best on the high level
protein sequence whereas barrows did quite well on all levels. Gilts showed
higher dressing percentages, less backfat thickness and longer carcasses than
barrows. Barrows fed the low level protein sequence averaged exceptionally high
in backfat thickness (1.75 in.). Gilt carcasses had larger loin eye muscles
(P < 05). The low protein level produced carcasses with the smallest loin eye
muscles in both sexes, being most pronounced in barrows. Percent 4 lean cuts
followed about the same pattern as loin eye measurements. In this experiment
marbling scores were variable for both gilts and barrows and showed no uniform
protein level influence.

Summary

Two experiments involving a total of 112 pigs have been conducted to determine
the influence of sex giltss vs. barrows) on dietary protein requirements. Four
dietary protein level sequences were studied (17-15-13, 16-14-12, 15-13-11 and
14-12-10).








In both experiments gilts performed best on the 17-15-13% protein regime.
In the first experiment barrows appeared to need no more than the 15-13-11% and
in the second experiment 14-12-10% seemed adequate for optimum gain and feed
conversion.

Carcass measurements indicated that 16-14-12% protein was adequate for the
gilts and 15-13-11% protein was adequate for the barrows.

This study tends to confirm that gilts require somewhat more protein in
the diet than barrows for optimum feedlot performance and carcass development.















Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D. 1968. Nutritional and Management Effects on Muscle
Characteristics and Quality. Chapt. 8. The Pork Industry: Problems
and Progress. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa.

2. Wallace, H. D., E. W. Lucas, A. Z. Palmer and G. E. Combs. 1970. The
influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine.
Fla. An. Sci. Mimeo Series No. AN 71-1.

3. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1966.
Feed restriction of swine during the finishing period. Florida Bulletin
706.
















Table 1. Composition of Experimental Feed Mixtures



Percent Protein 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10i


Ground yellow corn 76.75 79.25 81.75 84.25 86.75 89.25 91.75 94.00
Soybean oilmeal (50%) 20.50 18:00 15.50 13.00 10.50 8.00 5.50 3.25
Defluorinated phosphate 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace mineral premix (CCC)- 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Vitamin premix (UF)-/. 0:10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 O.iO 0.10
Copper oxide (CuO) (19 gm) (19 gm) (19 gm) (19 gm) (19 rm) (19 gm) (19 gm) (19 gm)


/ Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, Ill. Formula 35Z-95. Contains 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper,,
0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
1/ Contains 6,000 mg. riboflavin; 20,000 mg. niacin; 12,000 mg. pantothenic acid; 80,000 mg. choline chloride;
10,000 mcg. vitamin B12; 2,500,000 I.U. of Vitamin A; 400,000 I.C.U. Vitamin D3 and 10,000 I.U. of Vitamin E
per pound of premix.














Table 2. Influence of Dietary Protein Level on the Performance and Carcass
Characteristics of Gilts and Barrows (Experiment 1)


Sex SGilts Barrows
Protein level, % 17-15-13 16-14-12 15-13-11 14-12-10 17-15-13 16-14-12 15-13-11 14-12-10


No. pigsa 8(5) 8(5) 8(7) 7(6) 8(7) 7(6) 8(6) 8(5)
Av. initial wt., lb. 70.4 68.9 69.1 71.7 68.1 67.0 68.1 67.9
Av. final wt.,Ib. 217.8 217.3 219.1 219.0 217.6 220.1 220.8 213.6
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.74 1.65 1.59 1.49 1.80 1.79 1.78 1 50
Daily feed intake, lb. 5.66 5.66 5.50 5.64 6.35 6.29 5.97 5.20
Feed/unit gain, lb. 3.25 3.43 3.46 3.79 3.53 3.51 3.35 3.47
Av. no. days on test 86.6 91.0 95.4 102.0 84.0 86.0 88.4 104.1
Dressing percent 73.1 72.3 71.9 72.6 .71.8 72.6 71.9 72.8
Backfat thickness, in. 1.41 1.33 1.40 1.47 1.46 1.33 1.44 1.46
Carcass length, in. 30.48 30.67 30.99 .. 31.33 29.97 30.63 30.70 30.68
Loin eye area, sq. in. 4.81 4.76 4.30 4.07 4.14 4.13 4.08 3.88
Percent 4 lean cuts 52.80 53.53 52.24 51.27 50.40 51.00 51.12 49.62
4Marbling scored/ 8.80 14.70 19.43 14.00 11.29 13.17 18.00 14.20


a/ The numbers in-parentheses indicate the number of pigs slaughtered. One gilt fed the 14-12-10% protein
sequence and one barrow fed the 16-14-12% protein sequence died of undetermined cause during the experiment.
Data for these animals were excluded with proper adjustments for feed intake being made for the groups
involved.
Slight degree of marbling designated by 8; small, 11; modest, 14; moderate 16; 22 and over abundant.


f." t.
















Table 3. Influence of Dietary Protein Level on the Performance and Carcass
Characteristics of Gilts and Barrows (Experiment 2)


Sex Gilts Barrows
Protein level, % 17-15-13 16-14-12 15-13-11 14-12-10 17-15-13 16-14-12 15-13-11 14-12-10


No. pigs/ 7(5) 7(5) 7(5) 7(5) 5(5) 5(5) 5(5) 5(5)
Av. initial wt., lb. 57.5 57.1 57.1 57.0 53.8 53.8 52.4 53.0
Av. final wt., lb. 215.9 219.0 220.6 217.4 218.8 215.8 217.2 220.6
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.67 1.62 1.60 1.52. 1.70 1.85 1.65 1.77
Daily feed intake, lb. 5.39 5.44 5.41 5.16 5.67 6.04 5.52 5.97
Feed/unit gain, lb. 3.23 3.36 3.38 3.39 3.34 3.26 3.35 3.37
Av. no. days on test 95.4 101.4 103.7 107.9 97.8 .88.0 102.6 97.8
Dressing percent 71.3 72.5 71.4 71.0 71.5 69.9 71.6 69.3
Backfat thickness, in. 1.58 1.47 1.52 1.50 1.51 1.59 1.59 1.75
Carcass length, in. 30.90 31.26 30.80 31.28 30.58 31.04 30.52 31.00
Loin eye area, sq. in. 4.19 4.51 4.58 4.17 4.25 4.07 4.08 3.71
Percent 4 lean cuts 52.28 52.70 54.18 51.92 51.52 51.94 51.74 49.94
Marbling score- 13.60 8.80 14.60 12.40 11.60 15.40 8.20 13.80


a/ The numbers in parentheses indicate the number of pigs slaughtered.
/ Slight degree of marbling designated by 8; small, 11; modest, 14; and moderate, 16.




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