• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Introduction
 Procedure
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited
 List of Tables














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AN71-3
Title: Lean, bone and fat percentages in beef and dairy X beef crosses
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073032/00001
 Material Information
Title: Lean, bone and fat percentages in beef and dairy X beef crosses
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 15 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Palmer, A. Z
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subject: Beef -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 5).
Statement of Responsibility: A.Z. Palmer ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1971."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073032
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79828016

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Procedure
        Page 2
    Results and discussion
        Page 3
    Summary
        Page 4
    Literature cited
        Page 5
    List of Tables
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text



SHUME LIBRARY U--_ LR

VIUME LIBRARY
Department of Animal Sci ce li(F'ori]d8agricul ural Ex riment Station
Mimeograph Series No. N71-3 Gainesville, F rida
May, 1971 MAY ,7 1971
S.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida

LEAN, BONE AND FAT PERCENTAGES IN BEEF AND DAIRY X BE SESUniv. of Florida

A. Z. Palmer, J. S. Scott, D. E. Franke and J. F. Hentges, Jr.l/

Consumer demands for quality beef containing more red meat and less
trimmable fat continue to be felt at the retail level. To meet these con-
sumer demands, producers are becoming keenly interested in breeding, feeding
and management practices that aim toward the production of beef carcasses
with more red meat and less waste fat. Waldman et al. (1971) reported that
the preference for beef with a lower fat to muscle ratio has contributed
to the increased production of the block beef from animals of the larger
dairy breeds. Palmer (1969), discussing carcass characteristics of the
modern meat type steer, emphasized the importance of gainability of the
steer, gradeability or meat quality of the carcass and cutability or the
ratio of red meat to waste fat in the carcass. Cunha and Palmer (1969)
reported on the waste fat problems in beef and the economic losses Involved
in the production of overfinisned beef carcasses.

Guenther et al. (1965) studied rate of muscle growth in beef calves
on two planes of nutrition from weaning to selected slaughter weights.
Maximum muscle growth occurred during the first 125 kg increase in post-
weaning live weight. Steers on the high plane of nutrition produced more
(P<.05) lean than those on the moderate plane on an age constant basis.
However, carcass lean content was similar between the nutritional levels on
a weight constant basis.

Waldman et al. (1971) studied nutritional influences and the effect of
live slaughter weights from birth to 590 kg on carcass composition using 171
Holstein steers. Increases in fat and bone were small compared to muscle
during early growth to 227 kg liveweight. At approximately 227 kg liveweight,
fat deposition accelerated to where increases in carcass fat were similar
to increases in muscle weight. Muscle growth was not influenced up to 341
kg liveweight by high or restricted energy diets; steers fed to 455 and 590
kg on restricted energy diets produced significantly more muscle than steers
fed to comparable weights on high energy regimens.

Although the scientific literature provides useful data on rate of
muscle growth of beef and dairy calves, a further need exists for information
on the rate of muscle development with Dairy x British and British x British cross-
bred calves. The objectives of this preliminary study were:


/ Palmer, Meat Scientist; Scott, Meat Laboratory Manager; Franke, Assistant
Animal Geneticist; Hentges, Animal Nutritionist. The assistance of
Jack Farrell, Laboratory Technologist is gratefully acknowledged.






- 2-


1. To compare the lean, fat and bone composition of British and British
crossbred carcasses with Dairy x British crossbred carcasses.


2. To determine the effect of plane of nutrition on the lean, fat and
bone composition of British, crossbred British and Dairy x British
crossbred carcasses.

3. To determine the effects of length of feeding period on the lean,
fat and bone composition of carcasses of the aforementioned breeding.

PROCEDURE

Table 1 presents the experimental design of this study wherein 60
weanling steers representing four breed groups were selected from the cattle
breeding program of the A. G. Dozier School for Boys, Marianna, Florida.
The four groups of calves were British straightbred (Herefords and Angus),
British crossbred (Hereford X Angus), Brown Swiss X British crossbred and
Holstein X British crossbred. Representative calves of each breed group
were slaughtered shortly after all calves were trucked to Gainesville for
feeding. Remaining calves of the four breed groups were placed on "con-
centrate" and "silage" diets for 84, 126 and 168 days. Complete details
of the rations fed, management involved and feedlot data obtained in the
production of the carcasses used in this study are reported by Hentges et al.
(1971).

At the end of each feeding period, the steers were trucked a short
distance to the Meats Laboratory for overnight holding and slaughter. Car-
casses were chilled at 340F for 48-72 hours before evaluation by a U.S.D.A.
beef grader. Dressing percent was calculated by the following formula:

48 hr. chilled carcass wt. 1
Dressing % = Meat Lab. unloading wt. X 100

Carcass quality data were coded numerically for averaging as indicated
in Appendix Table 1.

Carcass cutability data such as hot carcass weight, fat thickness over
the rib eye, rib eye area and estimated percent kidney and pelvic fat were
obtained according to U.S.D.A. yield grading procedures and the previously
reported procedures of Murphey et al. (1960). U.S.D.A. yield grades and
U.S.D.A. percent carcass yields-of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts
from the round, loin, rib and chuck) were calculated using the aforementioned
data.

Lean, fat and bone components of the entire right side of each carcass
were physically separated. Side weights upon which lean, fat and bone per-
centages were based were taken immediately prior to cutting into wholesale
cuts and dissection. Cooler shrink of the carcasses before cutting was
variable due to variable holding times in the coolers. More than 80 man
hours of labor was required per side for cutting and component separation
and therefore, it was not possible to cut all sides within a narrow range
of time post-mortem. However, an effort was made to standardize post-mortem






- 3 -


cooler holding time of carcasses between breed groups and feeding regime
subgroups. Side breaking and dissection, performed under 50F refrigera-
tion was completed usually within 10 to 12 hours.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Considerable variation was found in this study in lean, fat and bone
components of sixty beef carcasses. Table 2 shows that lean ranged from
45.1 to 62.2 percent, fat varied from 18.7 to 43.1 percent and bone ranged
from 10.8 to 22.5 percent. Variations in carcass composition are attribu-
table to slaughter weight or days on feed, energy levels of the rations fed,
breeding of the steers and individuality. Slaughter weights ranged from
328 to 1102 lb., U.S.D.A. grade from utility plus to average choice. Table
2 points out the variability of the carcasses studied in fat thickness over
the rib eye, rib eye area, estimated percent kidney and pelvic fat and
U.S.D.A. yield grade.


Effect of Slaughter Weight. The general effect of slaughter weight or
days on feed on lean, fat and bone percent is presented in Table 3. The
calves slaughtered initially provided carcasses that contained 58.3 percent
trimmable lean, 21.4 percent fat and 18.9 percent bone. After 84, 126 and
168 days on feed, the steers hung up carcasses with lean content of 59.3,
54.5 and 51.4 percent, respectively; percent fat increased to 25.4, 31.4
and 34.7 percent from initial level of 21.4 percent. Percent bone declined
from the initial percentage of 18.9 to 14.9 then 13.4 and 13.1 percent as the
carcasses became heavier in line with the number of days the steers were on
feed. Also, as feeding progressed, slaughter weight, dressing percent and
carcass quality parameters increased; in general, carcass cutability or
meatiness changed more during the last 84 days that the steers were on feed
than during the first 84 day period. Figure 1 graphically illustrates the
decline in percent carcass lean, particularly during the last 84 day feed-
ing period regardless of breeding or type of ration fed.

Effect of Rations. Tables 4, 5, 6 and 7 present slaughter, carcass
quality and carcass cutability characteristics as well as separable carcass
components lean, fat and bone as influenced by type of rations fed. These
data clearly indicate (see also Figure 1) that concentrate feeding lowered
percent of carcass lean in all breed groups as compared with the silage
ration; this effect became most apparent during the last 84 days of feeding.
Concentrate feeding lowered percent carcass lean to a greater extent in the
British straightbred and British crossbred steers than in the Dairy X British
steers.

Percent separable carcass fat increased with length of feeding period
or with increased carcass weight as may be noted in Tables 3, 4, 5, 6 and
7. However, as expected, percent fat increased more rapidly in the carcasses
from steers fed the concentrate ration; rate of fat deposition was most rapid
during the last 84 day feeding period for the straightbred British and Cross-
bred British steers.









Effect of Breeding. A somewhat higher percentage of separable lean was
found initially in the straightbred and crossbred British carcasses than in
the Dairy X British cross carcasses. Due to the rather small number of
carcasses per breed X ration group, a clean cut effect of breeding on per-
cent separable lean is not readily apparent in Tables 4, 5, 6 and 7. Al-
though, it may be seen that rate of fattening (as determined by increased
percent carcass fat) was more rapid during the last 84 day feeding of the
concentrate ration to the straightbred and crossbred British than the rate
of fattening for Dairy X British cross steers fed similarly. After 168
days on feed, the straightbred and crossbred British steers fed the silage
ration hung up the carcass with the highest percent of trimmable lean. On
the other hand after 168 days on feed, percent of lean was not influenced
appreciably by the rations (concentrate vs. silage) fed the Dairy X British
cross steers.

Carcass Lean, Fat and Bone Gained in Feedlot. By knowing the lean,
fat and bone composition of all carcasses used in this study, the number
of pounds of lean, fat and bone gained was calculated for each feeding period.
Percentages of carcass gains attributable to lean, fat and bone components
were also calculated. These calculations are most valid if the animals
slaughtered and carcasses obtained initially and at the end of each feeding
period are truly representative in weight and finish. Animal numbers being
so small as they were, the authors have some reservations as to just how
representative the steers were on each date of slaughter. Nonetheless, in
Table 8 it may be seen that the Dairy X British cross steers gained more
carcass weight and more lean weight in the feedlot during all feeding periods
than the straight and crossbred British steers. It is noteworthy that in
all feeding period comparisons, the Dairy X British crosses gained more
pounds of lean. During the feeding period from initial weight to 168 day
weight, carcass weight gains of the British straightbred and crossbred
steers were 43.4 percent lean, 49.1 percent fat and 7.4 percent bone; car-
cass weight gains over the same feeding period for the Dairy X British cross
steers were 48.1 percent lean, 42.8 percent fat and 9.1 percent bone.

Comparisons in carcass quality throughout the study favored the British
and the crossbred British cattle most frequently.

SUMMARY

Sixty weanling steers representing four breed groups were selected
for this study. Twelve of the steers, representing the four breed groups,
were slaughtered initially and the remaining steers allocated to "concen-
trate" and "silage" rations for feeding for 84, 126 and 168 days. At the
end of each feeding period representative steers were slaughtered and car-
casses chilled, graded and right sides physically separated into lean, fat and
bone.

Carcass composition varied widely in this study. Percent lean ranged
from 45.1 to 62.2, trimmable fat content varied from 18.7 to 43.1 percent
and bone ranged from 10.8 to 22.5 percent.





- 5 -


Although animal numbers were small for each breed group X energy level
X length of feeding period sub-group, and no statistical substantiation made
of the data obtained, variations in carcass composition appeared to be
attributable to slaughter weight or days on feed, energy levels of rations
fed, breeding of the steers and individuality.


LITERATURE CITED


Cunha, T. J. and A. Z. Palmer. 1969. What's being done about waste fat
problems in beef? February, Florida Cattleman.

Guenther, J. J., D. H. Bushman, L. S. Pope and R. D. Morrison. 1965.
Growth and development of the major carcass tissues in beef calves
from weaning to slaughter weight, with reference to the effect of
plane of nutrition. J. Anim. Sci. 24:1184.

Hentges, J. F., Jr., D. E. Franke and A. Z. Palmer. 1971. Comparative
performance of beef and dairy x beef breeds of steers from weaning to
slaughter. Fla. Agri. Exp. Sta. Mimeograph Series No. AN71-2.

Murphey, C. E., D. K. Hallett, W. E. Tyler and J. C. Pierce, Jr. 1960.
Estimating yields of retail cuts from beef carcasses. J. Anim. Sci.
19:1240 (Abstract).

Palmer, A. Z. 1969. Carcass characteristics of the modern meat type steer.
Proceedings, Beef Cattle Short Course, University of Florida.

Waldman, R. C., W. J. Tyler and V. H. Brungardt. 1971. Changes in the
carcass composition of Holstein steers associated with ration energy
levels and growth. J. Anim. Sci. 32:611.













Table 1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN NUMBER OF STEERS


British Straightbred British Crossbred Dairy x British Cross Dairy x British Cross
Breeding (Hereford & Angus) (Hereford x Angus) (Brown Swiss x British) (Holstein x British)
Feeding Concentrate Silage Concentrate Silage Concentrate Silage Concentrate Silage

Days fed:

0-Initial -3- -4- -3- -2-

84 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

126 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

168 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2







- 7 -


Table 2. SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS STUDIED --
60 CARCASSES FROM BEEF AND DAIRY X BEEF CROSS CATTLE.


Range
Average (Minimum) (Maximum)

Slaughter Characteristics:
Slaughter wt., lb. 757.9 328.0 1102.0
Dressing % 58.0 51.4 65.3

Carcass Quality
Conformation-./ 14.7 8.0 19.0
Maturity2/ 1.4 1.0 3.0
Marbling"/ 8.9 2.0 17.0
Quality Grade--1 14.5 10.0 18.0
U.S.D.A. Grade- 14.2 9.0 17.0

Carcass Cutability:
Hot carcass wt., Ib. 450.9 180.0 684.0
Fat over rib eye, in. 0.20 0.05 0.65
Rib eye area, sq. in. 9.9 5.5 13.9
Est. % kidney & pelvic fat 2.7 1.5 4.0
U.S.D.A. Yield Grade 2.1 1.3 3.8
U.S.D.A. Est. % yield 52.1 54.0 48.0

Separable Components (Right Side):
Lean % 55.7 45.1 62.2
Fat % 28.7 18.7 43.1
Bone % 14.8 10.8 22.5



/ Average standard designated by 11; average good by 14; average choice
2/ by 17.
A minus maturity designated by 1; A maturity by 2 and A plus by 3.
Average traces, slight, small and modest degrees of marbling desig-
nated by 5, 8, 11 and 14 respectively.








-8-


Table 3. EFFECT OF GROWTH ON SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS.


Days on feed 0-Initial 84 126 168

No. of Carcasses 12 16 16 16

Slaughter Characteristics:
Slaught wt. lb. 476.1 694.6 851.3 939.1
Dressing % 54.1 57.6 58.8 60.7

Carcass Quality-
Conformation- 12.1 15.0 15.1 15.8
Maturity.2/ 1.0 1.3 1.1 2.1
Marblingil / 5.3 7.9 9.6 11.8
Quality Grade.-L 12.8 14.1 15.1 15.6
U.S.D.A. Grade-' 12.3 14.0 14.8 15.3

Carcass Cutability:
Hot carcass wt., lb. 263.3 407.3 510.7 575.4
Fat over rib eye, in. 0.06 0.13 0.25 0.37
Rib eye area, sq. in. 7.7 9.9 10.9 10.5
Est. % kidney & pelvic fat 2.1 2.3 3.3 3.1
U.S.D.A. Yield Grade 1.6 1.6 2.2 2.9
U.S.D.A. Est. % Yield 53.3 53.3 51.9 50.3

Separable Components (Right Side):
Lean % 58.3 59.3 54.5 51.4
Fat % 21.4 25.4 31.4 34.7
Bone % 18.9 14.9 13.4 13.1


/ Average standard designated by 11; average good by 14; average choice by 17.
2/ A minus maturity designated by 1; A maturity by 2 and A plus by 3.
SAverage traces, slight, small and modest degrees of marbling designated by
5, 8, 11 and 14 respectively.






Table 4. A COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF
AND DAIRY X BEEF CROSS CATTLE -- INITIAL.


British Straight- British Cross- Dairy X British Dairy X British
Breeding Bred Bred Cross Cross
(H & A) (H X A) (B.S. X British) (Hol. X British)
Feeding Conc. Silage Conc. Silage Conc. Silage Conc. Silage

No. of Carcasses 3 4 3 2
Days on Feed 0 0 0 0

Slaughter Characteristics:
Slaughter wt., lb. 472.0 476.5 398.7 597.5
Dressing % 52.8 55.6 52.9 55.0

Carcass Quality:
Conformation6/ 12.7 13.0 9.0 14.0
Maturity..- 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Marbling-/ 4.7 6.3 3.7 7.0
Quality Grade-L1/ 12.3 13.5 11.7 14.0
U.S.D.A. Grade 12.3 13.0 10.0 14.0

Carcass Cutability:
Hot Carcass wt., lb. 254.3 270.5 214.7 335.0
Fat over Rib Eye, in. 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.10
Rib Eye Area, sq. in. 7.9 8.2 6.1 8.6
Est. % Kidney & Pelvic Fat 1.8 2.1 1.8 2.8
U.S.D.A. Yield Grade 1.4 1.5 1.8 1.8
Est. % Yield (U.S.D.A.) 53.7 53.5 52.8 52.7

Separable Components
(Right Side):
Lean % 58.9 60.0 55.8 57.9
Fat % 21.0 20.8 20.4 24.5
Bone % 18.7 18.0 22.1 16.1


1/ Average standard designated by 11; average good by 14; average choice by 17.
2/ A minus maturity designated by 1; A maturity by 2 and A plus by 3.
3/ Average traces, slight, small and modest degrees of marbling designated by 5, 8, 11 and 14 respectively.




Table 5. A COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF AND
DAIRY X BEEF CROSS CATTLE -- FED 84 DAYS.


British Straight- British Cross- Dairy X British Dairy X British
Breeding Bred Bred Cross Cross
(H & A) (H X A) (BS. X British) (Hol. X British)
Feeding Cone. Silage Conc. Silage Conc. Silage Conc. Silage

No. of Carcasses 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Days on Feed 84 84 84 84 84 84 84 84

Slaughter Characteristics:
Slaughter wt., lb. 645.0 661.0 735.0 648.0 803.0 600.5 809.5 655.0
Dressing % 58.5 57.4 58.8 56.4 56.9 56,6 58.5 57.8

Carcass Quality*
Conformajionai 16.0 16.0 16.0 15.5 15.0 13.0 15.5 13.0
Maturity-/ 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 1.0
Marblingn/ 6.0 9.0 8.5 9.0 8.5 5.0 8.5 8.5
Quality Grade- 13.0 15.0 14.5 14.5 14.5 12.5 14.5 14.5
U.S.D.A. Grade-/ 13.0 15.0 14.5 14.5 14.5 12.5 14.5 13.5

Carcass Cutability:
Hot Carcass wt., lb. 386.5 386.0 440.0 373.0 465.5 346.0 481.5 380.0
Fat over Rib Eye, in. 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.08 0.20 0.10
Rib Eye Area, sq. in. 9.7 9.4 10.8 9.4 11.1 8.6 10.4 9.6
Est. % Kidney & Pelvic Fat 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.0 2.8 2.3 2.3 2.3
U.S.D.A. Yield Grade 1.6 1.8 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.9 1.6
Est. % Yield (U.S.D.A.) 53.0 52.8 53.3 53.2 53.2 53.0 52.4 53.3

Separable Components
(Right Side):
Lean % 59.1 58.0 60.3 59.3 56.5 60.0 59.4 62.0
Fat % 25.6 27.6 25.7 25.3 28.3 22.6 26.3 22.1
Bone % 14.6 14.6 14.0 14.8 14.7 17.0 14.0 15.6


8, 11 and 14 respectively.


Average standard designated by 11; average good by 14; average choice by 17.
A minus maturity designated by 1; A maturity by 2 and A plus by 3.
Average traces, slight, small and modest degrees of marbling designated by 5,





Table 6. A COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF
AND DAIRY X BEEF CROSS CATTLE -- FED 126 DAYS.


British Straight- British Cross- Dairy X British Dairy X British
Breeding Bred Bred Cross Cross
(H & A) (H X A) (B.S. X British) (Hol. X British)
Feeding Conc. Silage _Conc. Silage Cone. Silage Conc. Silage

No. of Carcasses 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Days on Feed 126 126 126 126 126 126 126 126

Slaughter Characteristics:
Slaughter wt., Ib. 860.0 732.0 876.0 791.5 925.0 888.0 863.0 875.0
Dressing % 60.5 57.0 59.1 56.4 60.2 57.3 60.6 59.5

Carcass Quality;
ConformaionI/ 15.5 14.5 16.0 15.5 14.5 15.0 15.5 14.5
Maturity- 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.0
Marbling.i / 11.0 7.0 12.5 7.5 10.5 10.0 13.0 5.5
Quality Grade-/ 15.5 14.0 16.5 14.0 16.0 15.0 16.5 13.0
U.S.D.A. Grade-L 15.0 14.0 16.0 14.0 15.0 15.0 16.0 13.0

Carcass Cutability:
Hot Carcass wt., lb. 528.5 426.0 527.0 454.5 566.0 519.5 533.5 530.5
Fat over Rib Eye, in. 0.33 0.15 0.30 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.48 0.18
Rib Eye Area, sq. in. 10.4 10.6 10.9 10.5 11.1 11.7 10.3 12.0
Est. % Kidney & Pelvic Fat 3.3 3.3 3.3 2.8 3.8 3.3 3.8 3.0
U.S.D.A. Yield Grade 2.7 1.8 2.4 1.9 2.4 1.9 3.2 1.8
Est. % Yield (U.S.D.A.) 50.8 52.9 51.2 52.6 51.4 52.5 49.6 52.9

Separable Components
(Right Side):
Lean % 54.0 55.5 53.7 56.9 52.1 55.4 49.4 48.9
Fat % 32.2 29.5 32.5 28.9 33.8 29.7 37.2 26.8
Bone % 13.1 14.4 12.9 13.7 13.4 14.2 12.4 13.7


8, 11 and 14 respectively.


Average standard designated by 11; average good by 14; average choice by 17.
A minus maturity designated by 1; A maturity by 2 and A plus by 3.
Average traces, slight, small and modest degrees of marbling designated by 5,




Table 7. A COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF
AND DAIRY X BEEF CROSS CATTLE -- FED 168 DAYS.


British Straight- British Cross- Dairy X British Dairy X British
Breeding Bred Bred Cross Cross
(H & A) (H X A) (B.S. X British) (Hol. X British)
Feeding Conc. Silage Conc. Silage Conc. Silage Conc. Silage

No. of Carcasses 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Days on Feed 168 168 168 168 168 168 168 168

Slaughter Characteristics:
Slaughter wt., lb. 904.0 835.5 886.0 873.0 1035.0 1016.0 1012.0 953.5
Dressing % 64.5 59.5 63.0 58.2 61.8 57.9 61.0 58.8

Carcass Quality,
ConformationL/ 17.5 15.5 17.5 15.5 16.0 15.5 15.0 14.0
Maturity2/ 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Marbling-/ 14.5 9.5 14.5 12.5 12.5 11.0 11.0 8.5
Quality Grade-/ 16.5 15.0 17.0 15.5 16.0 15.0 16.0 14.0
U.S.D.A. Grades/ 16.5 15.0 15.5 15.0 16.0 15.0 15.5 14.0

Carcass Cutability:
Hot Carcass wt., lb. 588.5 503.0 561.0 514.5 649.5 595.5 624.0 567.0
Fat over Rib Eye, in. 0.55 0.38 0.58 0.23 0.30 0.28 0.40 0.28
Rib Eye Area, sq. in. 10.5 10.8 10.3 10.1 11.6 11.2 11.2 8.4
Est. % Kidney & Pelvic Fat 3.3 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.8 3.5 2.8 2.8
U.S.D.A. Yield Grade 3.4 2.5 3.4 2.4 2.8 2.6 2.9 3.2
Est. % Yield (U.S.D.A.) 48.9 51.2 49.1 51.3 50.4 50.9 50.3 49.4

Separable Components
(Right Side):
Lean % 48.8 53.9 46.2 55.6 51.9 51.2 51.7 52.3
Fat % 39.4 31.4 41.4 30.0 32.8 34.7 35.3 32.5
Bone % 11.3 14.2 11.5 13.4 14.5 13.3 12.3 14.3


8, 11 and 14 respectively


Average standard designated by 11; average good by 14; average choice by 17.
A minus maturity designated by 1; A maturity by 2 and A plus by 3.
Average traces, slight, small and modest degrees of marbling designated by 5,








- 13 -


Table 8. POUNDS OF CARCASS LEAN, FAT AND BONE GAINED IN THE FEEDLOT.-/

L '


British Straightbred
& Crosses (Hereford
& Anaus)


Dairy X British
Crosses (Brown Swiss,
Holstein X British)


Initial-84 days:
Carcass wt., gain, lb.
Lean, gain, lb.(%)
Fat, gain, Ib.(%)
Bone, gain, lb.(%)

84 days-126 days:
Carcass wt., gain, lb.
Lean, gain, lb.(%)
Fat, gain, lb.(%)
Bone, gain, lb.(%)

126 days-168 days:
Carcass wt., gain, lb.
Lean, gain, Ib(%)
Fat, gain, lb.(%)
Bone, gain, lb.(%)

Initial-168 days:
Carcass wt., gain, Ib.
Lean, gain, lb.(%)
Fat, gain, lb.(%)
Bone, gain, lb.(%)

84 days-168 days:
Carcass wt., gain, lb.
Lean, gain, lb.(%)
Fat, gain, Ib(%)
Bone, gain, lb(%)


129.7
74.6(57.5)
45.9(35.4)
9.2( 7.1)


86.3
31.8(36.9)
46.6(54.0)
7.9( 9.2)


60.7
13.8(22.7)
43.4(71.6)
3.5( 5.8)


276.7
120.2(43.4)
135.9(49.1)
20.6( 7.4)


147.0
45.6(31.0)
90.0(61.2)
11.4( 7.8)


153.1
96.7(63.2)
44.3(28.9)
12.1( 7.9)


116.9
41.1(35.2)
67.8(58.0)
8.0( 6.8)


73.5
27.3(37.1)
35.0(47.7)
11.2(15.2)


343.5
165.1(48.1)
147.1(42.8)
31.3( 9.1)


190.4
68.4(35.9)
102.8(54.0)
19.2(10.1)


/ No.steers slaughtered for British Straightbred and Crosses vs. Dairy
X British Crosses: Initially 7 and 5 respectively; fed 84 days, 8 and
8; fed 126 days, 8 and 8; fed 168 days, 8 and 8, respectively.


-- --




r-gure I.


~~cl


British Straightbred British Crossbred Dairy X British Cross Dairy X British Cross
(Hereford and Angus) (Hereford X Angus) (Brown Swiss X British) (Holstein X British)
Concentrate Silage Concentrate Silage Concentrate Silage Concentrate Silage


62-
61-
60-
59-
58-
57-
56-
55-
54-
53-
52-
51-
50-
49-
48-
47-
46-
45-


0
. 0






IL

II


0
O*

-m
Z \ 0
41 a
l^^o
= i~n
u \ !-


U-\
o00
Lr\


coo
u\
41


-3-

a\s


-- -


-62
-61
-60
-59
-58
-57
-56
-55
r-54
cU-53
52
j 51
-50
.49
: -4E
.4"

.-4;


1/
Initial


slaughter -:; fed 84 days ; fed 126 days --; fed 168 days


-\ 7
S* o"
co









lit


CMJ
aT\-
U'


IN

-4
----


MIHE MEt-lib Ui- tRbttLING, LEINGIH UI IIE UN -FED AND TYPE OF
RATION ON PERCENT OF LEAN IN CARCASSES PRODUCED.1'


- -.







- 15


Appendix Table 1. NUMERICAL CODES FOR GRADE DATA.


Conformation, Quality Grade and U.S.D.A. Grade


Prime
Choice
Good
Standard
Utility
Cutter
Canner


av.
20
17
14
11
8
5
2


Carcass Maturity


A- 1
A '2
A+ 3
B- 4
B 5
B+ 6
C- 7
C 8
C+ 9


Degree of Marbling


Devoid
Practically Devoid
Traces
Slight
Small
Modest
Moderate
Slightly Abundant
Moderately Abundant
Abundant


- av.
0
1 2
4 5
7 8
10 11
13 14
16 17
19 20
22 23
25 26


__ _
__ _







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