• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Overview and experiment I
 Experiment II
 Summary of results
 Literature cited














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AN71-2
Title: Comparative performance of beef and dairy X beef breeds of steers from weaning to slaughter
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073031/00001
 Material Information
Title: Comparative performance of beef and dairy X beef breeds of steers from weaning to slaughter
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 23 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hentges, J. F ( James Franklin ), 1925-
Franke, D. E ( Donald Edward ), 1937-
Palmer, A. Z
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle breeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Dairy cattle breeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 22-23).
Statement of Responsibility: J.F. Hentges, Jr., D.E. Franke and A.Z. Palmer.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1971."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073031
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79826964

Table of Contents
    Overview and experiment I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Experiment II
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Summary of results
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Literature cited
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text





Department of:Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN71-2 Experiment Station
May, 1971 Gainesville, Florida.


COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF BEEF AND
.DAIRY X BEEF BREEDS OF STEERS : ': : 'r "
FROM WEANING TO SLAUGHTER


J. F. Hentges, Jr., D. E. Franke,
and A. Z. Palmer1/



The objective of this study was to compare the postweaning performance

of straightbred beef (Angus or Hereford), crossbred beef (Angus x Hereford)

and crossbred beef x dairy breeds (Holstein and Brown Swiss) of steers.

Criteria used were liveweight gain, efficiency of utilization of diets differing

in nutrient density, .namely a self-fed concentrate and a supplemented silage -

diet, slaughter yield (dressing percent), estimated carcass yield (boneless

trimmed retail cuts from round, rib, loin and chuck) and USDA carcass quality

and yield grades.

Data arerepresented for two experiments. The calves in each breed group

were equal in age and had bee-nraised under identical environmental conditions

at the A. G. Dozier School'for Boys in Marianna, Florida. Their dams were

straightbred Angus or Hereford cows and their sires were registered." The

herds had been 'graded up 'for about a decade before Dr. Marvin Koger initiated

a crossbreeding program in 1967." The calves were truckd-td o GcnesTvic
HUME LIBRARY

1/JUN 1 5 1971
SProfessor (Animal Nutritionist), Assistant Professor Assistant Animal
Geneticist) and Professor (Meat Scientist) Institute f Food and Agritu
Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida l.&L'SoiljoJ 6
personnel at the A;4G. Dozier School for Boys, Marian:, Fluzida is
gratefully acknowledged.










shortly after weaning (October) and were fed a bulky diet for about three ,

weeks until shipping shrink was recovered and branding, worming and inocu- .'

lations were completed.

Because two distinctly different: feedlot feeding programs are practiced

in Florida, the calves were randomly allotted within breed composition groups

to two dietary treatments: (1) self-fed concentrate and (2) corn silage

offered ad libitum plus a concentrate supplement hand-fed daily at the rate of

1% of liveweight. The composition of diets fed in Experiment I is shown

in Table 1.



TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF DIETS FED IN EXPERIMENT I




SELF-FED CONCENTRATE DIET SUPPLEMENTED SILAGE DIET


Ingredient Composition: 7

Corn, flaked 54
Citrus pulp, dried 20
Cane molasses, std. '
40% protein pellet 8
Urea, 45% N I
Cottonseed hulls 10I
Dicalcium phosphate 0.5:
Trace mineralized salt 0.5
Vitamin A


Crude Protein Composition. %:


As fed basis
Dry matter basis


12.8
13.7


Ingredient Composition: 7

Corn silage Ad libitum
(.-,Free choice)

Supplement: -
Corn meal 65
Cane molasses, std., : 10
Soybean meal, 50% 10
.Urea, 457., N .., 4 .
Alfalfa meal, 177. 8
Defluorinated phosphate 2...
Trace mineralized salt 1
S Vitamin A ... ,


Crude Protein Composition .%:

Silage, as fed 2.0
S: Silage, dry matter,, 8.3 .-

.Supplement, as fed: 23.1,,
Supplement, dry matter 29.9.;


.h.










Table 2 shows that large differences in average daily weight gains were

recorded among breed groups which were self-fed the concentrate diet but that

differences were small among groups offered the supplemental corn silage diet.

Apparently, the genetic potential for growth in the crossbred beef and dairy x

beef groups could not be expressed on the corn silage diet which was lower in

nutrient density and higher in content of cellulosic carbohydrates.



TABLE 2. COMPARISON OF AVERAGE DAILY GAINS BY BREED
GROUP AND DIET IN EXPERIMENT I, LB. PER DAY


Hereford
Straightbred x Holstein Brown Swiss
Hereford Angus Crossbreds Crossbreds

Self-Fed Concentrate

2.4 2.5 2.6 3.1

Supplemented Silage

2.2 2.0 2.2 2.2


Figure 1 shows that the Brown Swiss crossbred calves averaged 20 pounds

heavier at weaning than the Hereford x Angus and 60 pounds heavier than the

straightbred Herefords and Holstein crossbreds. This observation indicates

that cow-calf producers would have more weight to sell at weaning time with

Brown Swiss crossbreds but it should be noted that they also have the opportunity

to realize additional profit by retaining ownership of these calves and placing

them directly in a feedlot where the Brown Swiss crossbreds were the fastest

gainers. The final feedlot weights by breed groups were: Brown Swiss cross-

breds, 1037; Hereford x Angus crossbreds, 930; Holstein crossbreds, 901 and

straightbred Herefords, 856.











Because the rate of growth had not decreased in any breed group during

the 168-day finishing period it is apparent that the feedlot experiment was

terminated very close or prior to the optimum slaughter weight for each breed

group. The carcass data confirm this observation. If each breed group had

been fed to a 1000-lb. slaughter weight, the later maturing dairy x beef

crossbreds apparently would have had a larger advantage.


Swiss x


I
jl


j, fd. x Angus
.- .Holstcin x

J Hereford






,*


S '/


S/
f
.1


..-'-
7,' ,


0 28 56 84 112 140 168


Days on Feed


FIGURE 1. Comparison of live weights at 28-day intervals
by breed groups which were offered the self-fed
concentrate diet in Experiment I.


1000



900


800



700



600


Wean
Wt.


V










Slaughter and carcass data in Table 3 show only small differences among

breed groups and confirm previous reports (Branaman, 1962; Hedrick, 1968;

Cartwright, 1969) that carcass cutability and quality differences are small

among breed groups if they are slaughtered at equal stages of maturity and

fatness. Pearson (1966), in a review of the scientific literature, concluded

that beef and dairy breeds finished under the same conditions differed little

in retail cut-out but that beef cattle tended to have a higher dressing percent

and larger amount of separable fat.

Carcass data from this experiment which warrant further study were

indications of coarseness of lean texture in Brown Swiss crossbreds and apparent

earlier deposition of fat by Hereford x Angus crossbreds as evidenced by

thicker fat over the ribeye, higher dressing percent and higher carcass quality

grade.







-6-


TABLE 3. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS
MEASUREMENTS BY BREED AND DIET,
EXPERIMENT I


Self-Fed Concentrate


Slaughter wt., lb.

Chilled carcass wt., lb.

Slaughter yield, Ib.-/

USDA yield grade

Carcass yield, 7%

Ribeye area, sq. in.

Ribeye fat cover, in.

Kidney fat, %


USDA quality grade /

Maturity

Marbling-

Conformation'e


Lean color

Lean texture-

Lean firmness

Color of fat


H

830

501

60.3

2.3

51.6

11.2

0.30

3.2


15.2

2.0

9.5

16.5


3.2

1.8

3.0

1.2


H x A

902

565

62.6

2.7

50.8

12.2

0.42

3.8


16.0

2.0

11.5

17.2


2.8

2.5

3.3

1.0


Hol- Brown


stein
x

874

533

60.9

2.9

50.4

10.0

0.27

3.8


15.0

2.0

9.7

15.7


2.8

3.0

3.7

1.0


Swiss
x

1066

604

59.9

2.7

50.8

11.6

0.31

3.5


15.7

2.0

11.8

15.5


3.3

3.3

3.2

1.0


Supplemented Silage

Hol- Brown


H

798

470

58.8

2.6

51.0

9.9

0.28

3.3


15.0

2.0

9.0

16.2


3.3

2.3

2.8

1.2


stein
HxA x


Swiss
x


829 828 876


487

58.8

2.3

51.5

10.6

0.25

3.4


15.5

2.0

10.3

15.8


3.3

2.7

3.3

1.0


477

57.5

2.3

51.7

9.6

0.14

3.2


14.3

1.8

9.3

14.0


3.5

2.8

2.8

1.2


507

57.8

2.0

52.4

11.7

0.21

3.4


15.2

2.0

11.3

15.3


3.2

3.8

3.2

1.0


a/Dressing percentage calculated from shrunk liveweight and cold carcass weight.
b/Estimated yield of boneless trimmed retail cuts from round, loin, rib and chuck.
S/Quality grade 14 = Good, 15 = High Good, 16 = Low Choice.
d/Marbling scores 7, 8, 9 = Slight; 10, 11, 12 = Small.
e/Conformation score 14 Good, 15 = High Good, 16 = Low Choice, 17 = Choice.
./Lean texture score 1.0 w Very Fine, 2.0 Fine, 3.0 Moderately Fine
and 4.0 Slightly Coarse.










Economic considerations shown in Table 4 were based on prices obtained

from the National Provisioner "Yellow Sheet" and the Division of Marketing,

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Weight and grade

data were recorded by the Florida Cooperative Extension Service and the USDA.

Although the Holstein and Brown Swiss crossbreds were assigned lower

grades and prices as feeder calves, they produced carcasses which were almost

equal to those from the beef breeds in quality grade and price when self-fed

the concentrate diet. On the supplemented silage diet, Holstein and Brown

Swiss crossbreds produced carcasses which were stamped with lower USDA quality

grades; however, four of the five Brown Swiss crossbreds and two of the five

Holstein crossbred carcasses which were stamped U. S. Good actually were High

Good and were not appreciably different, except in conformation, from the five

U. S. Choice carcasses from Hereford and Hereford x Angus steers which were Low

Choice when graded to thirds of a grade.










TABLE 4. COMPARISON OF FEEDER GRADE, CARCASS GRADE
AND PRICES BY BREED GROUP AND DIET,
EXPERIMENT I



Self-Fed Concentrate Supplemented Silage

Hol- Brown Hol- Brown
stein Swiss stein Swiss
H H xA x x H HxA x x

Av. feeder grade:
Standard 0 0 3 3 0 0 3 3
Low Good 0 0 3 3 0 0 3 3
Choice 6 6 0 0 6 6 0 0

Av. USDA carcass quality
grade:
Good 4 2 3 3 4 3 5 5
Choice 2 4 3 3 2 3 1 1


Prices by feeder grade; $/cwt:
Standard 23.00
Good 25.00
Choice 27.50

Prices by carcass grade, $/cwt:
Good 46.50
Choice 49.50




Although large differences in average daily weight gains were recorded

among breed groups, only small differences in efficiency of feed utilization

were recorded. If each breed group had been slaughtered at an equal weight,

not at their optimum slaughter weight, the later-maturing dairy x beef cross-

breds probably would have shown an advantage.










TABLE 5. COMPARISON OF FEED INTAKE AND EFFICIENCY
OF FEED UTILIZATION BY BREED GROUP AND
DIET, EXPERIMENT I


Self-Fed Concentrate

Hol- Brown
stein Swiss
H HxA x x


Silage intake/steer/day:

Silage, as fed, lb.a/
Silage, dry matter, lb.
Silage, DM, % of live wt.

Concentrate intake/steer/day:

Concentrate, as fed, Ib./ 15.2
Concentrate DM, lb. 13.4
Concentrate DM, % of
live wt. 2.0

Total feed intake/steer/day:

Ration, as fed, lb. 15.2
Ration, dry matter, lb. 13.4

Efficiency of feed utili-
zation, lb./lb. gain:

Ration, as fed 6.5
Ration,DM 5.6


18.1
15.9

2.2


18.0
15.8

2.3


18.1 18.0
15.9 15.8


21.1
18.6

2.4



21.1
18.6


7.1 6.9 6.9
6.4 6.1 6.0


Supplemented Silage


Hol-
stein
H HxA x


29.3
7.2
1.11


31.0
7.6
1.11


31.5
7.7
1.15


Brown
Swiss
x



33.4
8.2
1.14


6.0 6.5 6.3 6.7
5.3 5.7 5.5 5.9





35.4 37.5 37.8 40.1
12.5 13.3 13.3 14.1




16.1 18.5 17.2 17.9
5.7 6.7 6.0 6.4


I


a/24.5% dry matter.
1/88.0 % dry matter.



The lowest efficiency of feed utilization on both diets was recorded for

the crossbred Hereford x Angus steers but this probably can be explained by their

carcass data which showed the thickest fat cover over the ribeye, largest %

kidney fat, highest dressing percentage and highest USDA quality grade within

dietary treatments. They apparently used more of the nutrients in their diet


I







-10-


for fat deposition than the other breed groups. Berg and Butterfield (1968)

reported that Herefords fattened at an earlier age than Holstein-Friesians.

Judge and Martin (1965) reported that beef steers (Angus) slaughtered at the

same age, about 17 months, as dairy and dual purpose steers were fatter as

judged by subcutaneous fat thickness and physical separation of fat in

wholesale cuts. Garrett (1971) reported that the Holstein is not more efficient

in converting food calories to tissue calories than the Hereford.

An explanation for the straightbred Herefords being the most efficient

utilizers of feed on both diets is difficult but may reflect their higher degree

of fatness prior to weaning, apparently lower carcass fat at slaughter and

lower genetic potential for growth and appetite which apparently was fully

expressed on diets with a low nutrient density.

It was apparent that the bulky, fibrous nature of the silage diet restricted

the quantity of dry matter that could be consumed by all breed groups

thereby explaining the lower and almost equal daily weight gains of all groups

on the silage diet.

A favorable effect of heterosis on appetite or voluntary consumption of

feed was seen on both diets. The intake-limiting effect of the silage diet was

large but varied between straightbreds and crossbreds in accordance with the

following weight (lb. ration dry matter) advantage of concentrate over silage:

Brown Swiss crossbreds 4.5, Hereford x Angus 2.6, Holstein crossbreds 2.5 and

straightbred Herefords 1.9

The results of Experiment I are summarized from an economic viewpoint in

Table 6. The conspicuous data are the larger profits of all crossbred groups

on concentrate as compared with silage diets. This reflects the current U.S.

practice of pricing carcasses with much emphasis on the USDA carcass quality







-11-


grade which increases in relation to conformation score and quantity of :

intranuscular fat (marbling) whichare largely,influenced by degree of carcass

fatness.



TABLE 6. COMPARISON OF PROFITS AND LOSSES
BY BREED GROUP AND DIET,
EXPERIMENT I



Self-Fed Concentrate Supplemented Silage

Hol- Brown Hol- Brown
stein Swiss stein Swiss:;
H HxA x x H HxA x x

Gross receipts, $: 238 271 255 290 229 234 233 238

Total cost, $: 227 254 227 258 218 240 214 229

Purchase cost 127 139 112 127 124 141 116 126

Feed costa 82 97 97 113 70 75 74 79

Non-feed cost 18 18 18 18 24 24 24 24


Profit or loss, $; 11 i 17,: 28 32 11 -6 5 1. 9 i *'9:


a/Cost per ton: Concentrate $64, silage $12, silage supplement $80.
b/Estimate of labor, equipment, feedlot, silo and cash costs. The higher cost
for silage diet due to labor of daily unloading of silo and silage distribution
plus investment in silo and silage equipment.



The largest profits were mado by Brown Swiss and llolstein crossbreds but

this largely reflected the way ,they were graded and priced as feeder calves

which reduced their purchase cost..,:,

The smaller profits of all crossbred groups on the silage diet indicates a

need of cattle with an inherent potential for fast growth for diets which have

a high nutrient density and a low content of bulky or slowly digested components.







-12-


Apparently, the silage diet was moved through the gastrointestinal tract too

slowly to provide the nutrient level required for maximum growth, development

and profit by current pricing standards.



EXPERIMENT II


Experiment II was essentially a replication of the first experiment. The

calves were weaned and accustomed to dry feed at the A. G. Dozier School for

Boys before they were trucked to Gainesville on October 27, 1969. The

t; iran Igh llrIed l 'be cf group coni I t.red :of equalni uinmbern of AnIgu and Hlirefordn.

They were randomly allotted within breed groups to the same dietary treatments

used in Experiment I. The composition of diets was slightly improved over

Experiment I as shown in Table 7.



TABLE 7. COMPOSITION OF DIETS FED IN EXPERIMENT II



SELF-FED CONCENTRATE DIET SUPPLEMENTED SILAGE DIET


Ingredient Composition


Corn flaked 4
Citrus pulp, dried 3
Cane molasses, std.
Cottonseed meal, 41%
Urea, 45% N
Alfalfa meal, dehyd., 17%
Flaked soybean hulls
Cottonseed hulls 1
Mineral mix

Crude protein composition, %:

As fed basis- 12.1
Dry matter basis 13.4


7.

0
0
6
5
1.25
2.50
2.25
0.00
3.00


Ingredient Composition


Corn silage Ai


Supplement:
Corn meal
Cane molasses, std.
Soybean meal, 50%7
Urea, 45% N
Alfalfa meal, 17%
Defluorinated Phosphate
Trace mineralized salt
Vitamin A

Crude Protein Composition, %:


Silage, as fed basis
Silage, dry matter basis

Supplement, as fed
Supplement, dry matter


d libitum
Free choice)


65
10
10
4
8
2
1




2.5
9.5

24.2
26.2







-13-


Average daily gains (see Table 8) of all groups of steers on each diet

were improved in Experiment II. This might reflect better diets or better

preconditioning treatment. During preconditioning the calves were drenched

for internal parasites (Tramisol), fed a diet containing antibiotics (Aureo

S700) and implanted with 24 mg. diethylstilbestrol. As in Experiment I, gains

were largest on the concentrate diet, crossbred steers outgained straightbreds

and Brown Swiss crossbreds gained fastest on the self-fed concentrate diet.



TABLE 8. COMI'AI{ISON OF AVERAGE I)AILY GAINS BY BRIIN1)
IGROUl' AND 1)DIET IN IEXI'E. IIMENT 11, l.Bl. 1'KEI DAY


Hereford
x Holstein Brown Swiss
Straightbreds Angus Crossbreds Crossbreds

Self-Fed Concentrate

2.7 2.9 3.0 3.1

Supplemented Silage

2.3 2.6 2.5 2.6


Data illustrated in Figure 2 are similar to those from Experiment I with

the exception of Hereford x Angus which reached a higher degree of fatness. As

previously observed, the Brown Swiss and Holstein crossbred calves were about

50 pounds heavier at weaning than straightbred Hereford and crossbred Hereford

x Angus. Although the average daily gains were not widely different during the

168-day feedlot period, the live weight of the crossbred dairy x beef steers

was always much larger. An indication of increased fattening after 126 days

in the Hereford x Angus group was seen in average daily gain and in the carcass

data where this group had the largest marbling score, thickest fat cover over







-14-


the last lumbar, most separable fat and most fat in the 9-10-11 rib cut. A

similar observation was made in Experiment I.



Brown Swiss x
1000 /,Holstein x


/ Straightbreds
/ Hfd. x Angus



/ f
x
,'A


4%


Wean
Wt.


Days on Feed


FIGURE 2.


Comparison of live weights at 28-day intervals
by breed groups which were offered the self-fed
concentrate diet in Experiment II.


Table 9 shows slaughter and carcass measurements combined for those

slaughtered after 84, 126 and 168 days on feed. As in Experiment I, differences

between breed groups were not large confirming that breed and heterosis effects

on slaughter and carcass measurements are small when the cattle are slaughtered

at equal stages of maturity and degree of fatness as estimated by current grading

standards. Apparently the dairy x beef crossbreds are destined to score poorly


900



800


700



600






-15-


by current conformation standards but a review by Hedrick (1968) indicates

that this may simply reflect a correlation of high conformation score with high

degree of carcass fatness. Although the number of steers per treatment were

too small (two per breed group) to draw inferences, it is enlightening to note

that dairy x beef crossbreds after 168 days on the concentrate diet produced

higher yielding carcasses with the following separable fat and lean components

(% of right side):

Separable fat, % Separable lean, %

Straightbreds 39.4 48.8
Hereford x Angus 41.4 46.2
Holstcin crossbreds 35.3 51.7
Brown Swiss crossbreds 32.8 51.8


Detailed information about the separable components of these carcasses was

reported by Palmer, et al (1971)

These differences were revealed by estimated carcass yield grades (Brown

Swiss x, 2.75; Holstein x 2.85; Hereford x Angus, 3.35 and straightbreds, 3.40)

but were not evident in USDA carcass quality grades where all graded within the

choice grade (Brown Swiss x, 15.5; Holstein, x 16.Q Hereford x Angus, 15.5 and

straightbreds, 16.5). Although the Hereford x Angus and straightbreds averaged

only 884 and 904 lb. respectively at slaughter, they had reached that point on

their growth curve where fat deposition was proceeding at a faster rate than

lean growth whereas the Brown Swiss crossbreds weighing 1035 lb. and the Holstein

crossbreds weighing 1012 lb. had not reached that percentage of their mature weight.







-16-


TABLE 9. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS MEASURE-
MENTS BY BREED AND DIET, COMBINED DATA FOR
THOSE SLAUGHTERED AT 84, 126 and 168 DAYS,
EXPERIMENT II.


Self-Fed Concentrate Supplemented Silage

Hol- Brownj Hol- Brown
stein Swiss stein Swiss
AxH HxA x x AxH HxA x x

Slaughter wt., lb. 803 831 894 921 742 770 827 835

Chilled carcass wt., lb. 494 502 538 551 431 439 484 478

Slaughter yield, lb. 61.2 60.3 60.0 59.6 57.9 57.0 58.7 57.2

USDA yield grade 2.55 2.42 2.63 2.20 1.98 1.97 2.17 1.97

Carcass yield, 7 50.9 51.2 50.7 51.6 52.3 52.4 51.8 52.1

Ribeye area, sq. in. 10.2 10.7 10.7 11.3 10.3 10.0 10.0 10.5

Ribeye fat cover, in. 0.34 0.34 0.36 0.21 0.23 0.18 0.18 0.18

Kidney fat, % 2.91 2.83 2.92 3.40 2.75 2.58 3.00 2.67


USDA quality grade 14.8 15.3 15.3 15.2 14.6 14.5 13.5 14.2

Maturity 1.33 1.33 1.83 1.33 1.50 1.67 1.33 1.50

Marbling 10.5 11.8 10.8 10.5 8.5 9.7 7.5 8.7

Conformation 16.3 16.5 15.3 15.2 15.3 15.5 13.8 14.5


Lean color 3.85 3.83 3.67 3.83 3.83 4.00 3.50 4.00

Lean texture 3.00 3.17 3.17 2.83 3.33 3.00 3.50 3.16

Lean firmness 2.83 2.67 2.50 2.33 3.00 2.83 2.83 2.67

Color of fat 2.16 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00


NOTE: See Table 3 for description of characteristic by score.







-17-


As in Experiment I, economic considerations (see Table 10) show that

crossbred dairy x calves were graded and priced below the straightbred

and crossbred beef calves at weaning; however, their eventual carcass grades

were not widely different. Although fewer Brown Swiss crossbreds were graded

Choice in the carcass, many were High Good so that when scores were assigned by

one-third of a grade, the average USDA quality grades were 15.2, 15.3, 15.3

and 14.8 respectively for Brown Swiss crossbreds, Holstein crossbreds, Hereford

x Angus crossbreds and straightbreds (data for those self-fed concentrate diet).


TABLE 10.


COMPARISON OF FEEDER GRADE, CARCASS GRADE
(COMBINED FOR ALL SLAUGHTER DATES) AND
PRICES BY BREED GROUP AND DIET,
EXPERIMENT II.


Self-Fed Concentrate


Straight
-breds


Av. feeder grade:
Standard
Good
Choice

Av. USDA carcass quality
grade:2/
Standard
Good
Choice

Prices by feeder grade, $
Standard
Good
Choice

Prices by carcass grade,
Standard
Good
Choice


Hol-
stein
HxA x


0 0
9 8
3 4

per cwt:
$25.00
28.00
29.00

$ per cwt:
45.00
47.00
49.00


Brown
Swiss
x


4
1
0



0
11
1


Supplemented Silage


Straight
-breds


0
2
4



0
11
1


Hol-
stein
HxA x


A/One-third were slaughtered after 84, 126 and 168 days on feed.


Brown
Swiss
x


5
2
0



1
10
1


-I


Choice-







-18-


As in Experiment 1, hetcrosis was expressed in the crosbreds by a

larger ration intake on both diets with the Brown Swiss crossbreds consuming

the most. See Table 11.


TABLE 11.


COMPARISON OF FEED INTAKE AND EFFICIENCY OF
F9ED UTILIZATION BY BREED GROUP AND DIET,
EXPERIMENT II.


Self-Fed Concentrate


Hol- Brown
Straight stein Swiss
-breds HxA x x

Silage intake/steer/
day, lb.:
Silage, as fed, Ib./
Silage dry matter, lb.


Concentrate intake/
steer/day, lb.:
Concentrate, as fed,
ib.b/
Concentrate DM, lb.

Total feed intake/
steer/day, lb.:
Ration, as fed, lb.
Ration DM, lb.

Efficiency of feed
utilization, lb.lb. gain:
Ration, as fed DM
Ration DM


20.1
18.1



20.1
18.1



7.5
6.8


21.4 24.1 24.5
19.3 21.7 22.1



21.4 24.1 24.5
19.3 21.7 22.1



7.5 8.0 7.9
6.8 7.2 7.1


Supplemented Silage


Straight
-breds



41.6
10.9




5.5
5.0



47.1
15.9



20.2
6.8


Hol-
stein
HxA x


Brown
Swiss
x


44.6 47.8 51.3
11.7 12.5 13.4




6.1 6.6 6.2
5.5 5.9 5.6



50.7 54.5 57.5
17.2 18.4 19.0



19.3 21.6 22.2
7.4 7.9 8.2


.226.2% dry matter
./90.0% dry matter









Differences in efficiency of feed utilization were smaller among breed

groups than in Experiment I. The straightbreds and Hereford x Angus were the

best converters of feed to gain. Undoubtedly, the data would be different if

each breed group had been taken to the same slaughter weight. Recent research

reports by Guenther (1965), Hendrickson, et al (1965) and Waldman, et al (1971)

have shed light on the effect of plane of nutrition on performance and carcass

characteristics of straightbred beef and dairy calves. Callow (1961), Branaman

(1962), Cole, et al (1963, 1964), Berg and Butterfield (1968), Henderson (1969)

and Garrett (1971) have compared the performance and efficiency of beef and dairy

breed steers. Nichols, et al (1964) and Wellington (1971) have reported on the

performance of straightbred Holstein steers and bulls in the feedlot.

The daily intake (ration) of supplemented silage by each breed group was

again shown to be smaller than for self-fed concentrate.



SUMMARY OF RESULTS


Heterosis was apparently expressed in both the crossbred beef (Hereford x

Angus) and crossbred dairy x beef steers (Brown Swiss or Holstein x Angus or

Hereforct as:

1. Larger genetic potential for growth during a 168-day feedlot period

but this trait was expressed only when adequate nutrients were

available from the concentrate diet.

2. Larger appetite or voluntary consumption of feed per unit of bodyweight

but this trait was expressed only when the more highly digestible

concentrate diet was fed thereby avoiding any limitation from silage

bulk or "gastrointestinal tract-fill".







-20-


Carcass characteristics and value were not widely different between

crossbred beef and dairy x beef crossbreds when slaughtered at almost equal

stages of maturity and degree of fatness. Crossbred beef steers fattened at a

lighter weight than the dairy x beef crossbreds; consequently, the latter may be

fed to heavier weights without producing excessively fat carcasses. Carcass

yield grade was especially more useful than carcass quality grade in evaluating

carcasses from each breed group.

How one interprets the results of these experiments is dependent on his

concept of an ideal slaughter steer. If his market outlet specifies a steer

which will yield a carcass weighing at least 550 lb. (250 kg) but containing a

high percent of lean and low percent of fat, in other words a carcass with a

high yield grade (cutability) instead of high quality grade (conformation,

marbling, etc.), one would not hesitate to systematically introduce into his

herds the genes for larger mature size and faster growth to 1100 lb. (500 kg.).

At the same time, he could profit from the addition of genes for higher milk

production if Brown Swiss or other popular dairy breeds were used.

On the other hand, if the market outlet specifies a steer which would

yield a carcass with a high dressing percent and US Choice quality grade, one has

to determine the range in carcass weight which will be accepted. If the

specifications are flexible enough to accommodate any carcass over 500 pounds

but under 700 pounds with at least 80% grading US Choice (quality grade), then

one has to determine his capability of producing 1100-pound, 14 to 16-month-old

steers by providing adequate nutrition for continuous, uninterrupted growth and

development from conception to slaughter. If he can meet this challenge, he can

plan to infuse genes into his cattle for larger mature size and faster growth

to 1100 pounds live weight but, under current US carcass grading standards, an

outlet will have to be sought for some US Good and High Good carcasses because







-21-


of low conformation scores and because intramuscular fat (marbling) is more

dependent on age (last fat to be deposited) than plane of nutrition. Stated

in another way, if he cannot change his land utilization programs to provide a

high plane of nutrition or cannot eliminate the stocker steer calf operation

or cannot feed a high energy concentrate diet in the feedlot, his alternative

might be to achieve efficiency by systematic crossbreeding within traditional

beef breeds, better management of ranch, stocker and feedlot operations and

procurement of a market outlet for lighter weight carcasses from steers which

may be older than 14 to 16 months.







-22-


LITERATURE CITED


Berg, R. T. and R. M. Butterfield. 1968. Growth patterns of bovine muscle,
fat and bone. J. Animal Sci. 27:611.

Branaman, G. A., A. M. Pearson, W. T. Magee, R. M. Griswald and G. A. Brown.
1962. Comparison of the cutability and eatability of beef and dairy-type
cattle. J. Animal Sci. 21:321.

Callow, E. H. 1961. Comparative studies of meat VII. A comparison between
Hereford, dairy Shorthorn and Friesian steers on four levels of nutrition.
J. Agr. Sci. 56:265.

Cartwright, T. W. 1969. Future of beef cattle breeding-crossbreeding, straight-
breeding or what? Proc. Beef Cattle Short Course, Ga. Coastal Plain
Exp. Sta., Tifton, Ga.

Garrett, W. N. 1971. Energetic efficiency of beef and dairy steers. J. Animal
Sci. 32:451.

Guenther, J. J., D. H. Bushman, L. S. Pope and R. D. Morrison. 1965. Growth
and development of the major carcass tissues in beef calves from weaning to
slaughter weight with reference to the plane of nutrition. J. Animal
Sci. 24:1184.

Hedrick, H. B. 1968. Bovine growth and composition. Mo. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res.
Bul. 928.

Henderson, H. E. 1969. Comparative feedlot performances of dairy and beef
type steers. Proc. Cornell Nutr. Conf.

Hendrickson, R. L., L. S. Pope and R. E. Hendrickson. 1965. Effect of rate of
gain of fattening beef calves on carcass composition. J. Animal Sci. 24:507.

Judge, M. D., T. G. Martin, V. D. Bramblett and J. A. Barton. 1965. Comparison
of dairy and dual-purpose carcasses with beef-type carcasses from animals
of similar and younger ages. J. Dairy Sci. 48:509.

Nichols, J. R., J. H. Ziegler, J. M. White, E. M. Kesler and J. L. Watkins. 1964.
Production and carcass characteristics of Holstein-Friesian bulls and steers
slaughtered at 800 or 1000 pounds. J. Dairy Sci. 47:179.

Palmer, A. Z., J. Scott, D. E. Franke and J. F. Hentges, Jr. 1971. Lean bone
and fat percentages in beef and dairy x beef crosses. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Mimeo Series AN71-3.

Pearson, A. M. 1966. Desirability of beef its characteristics and their
measurement. J. Animal Sci. 25:843.







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Waldman, R. C., W. J. Tyler and V. H1. Brumgardt. 1971. Changes in the carcass
composition of Holstein steers associated with ration energy levels and
growth. J. Animal Sci. 32:611.

Wellington, G. H. 1971. Dairy beef. J. Animal Sci. 32:424.

Zinn, D. W. 1969. The influence of animal growth and fattening upon feedlot
management. Proc. Texas Tech. College Cattle Feeders Day.







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