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Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AN71-1
Title: The influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073030/00001
 Material Information
Title: The influence of sex on the protein requirement of growing-finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 2).
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1970."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073030
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79824757

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I UU
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epartment of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN 71-1 Experiment Station
July, 1970 Gainesville, Florida

THE INFLUENCE OF SEX ON THE PROTEIN
REQUIREMENT OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE

H. D. Wallace, E. W. Lucas
A. Z. Palmer and G. E. Combs /


Differences in performance and carcass development between gilts and barrows
are well documented (1). Barrows tend to gain weight more rapidly but less
efficiently while gilts yield leaner carcasses as evidenced by longer carcasses,
less backfat, larger loin eye measurements and higher percentages of the four
lean cuts.

These differences in performance and carcass characteristics suggest the
strong possibility that differences in nutritive requirements also exist. The
report by Wallace (2) demonstrated that gilts were penalized more than barrows
when dietary protein levels were low. The present study was undertaken to further
evaluate protein requirements of the two sexes.

Experimental

Forty-eight crossbred pigs (Duroc x Landrace) were allotted to 24 pens of
two pigs each according to litter sex and weight. Twelve pairs of gilts and
twelve pairs of barrows were randomly assigned to four protein level sequences
(17-15-13, 16-14-12, 15-13-11 and 14-12-10) giving a total of six pigs of each
sex on each of the protein level sequences. Protein levels were adjusted down-
ward as the average pig weight in each pen reached 100 pounds and then a second
downward adjustment was made when weights averaged 150 pounds.

All pigs were self-fed in small concrete pens with water furnished by
automatic watering devices.

Composition of the various feed mixtures is presented in Table 1.

All animals were slaughtered at a final weight of 220 + 5 pounds according'
to standard procedure and carcass cut out data were ob ainedpaccording topre-
viously described procedures (1).

Results and Discussion

A summary of the results is presented in Table 2.

Gilts gained less rapidly than barrows at all levelsiOf 'detary-protein.
This overall difference in rate of gain was statistically significant (P < .01).

1/ The data presented in this paper were taken from swine unit experiment No. 195.
2/ Wallace, Animal Nutritionist; Lucas, graduate assistant; Palmer, Meat Scientist;
and Combs, Animal Nutritioniiost DepartmrteLt of Aniamal Science.







- 2-


The influences of protein level sequences on daily gain were not statistically
significant (P < .05) but a definite trend is evident for both gilts and barrows.
As.protein levels were reduced rates of gain were also reduced,. Gilts .appeared
to be affected slightly more by the reduction in protein than .barrows, 'aIhpugh
the data are not conclusive in this regard. ". 1

Feed intake data were variable from pen to pen but barrows ate more feed
per head per day and were generally less efficient than gilts in feed conversion.
An exception to this was on.the low protein regime where the barrows were consid-
erably more efficient in feed conversion than gilts (3.40 vs. 3.74). This obser-
vation suggests that the low protein sequence (14-12-10) was'penalizing gilts
more than barrows.

Gilts and barrows showed similar dressing percentages with no protein level
effect evident. Gilt carcasses had less backfat, were longer and exhibited larger
loin eye measurements than barrow carcasses. Gilts excelled barrows in four lean
cuts (P < .01) and this superiority was in evidence at all protein level sequences.
Lean cut percentages trended downward with protein level reductions. Barrow
carcasses appeared to be more markedly affected in this regard than gilt carcasses.
Marbling scores which represent a subjective appraisal of the amount of fat dis-
tributed throughout the longissimus dorsi muscle were quite,.eimilar except -for
barrows fed the low protein levels. In this case the value indicated markedly
more intermuscular fat deposition.

Summary

An experiment involving forty eight pigs has been conducted to determine the
influence of sex giltss vs. barrows) on dietary protein requirements. Four dietary
protein level sequences were studied (17-15-13, 16-14-12, 15-13,11 and 14-12-10).

SBoth gilts and barrows gained most rapidly and most efficiently on the highest
protein sequence. Carcass measurements which reflected leanness (backfat thick-
ness, loin eye area and percent lean cuts) were also favored by the higher protein
intake. The data suggest that gilt performance., in terms of daily gain and feed
conversion, may have been more adversely affected than barrow performance by
suboptimum protein intake. However, the carcass data did not substantiate this
observation.

The. usual differences .between gilts and barrows were noted. Gilts gained
slower, but more efficiently and yielded leaner carcasses.





Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D., A. Z. Palmer, J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs. 1966.
Feed restriction of swine during the finishing period. Fla. Bulletin 706.

2. Wallace, H. D. 1968. Nutritional and Management Effects on Muscle Char-
acteristics and Quality. Chapt. 8. The Pork Industry: Problems and
Progress. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa.













Table 1. Composition of Experimental Diets

Percent Protein


Ingredient 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10


Ground yellow corn 75.70 78.20 80.70 83.20 85,70 88.20 90.70 92.95
Soybean oilmeal 20.50 18.00 15.50 13.00 10.50 8.00 5.50 3.25
Defluorinated phosphate 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50 0,50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals premixa 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 w
B-vitamin premixb 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin B12 premixc 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Vitamin A & D premixd 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Copper oxide (CuO) (19 gm) (19 gm) (19 gm) (19 gm) (19 gm) (19 gi) (19 gm) (19 ginm)


a/ Contained 11% calcium, 10% manganese, 10% iron, 10% zinc, 1% copper, 0.3% iodine and 0.1% cobalt.
b/ Contained 8,000, 14,720, 36,000 and 40,000 mg. per lb., respectively of riboflavin, pantothenic
acid, niacin and choline chloride.
c/ Contained 20 mg. B12 per lb.
d/ Contained 4.6 gm. Vitamin A supplement (30,000 I.U./gm.), 0.25 gm. Vitamin D supplement
(200,000 I.U./gm.) and 449 gm. yellow corn per lb.
















Table 2. Influence of dietary protein level on the performance
..... and carcass characteristics of gilts and barrows

Sex -ilts" o s .. .Barrows
Protein level, % 17-15-13 16-14-12 15-13-11 14-12-10 17-15-13 16--14-12 .15-13-11 14-12-10


No. pigs 6 -" 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Av. initial wt., lb. 29.3 30.5 30.5 31.8 30.1 30.5 30.5 30.6
Av. final wt., lb. '223.2 222.0 '218.3 219.8 220.8 222.3" 225.3 225.0
Daily gain, lb. 1.67 1.62 1.57 1.51 1.77 1.78 1.69 1.68
Daily feed intake, lb. 5.26 5.33 5.17 5.64 5.69 5.92 5.70 5.72
Feed per unit gain. :' 3.17 3.29 3.29 3.74 3.21 3.33 3.37 3.40
Av. number days on'test '-. I17.2 118.5 119.3 124.3 108.0 108.0 115.0 116.0
Dressing percent A" .4 71.8 71.7 71.0 71.0 71.5 72.2 71.3
Backfat thickness, in. '' 1.35 1.43 1.42 1.50 1.45 1.63 1.77 1.63.
Carcass length, in. .30.60 30.52 30.52 30.83 30.18 30.00 30.07 29.75
Loin eye area, sq. in. 4.24 4.39 4.25 3.95 3.88 3.82 3.73 3.62
Percent 4 lean cuts 51.5"' 51.0 50.7 49.2 49.2 47.4 46.9 45.3
Marbling scorea .. 9.1 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.8 10.4 9.3 13.1


a/ Light degree of marbling designated by-&; small, 11; modest, 14.




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