Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN70-9 Experiment Station
May, 1970 Gainesville, Florida
INFLUENCE OF MODIFIED ENVIRONH1MT
ON PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG PIGS V
G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace 2/
A previous study (Fla. Ani. Sci. Mimeo. Series 70-1) showed that young pigs
could readily adapt to several environmental temperatures; no significant (P < .05)
differences in rate or efficiency of gain were found with pigs maintained at either
ambient temperature, 650 F or 80 F. Knowledge of the response-obtained from a
wider range of temperatures would be of value to the present day producer that
follows a confinement program. The present experiment was designed to study the
influence of 5 environmental temperatures on the performance of young pigs.
Fifty pigs weaned at two weeks of age were allotted from outcome groups to
5 treatments. The treatments-consisted of the following temperatures: (1) ambient
temperature, (2 constant 600 F, (3) constant 700 F, (4) constant 800 F and
(5) constant 90 F.
During the 8 week experimental period the ambient temperature ranged from a
low of 370 F to a high of 930 F with an average maximum and minimum temperature
of 830 F and 57 F, respectively. Pigs in the ambient temperature group were
kept in semi-enclosed concrete floored pens. Wood shavings were used for bedding
with this group and with the pigs housed in the temperature controlled pens. All
pens were equipped with automatic waterers and self-feeders. The composition of
the diet fed is presented in Table 1.
Results and Discussion
The overall performance is presented in Table 2. No significant differences
(P < .05) were. found among treatments for either rate of gain, feed consumption
or feed efficiency. Although these total performance data were not significantly
different the gains when expressed on a weekly basis indicated that temperature
influenced growth rate during the early weeks of life (Table 3). For the first
3 weeks those pigs kept at constant 800 and 900 F gained faster than those at
either 600 or 700 F. Then, with the exception of the 5th week, gains were similar
for all treatments for the remainder of the experiment. These data would confirm
the previous findings (AN70-1) that the young pig will perform satisfactorily
when exposed toa wide range of environmental temperatures.
Fifty pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age were used to study the effect of environ-
mental temperature upon rate and efficiency of gain.
The total performance data (8 weeks) showed that pigs maintained at constant
temperatures of 600, 700, 800 or 900 F or at ambient temperature did not differ
significantly (P < .05) in rate or efficiency of gain.
1/ Acknowledgement is made to the Florida Power Corp. for providing the heat
pumps and technical assistance.
2/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Department.
Table 1. Composition of Diet /
Ground yellow corn
Soybean meal (50%)
Steamed bone meal
Trace minerals 2/
Vitamin Suppement -
1/ Diet contained 18% protein.
2/ Supplied the following in PPM: Mn, 57; Fe, 70; Cu, 4.8; Co,
1.6 and Zn, 100.
3/ Vitamins were added to provide per pound of diet the following:
Vitamin A, 1400 I.U.; vitamin D, 400 I.U.; riboflavin, 4.4 mg.;
pantothenic acid, 10 mg.; niacin, 20 mg. and vitamin B12, 9 mcg.
4/ Contained 10 gm.. of Aureomycin per pound.
Table 2. Performance of Pigs Housed At
Various Environmental Temperatures
Ambient 60 70 80 90
Av. initial wt., lb. 9.6 9.6 9.5 9.5 9.5
Av. final wt., lb. 57.0 51.8 53.4 58.5 53.3
Av. daily gain, lb. 0.85 0.75 0.78 0.87 0.78
Av. daily feed, lb. 1.53 1.38 1.42 1.70 1.48
Feed/gain, lb. 1.80 1.84 1.82 1.95 1.90
Table 3. Cummulative Daily Gains By Weeks
Week No. Ambient 60 70 80 90
Means on same line bearing different
significantly (P < .05).