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 Introduction and experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeo series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AN70-5
Title: Influence of high dietary levels of Vitamin D on performance of young and growing-finishing swine
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073021/00001
 Material Information
Title: Influence of high dietary levels of Vitamin D on performance of young and growing-finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeo series
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Vitamin D in animal nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "January, 1970."
Funding: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073021
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79628917

Table of Contents
    Introduction and experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 3
        Page 4
Full Text

Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
S Mimeo Series No. AN70-5 Experiment Station
SJanuary, 1970 Gainesville, Florida

S'70- 5- INFLUENCE OF .HIGH DIETARY LEVELS OFVITAMIN D ON
PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG AND GROWING-FINISHING SWINE

G. E. Combs and H. D, Wallace!'


The preventive and curative properties of vitamin D for rickets and other

bone abnormalities has been recognized for several decades. The current practice

of raising swine in confinement decreases their opportunity of obtaining vitamin D

by action of the sunlight on the skin which consequently may increase the need for

supplemental dietary vitamin D.

The present study was conducted to compare the performance of pigs that were

fed diets containing relatively small amounts of calcium and phosphorus and zero,

adequate or excessive levels of supplementary D2 in the absence of sunlight.

Experimental

Vitamin D2 was added to corn-soy diets to provide 0, 900, 9,000 or 90,000 I.U.

per pound of feed. All pigs were housed in completely enclosed concrete floored

pens. Feed was supplied ad libitum in self feeders and water by automatic waterers.

The test period was divided into 3 separate phases:

Phose I Forty pigs weaned at 3 weeks of age allotted to 4 treatment groups.

Each treatment consisted of 2 replicated pens of 5 pigs each. This phase was

of a 7 week duration. The composition of the diets fed is presented in Table 1

Phase II All pigs in replication 2 were removed from test at the end of phase

I. The remaining 20 pigs (replication 1) continued on their respective treat-

ments for a 5 week period. The composition of the diet fed during this phase

and during phase 3 is presented in Table 1.

Phase III At the end of phase 2 all but 1 pig in each treatment was removed

from test. The remaining 4 pigs were littermates and were continued on their

I/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Department.





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respective diets-'for an addit ona twee A the rin h of this phase

the 4 remaining pigs were slaughtered and the femur bones removed for analysis.

At the end of each phase blood samples were drawn for determination of cal-

cium, phosphorus, cholesterol and urea"'nitrogen.'

Results a'd Discdusi'on

The results of this study are summarized "in Table 2.'

Phase I During the inittAl:'7 weeks of the'experiment the average daily gain,

daily feed consumption, feed efficiency, blood urea nitrogen and serum cholesterol

was not significantly (P < .05) different'aofiog'trea'tieht groups. Significant

(P < .05) differences in serum calcium' re 'und: amng treatments but no trend

with dietary vitamin D was established. piIgs which received Oor 90,000 I.U./lb.

had the highest concentration of serum calcium while the lowest concentration was

found with the group receiving 9,000' I.U. vitamin D/lb. With serum' phosphorus

significant (P,< .05) treatment'differences were 'lsb found and a trend toward in-

creasing phosphorus concentrations with 'increasing' levels of supplemental vitamin

D was evident. Pigs that were fed 90,b00O .U. vitamin D/lb. had significantly

higher serum phosphorus levels than those given 0 supplemental vitamin D.

Phase II Level'of detary'vitamin Ddid not'sigificantly (P < .05) influence

rate of gain, 'eed intake, feed efficiency, blood urea nitrogen, or serum calcium

with pigs fed diets containing 0, 960, ,600 or 90,000 .U. vitamin D/lb. for a

period of 12 weeks. Pigs fed the diet containing 9,000 I.U. of D/lb. had signifi-

cantly (P < .05) higher cholesterol levels than those given either 900 or 90,000
:';" : g'e' 0 supplemental vitamin
I.U. vitamin D/lb. In contrast to phase I, pigs given 0 supplemental vitamin D

had significantly (P < .05) higher phosphorus levels' han those given 900 or 9,000

I.U./b. The 0 and 90,000 groups were not"'3sgnrificaitly (P < .05) different.

Phase III Since only 1 pig per .di'tar: 'treaitmeit was used in this phase

statistical analysis of the data was not possible. However it is evident that





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the high levels of vitamin D did not. materially influence rate or efficiency of

gain. The magnitude of differences in blood urea nitrogen and serum phosphorus

was quite large but no trend with respect to level of supplemental vitamin D was

apparent. The femur ash percent decreased slightly with increasing .levels of

dietary vitamin D. In general the pig that received 0 supplemental vitamin D had

a higher percentage of ether extractable material in the femur than the pigs given

supplemental vitamin D.

Summary

Pigs weaned at 3 weeks of age were fed fortified corn-soy diets supplemented

with 0, 900, 9,000 or 90,000 I.U. vitamin D2 per pound for a period of 17 weeks.
These pigs were housed in the absence of sunlight and fed ad libitum in self-feeders
Rate and efficiency of gain did not .differ: significantly (P < .05) among the

treatment groups. The practical implication of this finding is that the intentional
or inadvertent omission of vitamin D from diets containing approximately 0.5% calcium

and phosphorus does not materially influence pig performance. Also quantities of

vitamin D several hundred times that of the pigs requirement does not adversely
influence rate and efficiency of gain.
Table 1. Composition of Diets Fedl/
Ingredient Phase 1 Phase 2 and 3
lb. lb.
Ground yellow corn 50.10 79.40
Soybean meal (50%) 34.00 17.70
Cane sugar 10.00
Tallow 3.00
Defluorinated phosphate 1.00 1.1
Limestone 0.50 0.4
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals2/ 0.10 0.10
Vitamin suPylements3/ 0.20 0.20
Antibiotic/ 0.10 0.10
Vitamin D premix 0.50 0.50
ioo0.00o 1__
1/ Diets contained 0.55% calcium and 0.52% phosphorus.
2/ Supplied the following in ppm: Mn, 57; Fe, 70;
Cu, 4.8; Co, 1.6 and Zn, 100.
3/ Vitamins were added to provide per pound of diet the
following: vitamin A, 1400 I.U.; riboflavin, 4.4 mg.;
pantothenic acid, 10 mg.; niacin, 20 mg. and vitamin
B12, 9 mcg.
4/ Contained 40 gm. of Aureomycin per pound.






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Table.,2. Influence of High Dietary Levels Of
Vitamin D2 On Performance of Swine


.Feed/ Blood Serum
gain Urea Cioles-
Ib, N terol
mg'./100 mg./100
ml. ml.


Serum
Ca
mg.100
ml.'


Serum Femur
-'P Ash
mg./100. %
'ml.


Phase I
I.U. D /lb.
0
900
9,000
90,000

Phase II
I.U. D2/lb.
0
900
9,000
90,000

Phase III
I.U. D2/lb.
0
900
9,000
90,000


13.7
13.7
13.7
13.6


55.8
54.7
56.7
54.8


1.00
0.97
1.02
0.98


1,90
1.59
1.69
1.79



1.86
1.82
1.68
1.68


2.10
2.11
2.33
2.11


2.11
2.17
2..28
2.09


3.98 2.09
3.36 2.11
3.49 2.06.
3.83 2.14


6.34
5.91
5.66
6.51


17.2
17.9
17.9
19.0


23.3
21.0
19.3
22.6


3.41 14.5
3.25 23.0
3.37 21.6
3.87 13.0


98.8
83.3
88.9
92.1


96.2ab
91.4b
108.8a
86.4b


90.0
81.0
112.0
84.0


12.1ab
, 8ab
11.8a
11.3b
12.4a


11.1
11.1
11.0
11.1


7.5a
7.8a
8.6ab
9.1b


9.0a
8.2b
8.4b
8.7ab


50.6
- 49.5
49.4
48.0


Av.
init.
Wt., Ib.


Av.
final
Wt., lb.


Av.
Da.
Gain
lb.


Av..
Da.
feed
b16.


Fat
in
Femur
%7


24.(
15.'
18.
19.1


Means in same column within phases bearing different superscript letters differ
significantly (P < .05).


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