• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Introduction and procedure
 Results and discussion
 Summary and literature cited
 List of Tables














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AN70-3
Title: Percent separable fat, lean, bone and four lean cuts of pork carcasses
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073019/00001
 Material Information
Title: Percent separable fat, lean, bone and four lean cuts of pork carcasses
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 3 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Palmer, A. Z
Cross, H. Russell
Carpenter, J. W ( James Woodford )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Carcasses -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pork -- Quality -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: A.Z. Palmer, H. Russell Cross and J.W. Carpenter.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "September, 1969."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073019
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79627888

Table of Contents
    Introduction and procedure
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
    Summary and literature cited
        Page 2
    List of Tables
        Page 3
        Page 4
Full Text





Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Mimeograph Series No. AN 70-3 Gainesville, Florida
September, 1969


PERCENT SEPARABLE FAT, LEAN, BONE AD FOUR
LEAN CUTS OF PORK CARCASSES-./

A. Z. Palmer, H. Russell Cross and J. W. Carpenter/

Pork carcass meatiness has improved significantly during the last two
decades. Continued improvement is clearly indicated by increasing producer
interest in and adoption of scientifically based breeding, feeding and manage-
ment practices relating to the production of pork containing more red meat and
less waste fat.

The new Official United States Department of Agriculture Standards for
Grades of Barrows and Gilts (1968), in general, allow less backfat for carcasses
to qualify for the number 1, 2 and 3 grades. Thus, due credit is nco being
given to carcasses (i.e., now being graded No. I's) which under the previous
U.S.D.A. Standards (1958) had acceptable quality but lacked the minimum back-
fat thickness required:for the old number 1 grade and accordingly were graded
"medium".

For many years, producers have been able to judge improvement in pork car-
cass meatiness in terms of lowered backfat thickness, increased loin eye area,
increased ham-loin index and percent of four lean cuts. Withour question, the
use of such indices of carcass meatiness has contributed materially to the rapid
improvement. However, it is felt that an even greater impetus toward carcass
improvement might be forthcoming with the development of data relating such
indices with the fat, lean and bone components of pork carcasses.

The purpose of this study was to determine the percent of separable fat,
lean and bone of U.S.D.A. No. 1, 2, 3 and 4 pork carcasses as graded on the new
Standards (1968).

PROCEDURE

In this study, 43 pork carcasses were selected on the basis of length,
average backfat thickness and muscling. Carcasses were weighed and measured
after a 24-48 hour chill at 360F. Carcass length was measured from the anterior



-/ From "Pork Carcass Muscling Score, Length, Backfat Thickness and Other Indices
of Fat, Lean and Bone Percentages." By Hiram Russell Cross. M.S. Thesis,
University of Florida, 1969.
2/
SPalmer, Meat Scientist; Cross, Research Assistant and now Instructor in the
Animal Science Department of Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas;
Carpenter, Associate Meat Scientist. The assistance of Roger West, Meats
Laboratory Manager; Mrs. Linda Standish, Laboratory Technologist; and Jack
Farrell, Laboratory Technician is gratefully acknowledged.










2 -


edge of the first rib to the anterior edge of the aitch (pelvis) bone. Backfat
thickness was obtained by an average of three measurements: opposite the first
rib, last rib and the last lumbar vertebra. Muscling scores were determined sub-
jectively by a five member panel with 2 designating average very thick; 5, aver-
age thick; 3, average moderately thick; 11, average slightly thin; 14, average
thin and 17, average very thin. Loin eye area was taken from the area of the
L. dorsi exposed by cutting midway between the O0th and Ilth ribs and perpen-
dicularly to the back bone.

Both sides of each carcass were cut and trimmed according to standard pro-
cedures with the exception that jowls were removed to provide more uniform car-
casses. Weights of the trimmed Sour lean cuts were taken and then all cuts and
trim of each carcass separated into fat, lean and bone. Skin, glands and con-
nective tissue were included with the fat.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Data obtained in this study are presented in Table 1. The U.S.D.A. No. 1
carcasses contained 38.2% separable fat, 50.9% separable lean and 10.9% bone.
The No. 2 carcasses had 45.5% fat, 43.3% lean and 11.2% bone. The No. 3 carcass-
es had 49.5% fat, 40.7% lean and 9.8% bone and the No. 4 carcasses had 54.8%
separable fat, 36.9% separable lean and 8.j% bone. It should be noted that only
the U.S.D.A. No. 1 carcasses contained more lean than fat. Percent of bone var-
ied less than percent of fat and lean but did decline with increased fat as may
be seen by comparing the No. 1 and 2 carcass means with the No. 3 and 4 means.

The No. 1, 2, 3 and 4 grade carcasses had 57.0, 53.5, 50.1 and 45.6 percent
four lean cuts (ham, loin, picnic and butt), respectively. However, these
values are somewhat high since the percentages were based on carcass weights
taken after the jowls had been removed.

SUMMARY

Wide differences between U.S.D.A. pork carcass grades No. 1, 2, 3 and L:
were found in percent separable fat, lean, bone and four lean cuts. Many car-
casses being produced today contain more separable fat than lean but on the
other hand many carcasses excel in meatiness. This study confirms: 1. Excep-
tionally meaty pork carcasses can be and are being produced. 2. Many over fin-
ished, less meaty, less profitable carcasses are being produced. 3. The im-
provement of pork carcass meatiness is possible (by virtue of the existence of
meatier carcasses) and the higher percentages of separable fat in a majority of
the carcasses, suggest that continued improvement in meatiness is in order.

LITERATURE CITED

United States Department of Agriculture. 195j. Official United States Stand-
ards for Grades of Barrow and Gilt Carcasses. Consumer and Marketing Service,
Livestock Division, Washington, D. C.

United States Department of Agriculture. 1968. Official United States Stand-
ards for Grades of Barrow and Gilt Carcasses. Consumer and Marketing Service,
Livestock Division, Washington, D, C.










2 -


edge of the first rib to the anterior edge of the aitch (pelvis) bone. Backfat
thickness was obtained by an average of three measurements: opposite the first
rib, last rib and the last lumbar vertebra. Muscling scores were determined sub-
jectively by a five member panel with 2 designating average very thick; 5, aver-
age thick; 3, average moderately thick; 11, average slightly thin; 14, average
thin and 17, average very thin. Loin eye area was taken from the area of the
L. dorsi exposed by cutting midway between the O0th and Ilth ribs and perpen-
dicularly to the back bone.

Both sides of each carcass were cut and trimmed according to standard pro-
cedures with the exception that jowls were removed to provide more uniform car-
casses. Weights of the trimmed Sour lean cuts were taken and then all cuts and
trim of each carcass separated into fat, lean and bone. Skin, glands and con-
nective tissue were included with the fat.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Data obtained in this study are presented in Table 1. The U.S.D.A. No. 1
carcasses contained 38.2% separable fat, 50.9% separable lean and 10.9% bone.
The No. 2 carcasses had 45.5% fat, 43.3% lean and 11.2% bone. The No. 3 carcass-
es had 49.5% fat, 40.7% lean and 9.8% bone and the No. 4 carcasses had 54.8%
separable fat, 36.9% separable lean and 8.j% bone. It should be noted that only
the U.S.D.A. No. 1 carcasses contained more lean than fat. Percent of bone var-
ied less than percent of fat and lean but did decline with increased fat as may
be seen by comparing the No. 1 and 2 carcass means with the No. 3 and 4 means.

The No. 1, 2, 3 and 4 grade carcasses had 57.0, 53.5, 50.1 and 45.6 percent
four lean cuts (ham, loin, picnic and butt), respectively. However, these
values are somewhat high since the percentages were based on carcass weights
taken after the jowls had been removed.

SUMMARY

Wide differences between U.S.D.A. pork carcass grades No. 1, 2, 3 and L:
were found in percent separable fat, lean, bone and four lean cuts. Many car-
casses being produced today contain more separable fat than lean but on the
other hand many carcasses excel in meatiness. This study confirms: 1. Excep-
tionally meaty pork carcasses can be and are being produced. 2. Many over fin-
ished, less meaty, less profitable carcasses are being produced. 3. The im-
provement of pork carcass meatiness is possible (by virtue of the existence of
meatier carcasses) and the higher percentages of separable fat in a majority of
the carcasses, suggest that continued improvement in meatiness is in order.

LITERATURE CITED

United States Department of Agriculture. 195j. Official United States Stand-
ards for Grades of Barrow and Gilt Carcasses. Consumer and Marketing Service,
Livestock Division, Washington, D. C.

United States Department of Agriculture. 1968. Official United States Stand-
ards for Grades of Barrow and Gilt Carcasses. Consumer and Marketing Service,
Livestock Division, Washington, D, C.










-3-


Table 1. PERCENT SEPARABLE LEAN, FAT, BONE AND FOUR LEAN CUTS
OF PORK CARCASSES RELATIVE TO U.S.D.A. GRADE

U.S.D.A. Grade
No. I No. 2 No. 3 No. 1:


No. of carcasses

Carcass characteristics:
Chilled wt., lb../
Length, in.
Backfat thickness, in.
Muscling score-
Loin eye area, sq. in.

Separable components carcass:
% fat
% lean
% bone

Carcass yields:
% ham
% loin
% picnic
% butt
% four lean cuts-'


11 23 7 2


136.1
29.9
1.29
5
3.91


38.2
50.9
10.9


20.9
18.9
9.8
7.0-
57.0


130.0
29.7
1.41
11
2.93


45.5
43.3
11.2


19.4
17.8
9.2
7.1
53.5


1L 1.5
29.7
1.77
12
3.10


49.5
:;0.7
9.8


17.9
16.6
8.8
6.8
50.1


147.4
29.0
2..83
11
2.83

54.3
35.9
8.3


16.0
15. 1
8.6
5.8
45.6


/' Weight taken with jowls removed.
b/
- Score of 2 designated very thick; 5, thick; 8, moderately thick; II,
slightly thin; 14, thin and 17, very thin.

/ Values are somewhat high since percentages are based on carcass weights
taken after the jowls had been removed.







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