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 Introduction and experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 List of Tables














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AN70-2
Title: Raw and heated soybeans for young growing and finishing swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073018/00001
 Material Information
Title: Raw and heated soybeans for young growing and finishing swine
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 5 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Soybean as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1969."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073018
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79626404

Table of Contents
    Introduction and experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Summary
        Page 3
    List of Tables
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text



A N"7c'--

Lepar..ment of Ai.iiTal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN70-2 Experiment Station
July, 1969 Gainesville, Florida

RAW AND HEATED SOYBEANS FOR YOUNG GROWING AND FINISHING SWINE

G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallacel/


The growth inhibition which accompanies the feeding of raw soybeans has re-
sulted in the general recommendation that for optimum performance only heated or
processed soybeans be included in swine diets. The primary reason for the poor
utilization of raw soybeans is not presently well defined but lowered protein
digestibility has been implicated as a major factor.

The study reported herein was initiated to determine if age of the pig and
dietary supplements of trypsin or methionine influenced growth and nutrient di-
gestibility with pigs. fed diets 'containing raw soybeans..

Experimental

Pigs of 3 different ages were fed the following dietary treatments:

1. Corn-soybean meal
2. Corn-heated soybeans (2 hours at 4 p.s.i pressure and 1100 C.)
3. Corn-raw soybeans
4. Corn-raw soybeans + 0.5% trypsin
5. Corn-raw soybeans + 0.5% methionine

The initial age of the pigs when put on test were:

Group 1 3 weeks
Group 2 9 weeks
Group 3 16 weeks

Each of the age groups contained 4 pigs in each of the dietary treatments.

All pigs were maintained in concrete-floored pens equipped with automatic
waterers and self feeders. The composition of the diets fed is presented in
Table 1. During the last week of the experiment chromic oxide was added to the
diets to facilitate determination of nutrient digestibility. Blood samples were
drawn on the final day of test for chemical analysis. At the termination of the
test for Group'3, two pigs from treatments 1, 2 and 3 were slaughtered for carcass
firmness determination.

Results and Discussion

The results of this study are summarized in Tables 2, 3 and 4.

The daily gain of pigs 3 or 9 weeks of age was significantly (P < .05)
influenced by dietary treatment. With the 3 week old pigs diets containing
either heated or raw soybeans resulted in slower gains than that of pigs given
soybean meal. However heat treatment of the beans resulted in a significant
/ Combs and allac Anima Ntritonists, Depatment of Anima Science.
1/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Department of Animal Science.







A N"7c'--

Lepar..ment of Ai.iiTal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN70-2 Experiment Station
July, 1969 Gainesville, Florida

RAW AND HEATED SOYBEANS FOR YOUNG GROWING AND FINISHING SWINE

G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallacel/


The growth inhibition which accompanies the feeding of raw soybeans has re-
sulted in the general recommendation that for optimum performance only heated or
processed soybeans be included in swine diets. The primary reason for the poor
utilization of raw soybeans is not presently well defined but lowered protein
digestibility has been implicated as a major factor.

The study reported herein was initiated to determine if age of the pig and
dietary supplements of trypsin or methionine influenced growth and nutrient di-
gestibility with pigs. fed diets 'containing raw soybeans..

Experimental

Pigs of 3 different ages were fed the following dietary treatments:

1. Corn-soybean meal
2. Corn-heated soybeans (2 hours at 4 p.s.i pressure and 1100 C.)
3. Corn-raw soybeans
4. Corn-raw soybeans + 0.5% trypsin
5. Corn-raw soybeans + 0.5% methionine

The initial age of the pigs when put on test were:

Group 1 3 weeks
Group 2 9 weeks
Group 3 16 weeks

Each of the age groups contained 4 pigs in each of the dietary treatments.

All pigs were maintained in concrete-floored pens equipped with automatic
waterers and self feeders. The composition of the diets fed is presented in
Table 1. During the last week of the experiment chromic oxide was added to the
diets to facilitate determination of nutrient digestibility. Blood samples were
drawn on the final day of test for chemical analysis. At the termination of the
test for Group'3, two pigs from treatments 1, 2 and 3 were slaughtered for carcass
firmness determination.

Results and Discussion

The results of this study are summarized in Tables 2, 3 and 4.

The daily gain of pigs 3 or 9 weeks of age was significantly (P < .05)
influenced by dietary treatment. With the 3 week old pigs diets containing
either heated or raw soybeans resulted in slower gains than that of pigs given
soybean meal. However heat treatment of the beans resulted in a significant
/ Combs and allac Anima Ntritonists, Depatment of Anima Science.
1/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Department of Animal Science.










- 2 -


(P < .05) improvement when compared to the diets containing raw beans. With
pigs 9 weeks of age gains of the pigs fed either soybean meal or heated soybeans
were similar whereas both of these treatments produced significantly (P < .05)
faster gain than obtained by feeding raw soybeans. The gains of pigs 16 weeks
of age when put on test did not differ significantly (P < .05) among the dietary
treatments.

The addition of 0.5% trypsin or methionine to the raw soybean diet did not
significantly (P < .05) improve rate of gain with pigs either 3, 9 or 16 weeks of
age.

The feed intake of pigs 3 weeks of age was influenced considerably by dietary
treatment. Pigs given the heated soybeans consumed about 0.5 lb. less per day
than those given soybean meal and the daily consumption of those given raw soybeans
was about 1 lb. less than those fed soybean meal. With the 9 week old pigs daily
feed intake of the heated and raw soybean groups was similar but both were about
1.0 lb. less than the soybean meal group. Considerable variation in daily feed
intake was found among treatments with pigs 16 weeks of age. Thepigs given the
methionine supplement consumed less feed than the other treatments which may be
a reflection of a marginal quantity of dietary methionine.

Feed required per pound of gain was considerably higher for the raw soybean
diets than either the soybean meal or heated soybeans with both 3 and 9 week old
pigs. The most efficient treatment with pigs 16 weeks of age was the group fed
raw soybean plus methionine.

Digestibility of dry matter was not significantly (P < .05) different among
treatments with any of the age groups.

Protein digestibility of soybean meal and the raw soybeans plus methionine
was significantly (P < .05) higher than the other treatments with pigs 3 weeks of
age. Protein digestion coefficients for 9 week old pigs fed soybean meal, heated
or raw soybeans did not differ significantly (P < .05). Although there was a
considerable difference between the protein digestion coefficients of pigs fed
soybean meal and the remaining treatments the difference was not significant (P < .05,

Digestion coefficients for ether extract showed a significant (P < .05) dif-
ference only with pigs 3 weeks of age. With this group those which received the
methionine supplement had a higher (P < .05) coefficient than the heated soybean
or the two remaining raw soybean groups.

Plasma glucose concentrations differed significantly (P < .05) with the 3
week but ,not the 9 or 16 week old pigs. The 3 week old pigs given soybean meal
had a higher level of plasma glucose than the other four treatments..

The significantly (P < .05) higher level of urea nitrogen found with the 3
week old pigs fed raw soybeans would be expected if an unbalanced protein was
being catabolized.

The carcass firmness determination indicates that the pigs fed treated or
raw soybeans tended to have a softer carcass than those given soybean meal.










3-

Summary

"Pigs 3, 9 or 16 weeks of age were fed diets containing soybean meal, heated
soybeans or raw soybeans.

Gain and feed efficiency of the 3 and 9 week old pigs was adversely affected
by diets that contained raw soybeans. Supplementation of the raw soybean diets
with either trypsin or methionine did not improve performance. Heating the soy-
beans resulted in a significant improvement in performance of both age groups.
Pigs 16 weeks of age were able to utilize either heated or raw soybeans as
effectively as soybean meal.

Digestibility of protein and ether extract and plasma levels of glucose and
urea nitrogen were affected by dietary treatment with pigs 3 weeks of age. Only
protein digestion was influenced by dietary treatment with 9 week old pigs while
those 16 weeks of age did not show a significant treatment difference with these
criteria.

Table 1. Composition of Diets

Corn
+ Corn
Soybean +
Meal Soybeans
Ingredient lb. lb.
Ground yellow corn 70.40 61.50
Soybean meal (50%) 20.60
Soybeans 29.50
Tallow 5.00 5.00
Defluorinated phosphate 2.00 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals 1/ 0.10 0.10
Vitamin supplement 2/ 1.10 1.10
Antibiotic 3/ 0.30 0.30
100.00 100.00
1/ Supplied the following in ppm: Mn,.57; Fe, 70;
Cu, 4.8; Co, 1.6 and Zn, 100.
2/ The following vitamins were added to provide
per pound of diet: vitamin A, 1400 I.U., vitamin
D, 400 I.U., riboflavin, 4.4 mg., pantothenic
acid, 10 mg.; niacin, 20 mg. and vitamin B12,
10 mcg.
3/ Aureo S.P.-250.










3-

Summary

"Pigs 3, 9 or 16 weeks of age were fed diets containing soybean meal, heated
soybeans or raw soybeans.

Gain and feed efficiency of the 3 and 9 week old pigs was adversely affected
by diets that contained raw soybeans. Supplementation of the raw soybean diets
with either trypsin or methionine did not improve performance. Heating the soy-
beans resulted in a significant improvement in performance of both age groups.
Pigs 16 weeks of age were able to utilize either heated or raw soybeans as
effectively as soybean meal.

Digestibility of protein and ether extract and plasma levels of glucose and
urea nitrogen were affected by dietary treatment with pigs 3 weeks of age. Only
protein digestion was influenced by dietary treatment with 9 week old pigs while
those 16 weeks of age did not show a significant treatment difference with these
criteria.

Table 1. Composition of Diets

Corn
+ Corn
Soybean +
Meal Soybeans
Ingredient lb. lb.
Ground yellow corn 70.40 61.50
Soybean meal (50%) 20.60
Soybeans 29.50
Tallow 5.00 5.00
Defluorinated phosphate 2.00 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals 1/ 0.10 0.10
Vitamin supplement 2/ 1.10 1.10
Antibiotic 3/ 0.30 0.30
100.00 100.00
1/ Supplied the following in ppm: Mn,.57; Fe, 70;
Cu, 4.8; Co, 1.6 and Zn, 100.
2/ The following vitamins were added to provide
per pound of diet: vitamin A, 1400 I.U., vitamin
D, 400 I.U., riboflavin, 4.4 mg., pantothenic
acid, 10 mg.; niacin, 20 mg. and vitamin B12,
10 mcg.
3/ Aureo S.P.-250.










- 4-


Table 2. Performance of Pigs 3 Weeks Of
Age Fed Raw and Heated Soybeans


Treatment No. 1 2 3 4 5
Dietary Treatment Soybean Heated Raw Raw Raw
Meal Soybeans Soybeans Soybeans Soybeans
+ +
Trypsin Methionine


Group 1-initial age 3 weeks
Av. initial weight, lb. 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.6
Av. final weight, lb. 47.7 40.2 19.2 19.5 22.7
Av. daily gain, lb. 0.88a 0.70b 0.20c 0.21c 0.29c
Av. daily feed, lb. 1.73 1.27 0.70 0.60 0.70
Av. feed/gain, lb. 1.97 1.81 3.50 2.86 2.41
Digestion %
Dry matter 94.2 89.5 91.9 92.7 94.0
Protein 74.8a 60.0b 56.3b 55.7b 66.4a
Ether extract 75.1ab 64.9b 65.5b 70.1b 80.7a
Plasma glucose, mg./100 ml. 121.0a 89.0b 91.0b 84.0b 92.0b
Plasma urea nitrogen, mg./100mL 13.0a 12.7a 18.5b 18.3b 20.5b

abc Means on same line bearing different superscript letters differ significantly
(P < .05).


Table 3. Performance Of Pigs 9 Weeks Of
Age Fed Raw and Heated Soybeans


Treatment No. 1 2 3 4 5
Dietary Treatment Soybean Heated Raw Raw Raw
Meal Soybeans Soybeans Soybeans Soybeans
+ +
Trypsin Methionine

Group 2-initial age 9 weeks
Av. initial weight, lb. 31.0 32.5 31.2 32.5 31.7
Av. final weight, lb. 70.5 62.5 48.2 47.7 44.8
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.32a 1.00a 0.57b 0.51b 0.43b
Av. daily feed, lb. 2.96 2.00 2.06 2.05 1.65
Feed/gain, lb. 2.24 2.00 3.61 4.02 3.84
Digestion %
Dry matter 94.8 94.2 95.0 92.7 92.1
Protein 81.6a 79.3a 76.4ab 67.9b 62.9b
Ether extract 65.6 53.4 76.6 72.4 76.0
Plasma glucose, mg./100 ml. 116.0 85.0 97.0 121.0 133.0
Plasma urea nitrogen, mg./ICOml. 13.2 15.5 16.5 13.2 14.5
ab Means on same line bearing different superscript letters differ signifi-
cantly (P < .05).








- 5 -


Table 4. Performance Of Pigs 15 Weeks Of
Age Fed Raw And Heated Soybeans


Treatment No. 1 2 3 4 5
Dietary Treatment Soybean Heated Raw Raw Raw
Meal Soybeans Soybeans Soybeans Soybeans
+ +
Trypsin Methionine


Group 3-initial age 16 weeks/
Av. initial weight, lb. 118.7 115.7 118.3 118.5 118.5
Av. final weight, lb. 177.2 181.5 183.7 180.7 181.5
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.77 1.99 1.98 1.89 1.91
Av. daily feed, lb. 6.77 7.11 7.63 6.40 5.73
Av. feed/gain 3.82 3.57 3.85 3.39 3.00
Digestion %
Dry matter 93.5 91.2 90.6 92.1 94.4
Protein 72,7 63.0 54.6 65.5 57.1
Ether extract 66.5 48.2 52.4 68.4 74.4
Plasma glucose, mg./100 ml. 87.0 71.0 73.0 72.0 67.0
Plasma urea nitrogen, mg/100ml. 17.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 13.0
Carcass firmness.27 1.5 2.5 2.5 -


1/ Differences among treatment means N.S. (P < .05).
2/ Firmness scale: Hard = 1; Med. hard = 2; Med. soft


= 3; Soft = 4; Oily = 5.


8/28/69
GEC/bik
1500 copies







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