| Material Information
||Effect of calorie-protein ratio and modified environment on performance of young pigs
||Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
||3 p. : ; 28 cm.
||Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
||Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
||Place of Publication:
||Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida ( lcsh )
Swine -- Growth -- Florida ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 79625354
/ 10 -1
Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN70-1 Experiment Station
July, 1969 Gainesville, Florida
EFFECT OF CALORIE-PROTEIN RATIO AND MODIFIED
ENVIRONMENT ON PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG PIGS 1/
G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace 2/
The maintenance of a proper ratio between energy and protein in order to
insure an adequate intake of each has proven to be of economic importance to the
poultry industry. With swine, the information present in the literature does
not permit a definite conclusion to be made on either the metabolic or economic
importance of an optimum calorie-protein ratio. The influence of temperature
and humidity on nutrient requirements and/or nutrient utilization with swine has
also received only limited attention.
The present experiment was designed to study the influence of varying the
energy content of isonitrogenous diets on the performance of young pigs housed
in temperature controlled pens.
Sixty pigs weaned at 2 to 3 weeks of age were allotted to 6 treatment groups.
The treatments consisted of 2 calorie:protein ratios fed at 3 different temperatures;
the dietary and temperature treatments were as follows:
No. Calorie:.Protein (OF)
1 82:1 Ambient
2 93:1 Ambient
3 82:1 65
4 93:1 65
5 82:1 80
6 93:1 80
The ambient temperature during the 10 week experimental period ranged from
a low of 310 to a high of 890 F with an average maximum and minimum temperature
of 750 and 490 F respectively. The average minimum relative humidity was 42%.
The pigs in the ambient-temperature groups were kept in semi-enclosed concrete
floored pens. Wood shavings were used for bedding with these groups as well as
with those housed in the temperature controlled pens. An attempt was made to
maintain a relative humidity of 50% in the temperature controlled pens.
Feed was supplied ad libitum in self feeders and water by automatic waterers.
The composition of the diets is presented in Table 1.
2/ Acknowledgement is made to the Florida Power Corp. for providing the heat pumps
and technical assistance.
2/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Department.
Table 1. Composition of Diets 1/
Calorie:Protein Ratio 82:1 93:1
Metabolizable Energy Content, Cal./lb. 1473 1680
Ground yellow corn 58.20 47.16
Soybean oil meal (50%) 23.60 25.64
Sugar 10.00 10.00
Tallow 3.00 12.00
Steamed bonemeal 2.00 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals / 0.10 0.10
Vitamin supplement 2/ 2.30 2.30
Antibiotic 4 0.30 0.30
1/ Diets contained 18% protein.
2/ Supplied the'following in ppm: Mn, 57; Fe, 70; Cu, 4.8; Co, 1.6 and Zn, 100.
3/ Vitamins were added to provide per pound of diet the following: Vitamin A,
1400 I.U.; vitamin D, 400 I.U.; riboflavin, 4.4 mg.; pantothenic acid, 10 mg.;
niacin, 20 mg. and vitamin B12, 9 mcg.
4/ Contained 10 gm. of Aureomycin per pound.
Results and Discussion
A summary of the main treatment comparisons (energy level and temperature)
is presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Calorie-Protein Ratio And Environmental
Temperature Effect Upon Pig Performance
Initial Final Daily Daily
Weight Weight Gain feed
lb. lb. lb. lb.
Ambient 9.8 58.4 0.87 1.80a 2.07
65 9.7 58.0 0.86 1.74ab 2.02
80 9.8 53.6 0.78 1.60b 2.05
ab Means within main treatment comparison in same column bearing different
superscript letters differ significantly (P < .05).
The daily gain of pigs fed diets with a calorie:protein ratio of either
82:1 or 93:1 did not differ significantly (P < .05). The daily feed intake of
pigs fed the 93:1 diet was significantly (P < .05) less than that of pigs given
the diet containing a calorie:protein ratio of 82:1. Since daily gains were
similar for both treatments the consumption of less feed by the 93:1 group re-
sulted in a significant (P < .05) lowering of feed required per pound of gain.
However when expressed as calories required per pound of gain the 93:1 and 82:1
groups did not differ significantly (P < .05). If the requirement for energy
is the primary factor controlling feed intake and if a diet is balanced correctly
with regard to the energy-nutrient ratio the intake of energy and gain should re-
main relatively constant over a wide range of energy densities. Data obtained
with the present study showed that gains and energy consumption remained con-
stant with diets containing either 1473 or 1680 metabolizable calories per pound.
The relative cost of calories from corn and soybean meal as compared with calories
from animal fat would then be a primary factor in determining the selection of
the most economical diet.
Temperature did not exert a significant (P < .05) influence upon either rate
or efficiency of gain. Although supplemental heat is recommended for pigs during
the first weeks of life the pig can apparently adapt quite readily to a wide
range of environmental temperatures. This adaptation would probably be enhanced
by providing dry bedding material as frequently as needed to prevent chilling of
the pigs. This procedure was followed in the present study.
Sixty early weaned pigs were used to study the influence of calorie:protein
ratio and environmental temperature upon rate and efficiency of gain.
The daily gain and calories required per pound of gain did not differ sig-
nificantly (P < .05) between pigs fed diets containing calorie:protein ratios of
either 82:1 or 93:1. The significant (P < .05) difference found between these
two treatments in pounds of feed required per pound of gain merely reflected
the difference in caloric density of the diets (1473 vs. 1680 metabolizable
calories/lb. of feed).
Pigs maintained at either ambient temperature (av. maximum and minimum,
750 and 490 F. respectively), constant 650 F or constant 800 F temperature did
ut differ significantly (P < .05) in rate or efficiency of gain.