Experimental, results, and...
 List of Tables

Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AN69-13
Title: Cane molasses in pig starter diets
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073015/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cane molasses in pig starter diets
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1969
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Molasses as feed   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June, 1969."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073015
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 79474274

Table of Contents
    Experimental, results, and discussion
        Page 1
        Page 2
    List of Tables
        Page 3
        Page 4
Full Text

Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN69-13 Experiment Station
June, 1969 Gainesville, Florida


G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace1I

Cane molasses in addition to being an economical source of energy is often
used in relatively small amounts to enhance diet palatability. Its extensive
usage in swine diets as a major source of energy has been restricted by the
presence of watery diarrhea which has accompanied the feeding of diets that con-
tained high levels of molasses.

The present experiment was designed to further evaluate dietary levels of
cane molasses with young pigs of various ages.


Three experiments were conducted with pigs of three different ages. All
pigs were housed in concrete-floored pens and feed and water were available ad

Experiment 1. Fifty pigs were weaned at two weeks of age and put immediately
on diets containing 0, 10, 20, 30 or 40% molasses.

Experiment 2. Thirty-six pigs were weaned at two weeks of age and then
given access to a fortified corn-soybean meal diet. After one week on this diet
the pigs were fed diets containing 0, 10 or 20% molasses. All pigs were indi-
vidually fed.

Experiment 3. Following weaning at two weeks of age 90 pigs were fed a
corn-soybean meal starter for 3 weeks and then given access to diets containing
0, 10, 20, 30 or 40% molasses.

The composition of the diets is presented in Table 1. All diets were cal-
culated to contain adequate levels of the essential amino acids.

Results and Discussion

A summary of the results of experiments 1, 2 and 3 is presented in Tables
2, 3 and 4, respectively.

Experiment 1. No significant differences (P<.05) were found among treat-
ments for either rate of gain, feed consumed or feed required per unit of gain.
As evidenced by the feed consumption data the addition of molasses did not exert
the stimulatory effect often reported for the addition of cane sugar to starter

1/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Department.


diets. Watery diarrhea was observed with pigs fed diets containing 30 or 40%
molasses but, as shown by the data, this occurrence did not exert a significant
adverse effect upon performance.

Experiment 2. The daily gain, feed consumed and feed per unit gain were
not significantly (P<.05) different among pigs fed diets containing 0, 10 or 20%
cane molasses.

,Experiment 3. Pigs fed the diets containing 0, 10 or 20% molasses gained
at A similar rate and all gained significantly (P<.01) faster than pigs fed the
30 or 40% molasses diets. The data also indicate that the pigs fed the 30 and
40% molasses diets required considerably more feed per pound of gain than the
remaining treatment groups. As was found in experiment 1, watery feces was
observed with pigs fed the 30 and 40% molasses diets.

The reason for pigs in this experiment performing less satisfactorily on the
two highest levels of molasses than the younger pigs in experiment 1 is not
readily apparent. Perhaps the change from the corn-soybean meal diet, fed during
the interval from weaning to initiation of the test (3 weeks), to the high
molasses diets, in conjunction with the relatively short experimental period (22
days) did not permit adequate time for diet adaptation.


One-hundred and seventy-six pigs were weaned at two weeks of age and given
diets containing various levels of molasses when they reached two, three or five
weeks of age. Adequate amounts of essential amino acids were maintained when
molasses was added by adjusting the quantity of both corn and soybean meal.

The results of these experiments indicate that young pigs two, three or
five weeks of age can readily utilize diets containing up to 20% cane molasses
whereas higher levels of molasses may require an adaptation period. A watery
diarrhea was observed with early weaned pigs fed diets containing 30 or 40%
molasses. Whether or not this depresses performance of the pig is not definite.


Table 1. Composition of diets

Molasses in diet. % 0 010 20 30 40

Ground yellow corn 71.20 58.80 46.70 34.50 22.40
Soybean meal 23.50 25.90 28.00 30.20 32.30
Molassesa/ 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Defluorinated phosphate 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Vitamin mixSl/ 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20
Pro-Strepd/ 1.00 1.00 1.CO 1.00 1.00

a/ Standard molasses; analyzed 9.9% protein (N x 6.25). This protein was not
included in the calculation of isonitrogenous diets.
b/ Supplied the following in ppm: Mn, 57; Fe, 70; Cu, 4.8; Co, 1.6; and Zn,
c The following vitamins were added to provide per pound diet: vitamin A,
1400 I.U.; vitamin D, 400 I.U.; riboflavin, 4.4 mg.; pantothenic acid, 10
mg.; niacin, 20 mg.; and vitamin B12, 10 mcg.
d_ Contained 5 gm. procaine penicillin and 15 gm. streptomycin per lb. of

Table 2. Influence of dietary molasses level on
performance of pigs two weeks of age

Molasses in diet, % 0 10 20 30 40

Number of pigsl/ 10 10 10 10 10
Av. initial weight, lb. 9.5 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4
Av. final weight, lb. 33.6 29.1 30.4 31.8 30.1
Av. daily gain, lb. 0.67 0.54 0.58 0.62 0.58
Av. daily feed, lb. 1.06 0.99 1.04 1.12 1.08
Av. feed/gain, lb. 1.58 1.82 1.77 1.80 1.88
Days on test 36 36 36 36 36

1/ Two pens of five pigs each.


Table 3. Influence of dietary molasses level on
performance of pigs three weeks of age

Molasses in diet, % 0 10 20

Number of pigs!/ 12 12 12
Av. initial weight, lb. 16.5 16.4 16.6
Av. final weight, lb. 69.5 72.2 70.9
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.26 1.33 1.30
Av. daily feed, lb. 2.80 2.73 2.98
Av. feed/gain, lb. 2.22 2.29 2.30
Days on test 42 42 42

1/ Twelve pens of one pig each.

Table 4. Influence of dietary molasses level on
performance of pigs five weeks of age

Molasses in diet, % 0 10 20 30 40

Number of pigs1/ 18 18 18 18 18
Av. initial weight, lb. 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6 20.6
Av. final weight, Ib. 51.4 51.1 50.5 46.2 44.1
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.41a 1.38a 1.36a 1.16b 1.07b
Av. daily feed, lb. 2.78 2.57 2.85 2.87 2.99
Av. feed/gain, lb. 1.97 1.86 2.09 2.47 2.79
Days on test 22 22 22 22 22

ab Treatment means on same
significantly (P<.01).

line bearing different superscript letters differ

/ One pen of 18 pigs for each dietary treatment.

1200 copies

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