| Material Information
||Reproductive performance of sows fed zinc bacitracin
||Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
||3 p. : ; 28 cm.
||Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
||Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
||Place of Publication:
||Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antibiotics in animal nutrition ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 79473854
Department of Animal Science
Mimeograph Series No. AN69-11
REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SOWS FED ZINC BACITRACIN 21
G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace 2/
The routine feeding of low levels of several antibiotics during gestation
or the use of high levels during the critical reproductive stages (prior to and
following breeding and farrowing) have produced inconsistent results when measured
in terms of conception rate, number of pigs farrowed and weaned and weaning weight.
However these stages of the life cycle exert such a marked influence on the poten-
tial profit that studies must continue in this area in order to arrive at an anti-
biotic program that will result in most economical performance.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the feeding of zinc bacitracin
during all or part of the period from pre-breeding through lactation.
Ninety one sows
a diet containing 100
five.farrowing periods (Dec. 1967-Aug. 1968) were given
zinc bacitracin per ton according to the following
- No antibiotic
- a) Zn bacitracin 7-10 days prior to breeding and
continued through the next expected estrus.
b) Zn bacitracin withdrawn.
c) Zn bacitracin feeding resumed on 110th day of
gestation and continued through lactation.
- Zn bacitracin 7-10 days prior to breeding and
continued through lactation.
- Zn bacitracin on 110th day of gestation and con-
tinued through lactation.
During gestation sows were maintained in pasture lots and fed 3-5 lb. of
concentrate once per day in individual feeding stalls. During the last four
weeks of gestation feed level was increased 1-2 lb. per head daily. During lac-
tation the sows were fed twice per day in individual feeding stalls.
The composition of the gestation and lactation diets is presented in Table 1.
Injectable iron was administered to all pigs between 3 and 5 days of age
and male pigs were castrated atone week of age. Heat lamps provided supplemental
heat and wood shavings served as'bedding. All litters were weaned at two weeks
1/ Supported in part by grants' from Commercial Solvents Corp., Terre Haute, Ind.
2/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Department.
Results and Discussion
The results of this study are summarized in Table 2.
Sows on the control, intermittent and continuous treatments farrowed a
similar number of pigs whereas those sows given zn bacitracin at the terminal
stage of gestation farrowed 1.7 more pigs than the control group. However, as
evidenced by the loss of 1.8 pigs per litter, this group experienced the highest
mortality rate from birth until weaning at 2 weeks of age. The percent survival
data indicates that the continuous feeding of zn bacitracin resulted in the high-
est survival percentage but when expressed in terms of total number of pigs wean-
ed the most beneficial treatment was the terminal group.
Neither birth or weaning weight was significantly influenced by dietary
treatment. The incidence of pigs scours was not severe in any of the treatment
groups which would indicate a low disease level and little, if any, response to
antibiotics would be expected.
The highest conception rate occurred with the group fed zn bacitracin inter-
mittently. However the rather large difference found between the intermittent
and continuous groups which were fed similarly during pre-breeding suggest that
factors other than dietary treatment contributed heavily to the results obtained.
Sows from five consecutive farrowing periods were used to evaluate the effects
of feeding diets containing 100 mg. zinc bacitracin per ton for all or part of the
pre-breeding, gestation and lactation periods.
The number of live pigs per litter and the number weaned per litter was
greater with sows given zinc bacitracin at the terminal part of gestation than
with those given the antibiotic intermittently or continuously. The average
birth weight, weaning weight and incidence of scours with the young pig was
similar for all treatment groups.
Table 1. Composition of Diets Fed During Gestation And Lactation
Ingredients Gestation Lactation
Ground yellow corn 61.19 65.09
Ground whole oats 20.00 10.00
Soybean oil meal (50%) 14.30 20.30
Ground limestone 0.75 0.75
Steamed bonemeal 1.00 1.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace mineral supplement 2/ 0.06 0.06
Vitamin supplement 2/ 2.20 2.20
1/ Calcium Carbonate Co. swine mix. Adds the following to the diet (PPM):
Manganese (35.5), iron (43.8), copper (3.0), cobalt (1.0), zinc (50.4),
and potassium (4.7).
2/ Contributed the following per pound of complete ration: Vitamin A, 1400
1.U.; vitamin D, 360 I.U.; riboflavin, 2 mg.; pantothenic acid, 4 mg.;
niacin, 9 mg.; choline, 100 mg. and vitamin B12, 9 mcg.
Table 2. Influence of Including Zinc Bacitracin
In The Diet of Sows During All or Part
Of The Breeding-Lactation Periods
Control Zn bacitracin Zn bacitracin Zn bacitracin
intermittent continuous terminal
Number of litters 24 27 19 21
Number of live pigs/litter 9.4 9.0 9.6 11.1
Number of pigs weaned/litter 7.8 7.6 8.6 9.3
Percent survival 83 84 90 84
Av. birth weight, lb. 3.2 3.0 3.1 3.1
Av. weaning weight, lb. 8.0 8.0 7.4 7.4
Incidence of pig scours 1/ 2 2 2.1 2.3
Conception rate % 80 84 76 78
1/ Scour index: 1 = severe; 2 = moderate and 3 = slight.