• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Introduction
 Replacement heifer and calf feeding...
 Slaughter calf programs
 Feedlot finishing of calves
 Stocker-feeder calf programs
 References cited














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AN69-9
Title: A comparison of feeding programs for growing beef calves after weaning
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073011/00001
 Material Information
Title: A comparison of feeding programs for growing beef calves after weaning
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 10 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hentges, J. F ( James Franklin ), 1925-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Calves -- Preconditioning   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 8-10).
Statement of Responsibility: James F. Hentges, Jr.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1969."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073011
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 78914589

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Replacement heifer and calf feeding programs
        Page 1
    Slaughter calf programs
        Page 2
    Feedlot finishing of calves
        Page 2
    Stocker-feeder calf programs
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    References cited
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
Full Text

,


Department of Animal Science
Mimeograph Series No. AN69-9
ay, 1969

A COMPARISON OF FEEDING PR(


HUME LIBRARY


JUN 2 2 1972

GRAMS FOR-GROWING BEEF (
.F.A.S. Univ. of Flrida
*~~~ ~~ 1u. i -/ _


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida


ALVES


AFTER WEANING


"Feeding programs for beef calves should be custom-made to fit the situation."

Weaned beef calves in Florida vary widely from lightweights of less than 300
pounds to heavyweights of more than 500 pounds. Likewise, the feeds available for
growing and finishing beef calves in Florida are widely variable from region to
region and year to year. Broadly speaking, feeding programs for weaned beef
calves vary according to the kind of calf being fed and the kind of feed which is
available.

Kind of calf being fed:

1. Purpose: Replacement for breeding herd, stocker-feeder, full-fed for
slaughter.

'. Age, sex, weight, grade, health, breed composition.

Kind of feed available:

Forages -- pasture, silage, hay, temporary grazing crops.

Concentrates -- grains, molasses, by-products.

This report will not discuss in depth the well-established feeding programs
for slaughter calves and breeding herd replacements. It will review all programs
for growing stocker-feeder calves and calves that go directly into the feedlot
after weaning.

REPLACEMENT HEIFER & BULL CALF FEEDING PROGRAMS


Feeding programs are well established
replacement heifer calves and bull calves..
are fed for normal continuous growth after
available as guides for the development of
(Hentges, 1967 and Bedrak et al., 1964).


in Florida for the development of
These uniformly heavy, thrifty calves
weaning. -Florida research reports are
feeding programs for such calves


1 ProFessor and Animal Nutritionist, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
2 Presented in part at Univ. of Beef Cattle Short Coue, May 2, 1969.
Presented in part at Univ. of Fla. Beef Cattle Short Course, May 2, 1969.


U Walmc -. -1 9p W_


~mcl





,


Department of Animal Science
Mimeograph Series No. AN69-9
ay, 1969

A COMPARISON OF FEEDING PR(


HUME LIBRARY


JUN 2 2 1972

GRAMS FOR-GROWING BEEF (
.F.A.S. Univ. of Flrida
*~~~ ~~ 1u. i -/ _


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida


ALVES


AFTER WEANING


"Feeding programs for beef calves should be custom-made to fit the situation."

Weaned beef calves in Florida vary widely from lightweights of less than 300
pounds to heavyweights of more than 500 pounds. Likewise, the feeds available for
growing and finishing beef calves in Florida are widely variable from region to
region and year to year. Broadly speaking, feeding programs for weaned beef
calves vary according to the kind of calf being fed and the kind of feed which is
available.

Kind of calf being fed:

1. Purpose: Replacement for breeding herd, stocker-feeder, full-fed for
slaughter.

'. Age, sex, weight, grade, health, breed composition.

Kind of feed available:

Forages -- pasture, silage, hay, temporary grazing crops.

Concentrates -- grains, molasses, by-products.

This report will not discuss in depth the well-established feeding programs
for slaughter calves and breeding herd replacements. It will review all programs
for growing stocker-feeder calves and calves that go directly into the feedlot
after weaning.

REPLACEMENT HEIFER & BULL CALF FEEDING PROGRAMS


Feeding programs are well established
replacement heifer calves and bull calves..
are fed for normal continuous growth after
available as guides for the development of
(Hentges, 1967 and Bedrak et al., 1964).


in Florida for the development of
These uniformly heavy, thrifty calves
weaning. -Florida research reports are
feeding programs for such calves


1 ProFessor and Animal Nutritionist, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
2 Presented in part at Univ. of Beef Cattle Short Coue, May 2, 1969.
Presented in part at Univ. of Fla. Beef Cattle Short Course, May 2, 1969.


U Walmc -. -1 9p W_


~mcl








-2-


SLAUGHTER CALF PROGRAMS'

Feeding programs for slaughter calves are'alsb well established in Florida.
These calves are uniformly small and almost all of them a4e full-fed in drylot for
a limited time after weaning. Non-feed factors like medicalrcare, skill of person-
nel and marketing agreements are important deteyminantsi of success with slaughter
calves. Florida research 'reports on the feeding of slaughter calves are available
(Hentges, 1958 and Hargrove, 1962).

FEEDLOT FINISHING OF CALVES

A trend has developed toward placement of heavy, big-framed weaned calves
directly into a feedlot for full-feeding to a slaughter weight-of 1000-1100 lb. in
a 160-200 day feeding period. This practice could eliminate the wintering of
stocker-feeders. It is a highly efficient method of land', cattle and feed utiliza-
tion. Gains of 1.75 lb. of chilled carcass beef per day of age can be produced
with the animals being slaughtered at 13 to 14 months of age. This was not possible
in the past because many calves "stalled out" on weight gains. at 800 to 900 pounds
when tiey started depositing fat. Today, systematically produced crossbred calves
which are large-framed but not 'fat are available at weaning weights above 500
pounds and they can be full-fed after weaning to slaughter weights above 1000
pounds without "stalling out". Research at the North Florida, Range Cattle and
Gainesville research stations has shown that full-feeding of high-concentrate diets
after weaning is a successful program for selected calves (Baker, 1968; Koger,
1953-1968; Peacock, 1958; Champagne, 1964; and Hentges, 1960, 1966a, 1966b). As
an illustration of the feedlot performance of such calves, Baker ,(1968) reported
that Charolais crossbred calves gained 3.27 lb. per day during a 167-day feeding
pe:ii'd with a fe..,d efficiency of 911 lb. feed per 100 lb. gain., Their diet was
cor:.l.o 'd o2 75% i'oncentrates. Gains on Florida-produced corn'silage have been
conidleraibl sPm::'i.er. In a 168-day feedlot p~eiipd, Hentges (1969) observed the
following average daily gai-n on a self-fed 85% concentrated diet and a full-fed
eorn silage diet supplemented with concentrates at the rate of l% of, live body weight.
Average daily, gain. b,.
; ll-fed
Breed compo:;ition Self-fed 85%' : sup.lemented
of steer c.:,ives concentrate diet. corn 'silage diet

Stvaightbred Herefords' 2.2 2.4
Hereford x Angus 2.0 2.5
riolstein x Herefo.-d-Angus 2.6 2.2
Brown Swiss x He:rford-Angus 3.1 2.2

With bull calves which initially weighed about 570 lb., Hentges (1967) reported
the following pecformanr-e on a supplemented corn silage and a self-fed concentrate
diet during a 196-day feedlot period:
Full-fed
Self-fed 85% suplY-:emented
concentrated diet corn "i.lage diet
Average daily gain, lb. 2.5 2.1








-2-


SLAUGHTER CALF PROGRAMS'

Feeding programs for slaughter calves are'alsb well established in Florida.
These calves are uniformly small and almost all of them a4e full-fed in drylot for
a limited time after weaning. Non-feed factors like medicalrcare, skill of person-
nel and marketing agreements are important deteyminantsi of success with slaughter
calves. Florida research 'reports on the feeding of slaughter calves are available
(Hentges, 1958 and Hargrove, 1962).

FEEDLOT FINISHING OF CALVES

A trend has developed toward placement of heavy, big-framed weaned calves
directly into a feedlot for full-feeding to a slaughter weight-of 1000-1100 lb. in
a 160-200 day feeding period. This practice could eliminate the wintering of
stocker-feeders. It is a highly efficient method of land', cattle and feed utiliza-
tion. Gains of 1.75 lb. of chilled carcass beef per day of age can be produced
with the animals being slaughtered at 13 to 14 months of age. This was not possible
in the past because many calves "stalled out" on weight gains. at 800 to 900 pounds
when tiey started depositing fat. Today, systematically produced crossbred calves
which are large-framed but not 'fat are available at weaning weights above 500
pounds and they can be full-fed after weaning to slaughter weights above 1000
pounds without "stalling out". Research at the North Florida, Range Cattle and
Gainesville research stations has shown that full-feeding of high-concentrate diets
after weaning is a successful program for selected calves (Baker, 1968; Koger,
1953-1968; Peacock, 1958; Champagne, 1964; and Hentges, 1960, 1966a, 1966b). As
an illustration of the feedlot performance of such calves, Baker ,(1968) reported
that Charolais crossbred calves gained 3.27 lb. per day during a 167-day feeding
pe:ii'd with a fe..,d efficiency of 911 lb. feed per 100 lb. gain., Their diet was
cor:.l.o 'd o2 75% i'oncentrates. Gains on Florida-produced corn'silage have been
conidleraibl sPm::'i.er. In a 168-day feedlot p~eiipd, Hentges (1969) observed the
following average daily gai-n on a self-fed 85% concentrated diet and a full-fed
eorn silage diet supplemented with concentrates at the rate of l% of, live body weight.
Average daily, gain. b,.
; ll-fed
Breed compo:;ition Self-fed 85%' : sup.lemented
of steer c.:,ives concentrate diet. corn 'silage diet

Stvaightbred Herefords' 2.2 2.4
Hereford x Angus 2.0 2.5
riolstein x Herefo.-d-Angus 2.6 2.2
Brown Swiss x He:rford-Angus 3.1 2.2

With bull calves which initially weighed about 570 lb., Hentges (1967) reported
the following pecformanr-e on a supplemented corn silage and a self-fed concentrate
diet during a 196-day feedlot period:
Full-fed
Self-fed 85% suplY-:emented
concentrated diet corn "i.lage diet
Average daily gain, lb. 2.5 2.1







-3-


Florida experience with corn silage diets is similar to Corn Belt experience as
related by Pifer at the 1966 University of Florida Beef CattleShort Course in the
following remarks: "Calves fed maximum amounts of corn silage usually gain 20 to
30% slower than :calves that are full-fed corn ~otrary to popular opinion, the
total cost of producing gain is not significantly, lower. on heavy silage rations at
prices for shelled corn and corn silage on the Corn Belt. True, the feed cost
averages less on silage but because of slower gains, which result, in a higher non-
feed cost per poundof gain, the total cost is about.the same on a silage program
as it is on a grain program." : .

STOCKER-FEEDER CALF PROGRAMS

Feeding programs inFlorida.for stocker-feeder calves differ widely from firm
to firm but they can be generally grouped into three categories:.

1. Temporary pastures;:' Lightweight calves thrive on temporary grazing crops :
(pastures) of rye, oats, ryegrass, millet, etc,.: 'This practice is limited to.
firms with the soil, water and skill needed for growing these crops. They are
mostly located in North Florida..

2. Silage, haylage or high quality pasture: Large framed, heavy but not fat
calves have the capacity to utilize high quality stored.forages when they are
properly supplemented. During :the Fall months, pasture is available. for grow-
ing these big, framy calves in South Florida but stored forage has to be fed
in Central and North Florida.

3. Full-fed high concentrate rations: Either lightweight or heavyweight calves
will thrive on diets composed mostly of concentrates.. '

Few firms in Florida, either cow-calfranches or stocker-feeder operations,
have consistently grown stocker beef calves from weaning to feedlot weights. It
might be helpful:as"a preface to the discussion of stocker calf feeding programs
to list some 'of the reasons for this situation and to discuss light and heavy
stocker-feeder 'calves separately. : .:.

Lightweight stocker-feeder calves:' ::

1. Out-of-state buyers for lightweight stocker calves appear willing to take all
but the odd-weight and unhealthy' ones at very attractive prices per pound.
Accordingly, outshipments from Florida have increased annually.

2. Lightweight stocker calves under 300 pounds, especially the "rejects" do not
have the forestomach capacity to utilize roughages like the mature grass which
is prevalent on most Florida ranches in the Fall and Winter months. Non-feed
costs of drugs, 'labor, death losses, etc., may be high with this kind.

3. Few cow-calf ranches in South and Central Florida have had the .soil, skill and
desire to grow temporary grazing crops of oats, rye,.etc., for lightweight calf
development.

4. Traditionally, this kind has been marketed as slaughter calves whenever prices
permitted.









- 4-


Heavyweight stocker-feeder calves:

1. Cc.;petition for heavy stocker-feeder calves'in Florida is increasing from
Corn Belt and Southwestern feeders.who have abundant supplies of silage.:.

2. The feedlot industry in Florida has not stabilized into a dependable.annual
outlet for a predictable number of yearlings with known specifications. This.
may reflect the wide fluctuations in prices for available concentrate feeds.
like dried citrus pulp, molasses and grain milling by-products, but it also
reflects the lack of feeder-packer-marketing agreements.

3. The beef packing industry in Florida does not depend entirely on Florida cattle
to meet their year-round need for finished cattle. In 1967, 80,000 cattle were
shipped into Florida for slaughter. Trucks delivering Florida calves to the
Southwest usually returned with finished cattle to be slaughtered in Florida.
Some packers-feed slaughter cattle within the state and in other states.

4. The practice of vertical integration by contracts1between Florida.,ranches,
feedlots and packers has not been established in Florida.

Numerous research reports on the nutrition of stccker-feeder calves have .been
published by University of Florida researchers. See listing in REFERENCES CITED
section.

Research with temporary grazing crops for growing calves:

At the North Florida Experiment Station, Baker (1966, 1967) reported thati :
cool-season grazing crops of oats and rye produced average daily gains of 1.4 to
1.7 lb. on calves whose initial weights averaged 520 lb.I : ,

Ar the Main Experiment Station in Gainesville, Marshall-and Myers (1963)
reported the results of a four-year study of irrigated and unirrigated mixed
pastures of Peruvian alfalfa, oats and clover. Heifer calves which initially
weighed about 450 lb. gained an average of 701 lb. on irrigated and 438 lb. on
unirrigated pastures during grazing seasons which varied up to 286 days. Their
average daily gains ranged from 1.3 to 1.6 lb.

At the Range Cattle Station, McCaleb et al. (1964) reported results of oats
and rye production for grazing by yearling cattle.

Bertrand (1969) at the West Florida Station, has -initiateda study of temporary
grazing crops for growing and finishing beef calves.

A long-term (10 years) study in Texas by Marion et al. (1956) revealed that
325-400 lb. calves gained an average of 1.65 lb. per day on wheat pasture without
supplementation. Similar gains were reported .in extensive studies..in South Georgia
(McCormick et al., 1962 and Baird, 1956).'







-5-


,Research with pasture and "stored forage"diets for growing calves:

Some regions of Florida have climatic and rainfall advantages over Southwestern
and Western states for forage production and stocker-feeder calf production.
Florida's potential for this industry has not been developed. The need for high
'quality forage in the diets of lightweight calves and the need for generous supple-
ments of concentrates by heavier calves consuming low quality pasture or "stored
forage" has been emphasized by University of Florida researchers.

At the Range Cattle Station, Gilbreath (1959) and Peacock et al. (1964, 1965)
wintered stocker heifer calves for 120 days (October to February) on Bahiagrass pas-
tures with four levels of supplemental concentrate feeding. Their predominantly
prahman calves, which initially averaged 7, months in age and 375 lb. in weight,
made the following average daily gains:

Lb. supplement Average daily
per day1/ gain, lb.
1.97 0.09
3.04 0.29
5.55 0.77
8.21 1.21

-/Supplement was dried citrus pulp, cottonseed meal
and a mineral mixture.

At the Everglades Experiment Station, Haines et al. (1965) measured the value
of supplementing Roselawn St. Augustinegrass pasture for grazing steer calves which
averaged 447 lb. at the start of the study. Their calves were placed on the pas-
tures in November and remained there for one year of pre-feedlot growth. The
feeding of supplemental concentrates during the first 6 months of the pre-feedlot
year showed the largest response in weight gain. In 2 out of 3 years, the unsup-
plemented calves lost weight during the first 3 months and gained little during the
following 3 months for a very expensive total wintering gain of 26 lb. in 180 days.
The following table shows the gains by quarters (3 months) during the pre-feedlot
growth period:

Weight gain in 3 mo. periods
Supplements/, Supplementation Nov.- Feb.- May- Aug.-
Ib. per day_ period, months Jan. April July Oct.
0 0 6 20 58 16
5 Nov.-Jan. 26 17 44 13
5 Nov.-April 24 28 35 13
5 Nov.-Jan. & Aug.-Oct. 24 16 39 21

/Supplement was ground snapped crn, ar'iecl cittkis pulp, cottonseed
meal and a mineral mixture.






- 6-


At the North Florida Experiment Station, Baker (1957, 1958) reported the value
of feeding 2.75 to 3.0 lb. of supplement per day with a full-feed of several stored
forages, namely Coastal bermudagrass hay and silage, Argentine.-bahiagrass hay and *
silage and grain sorghum silage. These supplemented forages were fed to wintering
stocker-feeder calves and light yearlings which initially weighed 500 to 550 lb.
Their supplemental feed was cottonseed meal, citrus molasses' and a mineral-vitamin
mix. All of these feeding programs were claimed to be too expensive for wintering
calves both from the standpoint of total cost for the winter and cost per 100 lb.
of gain. The calves were not able to consume enough of this quality of roughage to
make economical gains with these levels of supplementation; however, the daily gains
(about 1 Ib./day) of calves fed sorghum silage were satisfactory for growing
stockers. In a later study (Baker, 1967) with heavier 580-lb. calves, sorghum-sudan
haylage (50-55% moisture) was full-fed in drylot and on frosted grass pasture with
and without a supplement. During the first'63 days of the wintering period, the
gains and cost of gains were as follows:

Drylot Pasture
No supp. Supp. No supp. Supp.
Haylage, lb./day 35.5 25.4 30.8 33.8
Supplement, Ib./day:
Gr. snap corn 0 6.25 0 6.25
Cottonseed meal 0 1.25 0 1.25
Av. daily gain, lb. 0.18 1.52 0.20 1.47
Cost per cwt. gain $123.56 $23.56 $115.50 $30.26

The necessity of generous supplements for calves being full-fed average
quality forage is well illustrated in this report. In contrast, two lots of simi-
lar calves gazingg oats pasture without supplementation gained 1.5 and 1.6 lb./day
4t costs {i- "1.9.85 and $17.40 per cwt. gain. This report also illustrated the
ecessixt of high quality forage for calves.

S Hen es (1969) has reported results of full-feeding corn silage with supple-
ments to o'e-., c.;lves. See page 2 and the following section.

Research l wth high-concentrate diets for growing calves:

The non-rfod costs of growing calves becomes a larger obstacle with each year;
there 're, f-'r-i~rg p:'-.cvams which require a minimum of labor must be developed. In
most y: .-, I'.i-- :s' .,; manufacturers are able to provide concentrate feed mix-
tures a I-:: c,::-:. I:p.?:v;'-zd (1) the feeder has adequate facilities to handle bulk
feed d: :;:. -: '..-.......s with sufficient capacity 'and located-adjacent to good
roads) a:n.d ( .;.> -. -:tr will submit a flexible formula to the manufacturer which
will allow him to adjust the ration ingredients to make a least-cost mixture. With
this in mind, Hentges (1969) compared the following programs for growing stocker-
feeder calves: corn silage + supplement, Coastal bernmudagrass hay + supplement
and a self-fed, least-cost ingredient mixture. The feeding periods were 112 days
in 1966 and 126 days in 1967. The calves were proai,'No in the herd at A. G. Dozier
School for Boys, Marianna and average about 500' b.-"at tk:. h ta~rl"'f the. experi-
ments. A summary of the results is as follows-






-7-


1966 experiment:


, ,j Grss
_hay


Corn
silage


Least-cost2/
mixture


Av. daily gain, lb, .
Feed cost/cwt. gain./
Labor: hours/week
Daily feed intake, lb.:
Hay
Silage
Concentrate
Molasses
Supplement/


1.0
$29.00
7
14.7
8.9


1.8
4.0


1.6
$19.05
14
16.0

9.7(35.7)

2.3
4.0


l9i.9 experiment:
l 11 .


Av. daily gain
Feed cost/cwt. gain=/
Labor: hours/week
Daily feed intake, lb.:
Hay
Silage
Concentrate
Supplement3/


Grass
hay

1.1
$24.68
7
12.9
8.9


4.0


Corn
silage


1.5
$19.25
14
14.3

10.3(37.7)

4.0


2/
Least-cost-
mixture


2.1
$19.98
1
15.4


15.4


- Feed ingredient costs per ton were: hay, $30; silage, $8;
molasses, $20.50; least-cost mixture, $54.50; and supple-
ment, $69.00.
2/
-Composed of 41 lb. steam dried citrus pulp, 41 lb. corn meal,
4 lb. alfalfa meal, 2 lb. urea (282%), 10 lb. blackstrap
molasses, 1 lb. defluorinated phosphate and 1 lb. trace min-
eralized salt. Crude protein content was 11.8%. About 48%
of' te crude protein was from non-protein nitrogen (urea).
3/
- Composed of 58 lb. corn meal, 12 lb. soybean meal (50%), 10
lb. alfalfa meal, 4 lb. urea (282%), 10 lb. blackstrap
molasses, 3 lb. defluorinated phosphate and 3 lb. trace min-
eralized salt.


1.7
$20.86
1
13.2


12.9
0.3


-7. Ci C -'"'.*


__ __


_ _~







8 -



In each of these experiments, the total cost, including labor, of weight gains
was least with the self-fed concentrate mixture. In addition, these steers had a
comparatively higher degree of finish which added to their grade and value yet they
were not too fat to enter a feedlot. The performance of calves fed diets contain-
ing more than 20% dried citrus pulp is often disappointing because of low or
variable quality of the dried citrus pulp being fed. Only high quality steam dried
citrus pulp was used in these experiments; therefore, the results of this study must
be interpreted with this in mind.

These research reports indicate that it is wise to avoid adopting only one
feed formula or one feeding program because flexibility is essential if least-cost
diets and least-cost gains are to be achieved. The feeder must periodically answer
these questions:

S Is it most profitable to grow the needed protein (clover, hairy indigo, oats,
rye, etc.) on my soils with my personnel and facilities or to buy supplements of
protein and non-protein nitrogen (urea)?

Is it most profitable to grow the needed feed energy (pasture or stored forage)
in my situation or to buy least-cost, flexible-formula feed mixtures delivered in
bulk to my self-feeders?

Maximum flexibility in the feeding program obviously would require that the
enterprise have the capacity and facilities to do either or both, depending on
which provided the least-cost gains. To repeat, feeding programs for growing beef
calves should be custom-made to fit the situation.



REFERENCES CITED

Baird, D. M. and 0. E. Sell. 1956. The performance of beef cattle on winter pas-
tures in the Georgia Piedmont. Ga. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. N.S. 36.

Baker, F. S. 1957. Roughages for wintering calves. NFES Mimeo Rpt. 57-11.

1958. Wintering stocker cattle. NFES Mimeo Rpt. 58-5.

1966. Steer wintering rations in North Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Circ. S-174.

1967. Winter pasture versus sorghum-sudan haylage for wintering
cattle. NFES Mimeo Rpt. 67-4.

S1968. Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of crossbred
steer calves. NFES Mimeo Rpt. 68-2.

Bedrak, E., A. C. Warnick, J. F. Hentges, Jr. and T. J. Cunha. 1964. Effect of
protein intake on gains, reproduction and blood constituents of beef heifers.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 678.






-9-


Bertrand, J. E. 1969. Programs for growing.stocker beef calves using sorghum
silage, fescue, wheat and rye. WFES Mimeo Rpt. 69-1. ;

Champagne, J. 1964. Comparative feedlot performance and carcass characteristics
of bull and steer calves. M.S.A. Thesis, Univ. of Florida.

Chapman, H. L., Jr., D. W. Beardsley, T. J. Cunha and W. K. McPherson. 1967.
Developing calves and steers on pastures in south and central Florida. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 719.

Gilbreath, R. L. 1959. The effect of supplementation during wintering of calves
on subsequent feedlot performance, slaughter and carcass characteristics.
M.S.A. Thesis, Univ. of Florida.

Haines, C. E., H. L. Chapman, Jr., R. W. Kidder and R. E. L. Greene. 1965. Effects
of feeding limited amounts of concentrates to stocker steers on pasture. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 693.

Hargrove, D. D. 1962. Expressions of heterosis in beef calves. M.S.A. Thesis,
Univ. of Florida.

Hentges, J. F., Jr., W. D. Fletcher and T. J. Cunha. 1958. Winter feeding of
standard, utility and cull summer beef calves for slaughter. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Circ. S-106.

S_, W. D. Fletcher, J. A. Black, C. A. Tucker II and T. J. Cunha. 1960.
Liethylstilbestrol and aureomycin for fattening beef cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 627,

1966a. Replacement value of dried citrus meal for corn meal in
beef cattle diets. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 708.

1966b. Effect of method of processing on nutritive value of corn
for fattening cattle. Animal Science Mimeo Rpts. AN67-4 and 67-5.

1967. Effect of level of feeding on bull performance. Chapter 13
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