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 Introduction and experimental
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Literature cited














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AN69-4
Title: High level copper for pigs fed either soybean oilmeal or fishmeal as the principal protein source
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073006/00001
 Material Information
Title: High level copper for pigs fed either soybean oilmeal or fishmeal as the principal protein source
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1968
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Soybean meal   ( lcsh )
Fish meal as feed   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 5).
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1968."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073006
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 78897233

Table of Contents
    Introduction and experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Summary
        Page 5
    Literature cited
        Page 5
        Page 6
Full Text
/OU




Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. AN69-4 Experiment Station
July, 1968 _Gainesville. Florida


HIGH LEVEL COPPER FOR PIGS
FED EITHER SOYBEAN OILMEAL OR
FISHMEAL AS THE PRINCIPAL PROTEIN SOUR

H. D. Wallace, R. H. Houser, A. Z. Pal
J. W. Carpenter, B. R. Cannon and G. E. C


The value of high levels of dietary copper for improvement of pig performance,
especially during early growth, is well established (1). The influence of both
protein level and source on the response to copper feeding has been studied.
Wallace et al. (2) observed that the toxic effect of 750 ppm copper decreased
as dietary protein level was increased. Combs et al. (3) reported that pigs
fed 22 percent protein diets accumulated significantly less copper in liver
tissue than pigs fed 14 percent protein diets. On the other hand Bunch et al.
(4) failed to confirm that dietary protein level affected the action of copper
sulfate in a short feeding trial with young pigs. In the investigation by Combs
et al. pigs accumulated significantly more liver copper when fed casein than
when fed soybean oilmeal.

The present study was undertaken to compare soybean oilmeal and fishmeal
as supplemental protein sources when a high level of copper is added to the
diets. Further it was desired to determine if removal of copper from the diet
after a period of supplementation would cause an adverse effect.

Experimental

The study consisted of two trials, each involving forty-eight individually
fed crossbred (Duroc-Landrace x Hampshire) pigs. In Trial I five gilts and
three barrows were fed in each treatment group. In Trial II four gilts and four
barrows were fed in each treatment group. The treatment groups were as follows:

1 Soybean oilmeal basal
2 Soybean oilmeal basal + copper
3 Soybean oilmeal basal + copper (withdrawn after 4 weeks.)
4 Fishmeal basal
5 Fishmeal basal + copper
6 Fishmeal basal + copper (withdrawn after 4 weeks.)

Copper was added as copper sulfate (CuS04). The pigs were fed by self-feeders
and allowed continuous access to water. The basal dietary mixtures are presented
in Table 1.

Terminal hemoglobin levels were determined for all pigs. All pigs were
slaughtered and routine carcass measurements were obtained. Liver samples
were collected and analyzed for copper. These various procedures were described
in detail by Houser (5).

i/ Supported in part by grant-in-aid from International Copper Research
Association, Inc., New York, New York.
2/ Wallace, Animal Nutritionist; Houser, Graduate Student; Palmer, Meat
Scientist; Carpenter, Assoc. Meat Scientist; Cannon, Graduate Student and
Combs, Animal Nutritionist, Animal Science Department.


HUi'/U LiE


.E _/ OCT 2 133

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Table 1. Basal feed mixtures.

Soybean Meal Fishmeal
basal basal

Ground yellow corn 77.37 84.57
Soybean oilmeal (50%) 20.00 -
Fishmeal (68%) ---- 15.00
Defluorinated phosphate 2.00 ---
Iodized salt 0.50 0.30
Trace Mineral premix a/ 0.05 0.05
B-Vitamin premix b/ 0.05 0.05
Vitamin B12 premix CJ 0.03 0.03
100.00 100.00

a/ Contained 11% calcium, 10% manganese, 10% iron, 10% zinc, 1% copper,
0.3% iodine and 0.1% cobalt.
b/ Contained 8,000, 14,720, 36,000 and 40,000 mg, per lb., respectively
of riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin and choline chloride.
~/ Contained 20 mg. B12 per lb.


Results and Discussion

A summary of the data obtained for each of the individual treatment groups
is presented for Trials I and II in Tables 2 and 3 respectively.

A summary showing the main treatment variables for the two trials is pre-
sented in Table 4. 'The discussion to follow will center directly on the data
found in Table 4.

Feed intake was not significantly affected by copper supplementation. How-
ever, in both trials pigs continued on 250 ppm copper throughout the entire
feeding period consumed less feed per head per day than control pigs or pigs fed
copper for the first 28 days only. Daily gains were not significantly affected
by copper supplementation and there was no indication in either trial that gains
were influenced by copper withdrawal. In Trial I the withdrawal of copper may
have caused some reduction in feed conversion and in Trial II pigs fed copper
continuously were more efficient than the other groups (P < .05). None of the
carcass measurements were significantly altered by either of the copper supple-
mentation regimens. The continuous feeding of 250 ppm copper increased liver-
tissue copper 9-fold and 13-fold respectively in Trials I and II. When copper
was withdrawn after 28 days the liver copper concentrations were not greatly
different from those of control pigs. Terminal hemoglobin values were not
significantly influenced by the copper feeding treatments.

Pigs fed the fishmeal diet ate significantly less feed in Trial I (P < .05)
but this difference was not observed in Trial 2. No significant differences
due to protein source were recorded for gains, feed conversion or any of the
carcass measurements. In Trial II pigs fed fishmeal accumulated significantly
more copper in liver (P < .01) than those-fed soybean meal. These fishmeal-fed








Table 2. Influence of copper supplementation, copper withdrawal and protein source on pig
performance, carcasses, liver copper and hemoglobin (Trial I).




Treatment number 1 2 3 4 5 6
SBOM SBOM SBOM Fishmeal Fishmeal Fishmeal
+ + + +
Copper Copper Copper Copper
1st 4 wk. 1 st 4 wk.


Number of pigs 8 8 8 8 8 8
Initial weight, lb. 55.1 55.0 55.4 54.4 54.1 54.4
Final weight, lb. 212.9 214.6 214.5 214.6 212.9 212.5
Daily gain 1st 32 days 1.93 1.92 1.92 1.78 1.88 1.85
Daily gain 2nd 29 days, lb. 1.97 1.83 1.80 1.81 1.94 1.99
Daily gain entire period, lb. 1.91 1.86 1.85 1.83 1.86 1.83
Feed/gain entire period, lb. 3.50 3.58 3.68 3.37 3.32 3.57
Dressing percent 71.5 70.9 70.7 72.3 72.2 71.9
Backfat, in. 1.50 1.46 -1.30 1.42 1.38 1.42
Carcass length, in. 30.09 30.73 30.61 30.91 30.45 30.53
Marbling scored/ 14.8 14.4 -13.2 13.9 11.7 11.5
Percent lean cuts 48.42 47.81 50.02 48.68 49.29 49.86
Loin eye area, sq. in. 4.19 3.74 4.10 4.00 4.26 4.05
Liver copper, (ppm D.M. basis) 27.6 246.9 44.1 27.9 279.3 50.6
Terminal Hb, gm/100 ml. 13.26 13.44 12.75 13.02 12.63 13.13


Feed analysis Cu, ppm ...... 20.0 268.0 ---- 17.0 248.0 ..-


1/ Slight plus indicated by
modest, 14; modest plus,


9; small minus, 10; small, 11; small
15; moderate minus, 16.


plus, 12; modest plus, 13;











Table 3. Influence of copper supplementation, copper withdrawal and protein source on pig
performance, carcasses, liver copper and hemoglobin (Trial II).




Treatment Number 1 2 3 4 5 6
SBOM SBOM SBOM Fishmeal Fishmeal Fishmeal
++ + +
Copper Copper Copper Copper
1st 4 wk. 1st 4 wk.


Nuu.ber of pigs 8 8 8 8 8 8
Initial weight, lb. 51.4 49.3 49.4 50.3 47.6 48.6
Final weight, lb. 197.1 199.4 198.0 199.4 199.5 197.6
Daily gain 1st 28 days, lb. 1.83 1.96 1.96 2.01 1.98 1.91
Feed/gain 1st 28 days, lb. 2.65 2.81 2.85 2.88 2.89 3.06
Daily gain 2nd 28 days, lb. 1.91 2.16 1.92 2.01 2.02 1.94
Feed/gain 2nd 28 days, lb. 3.22 3.02 3.07 3.19 2.97 2.90
Daily gain entire experiment, lb. 1.81 1.97 1.89 1.96 1.87 1.82
Feed/gain entire experiment, lb. 3.16 2.99 3.17 3.21 3.06 3.21
Dressing percent 71.05 70.48 69.70 72.96 71.24 70.86
Backfat, in. 1.36 1.31 1.38 1.48 1.43 1.37
Carcass length in. 30.50 30.59 30.47 30.16 29.96 30.03
Marbling scored/ 13.6 14.2 13.5 15.3 9.8 12.7
Percent lean cuts 50.39 51.73 50.83 49.42 50.13 51.52
Loin eye area, sq. in. 3.64 3.91 3.65 3.92 3.96 3.86
Liver copper, (ppm D.M. basis) 23.0 148.0 24.6 31.2 562.5 33.2
Terminal Hb., gm/100 ml. 13.52 13.80 14.06 13.14 12.56 12.63


Feed analysis Cu, ppm 11.5 267.0 ---- 117.5 410.5

1/'Slieht olus indicated by 9; small minus, 10; small, 11; small plus, 12; modest plus, 13;


modest, 14; modest plus, 15; moderate minus,


16.








pigs also had significantly lower hemoglobin levels (P < .01). The level of
hemoglobin was very much in the normal range however.

Barrows consumed more feed than gilts in both trials and the difference
was significant in Trial I (P < .05). Barrows gained faster in both trials
and the difference was significant in Trial II (P < .01). Gilts tended to be
more efficient in feed conversion but differences were not significant. Gilts
tended to be leaner as judged by backfat thickness, loin eye area, marbling,
and percent; of four lean cuts. Loin eye area.favored gilts markedly in both
trials (P < .01). Males tended to accumulate more liver copper but differences
were not significant. In Trial I barrows showed a higher hemoglobin and in
Trial II the reverse was observed (P < .05).

Summary

A feeding-slaughter study, involving ninety-six pigs individually fed and
weighing about 50 lb. initially, designed to determine the influence of protein
source on high level copper feeding has been reported.

The continuous feeding of 250 ppm copper as CuSO4 did not elicit a signifi-
cant response in daily gain. Likewise the feeding of copper for four weeks
followed by withdrawal did not induce more rapid gains. There was no indication
that copper withdrawal caused an adverse affect on rate of gain but this procedure
may have reduced feed conversion some. Pigs fed copper continuously were signif-
icantly more efficient in the one trial. Continuous feeding of copper caused
marked increases in liver tissue copper concentrations. When copper was with-
drawn after four weeks of feeding the liver copper concentrations were near those
of control pigs.

Differences in performance and carcass measurements due to protein source
(soybean meal vs. fishmeal) were not observed. Pigs fed fishmeal accumulated
more copper in liver tissue and also had lower terminal hemoglobin levels (P < .01).

There were no significant interactions for copper level and protein source.

The usual performance and carcass differences due to sex were observed.
Barrows gained faster but less efficiently than gilts. Gilts were superior
in all measurements indicating carcass leanness.

Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D. 1967. High level copper in swine feeding. A review of
research in the United States. Published by International Copper
Research Association, Inc.
2. Wallace, H. D., J. T. McCall, Billy Bass and G. E. Combs. 1960. High
level copper for growing-finishing swine. J. Animal Sci. 19: 1153.
3. Combs, G. E., C. B. Ammerman, R. L. Shirley and H. D. Wallace. 1966.
Effect of source and level of dietary protein on pigs fed high-
copper rations. J. Animal Sci. 25: 613.
4. Bunch, R. J., V. C. Speer, V. W. Hays, J. H. Hawbaker and D. V. Catron.
1961. Effects of copper sulfate, copper oxide and chlortetracycline
on baby pig performance. J. Animal Sci. 20: 723.
5. Houser, R. H. 1966. Response of swine to high level copper feeding.
University of Florida Master's Thesis.








pigs also had significantly lower hemoglobin levels (P < .01). The level of
hemoglobin was very much in the normal range however.

Barrows consumed more feed than gilts in both trials and the difference
was significant in Trial I (P < .05). Barrows gained faster in both trials
and the difference was significant in Trial II (P < .01). Gilts tended to be
more efficient in feed conversion but differences were not significant. Gilts
tended to be leaner as judged by backfat thickness, loin eye area, marbling,
and percent; of four lean cuts. Loin eye area.favored gilts markedly in both
trials (P < .01). Males tended to accumulate more liver copper but differences
were not significant. In Trial I barrows showed a higher hemoglobin and in
Trial II the reverse was observed (P < .05).

Summary

A feeding-slaughter study, involving ninety-six pigs individually fed and
weighing about 50 lb. initially, designed to determine the influence of protein
source on high level copper feeding has been reported.

The continuous feeding of 250 ppm copper as CuSO4 did not elicit a signifi-
cant response in daily gain. Likewise the feeding of copper for four weeks
followed by withdrawal did not induce more rapid gains. There was no indication
that copper withdrawal caused an adverse affect on rate of gain but this procedure
may have reduced feed conversion some. Pigs fed copper continuously were signif-
icantly more efficient in the one trial. Continuous feeding of copper caused
marked increases in liver tissue copper concentrations. When copper was with-
drawn after four weeks of feeding the liver copper concentrations were near those
of control pigs.

Differences in performance and carcass measurements due to protein source
(soybean meal vs. fishmeal) were not observed. Pigs fed fishmeal accumulated
more copper in liver tissue and also had lower terminal hemoglobin levels (P < .01).

There were no significant interactions for copper level and protein source.

The usual performance and carcass differences due to sex were observed.
Barrows gained faster but less efficiently than gilts. Gilts were superior
in all measurements indicating carcass leanness.

Literature Cited

1. Wallace, H. D. 1967. High level copper in swine feeding. A review of
research in the United States. Published by International Copper
Research Association, Inc.
2. Wallace, H. D., J. T. McCall, Billy Bass and G. E. Combs. 1960. High
level copper for growing-finishing swine. J. Animal Sci. 19: 1153.
3. Combs, G. E., C. B. Ammerman, R. L. Shirley and H. D. Wallace. 1966.
Effect of source and level of dietary protein on pigs fed high-
copper rations. J. Animal Sci. 25: 613.
4. Bunch, R. J., V. C. Speer, V. W. Hays, J. H. Hawbaker and D. V. Catron.
1961. Effects of copper sulfate, copper oxide and chlortetracycline
on baby pig performance. J. Animal Sci. 20: 723.
5. Houser, R. H. 1966. Response of swine to high level copper feeding.
University of Florida Master's Thesis.










Table 4. Influence of copper treatment, protein source and
carcasses. liver couoer and hemoglobin.


sex on feedlot performance,


Main Comparisons
Variables


Copper Level,] ppm
0 250 250-W


Protein Source
SBOM FM


(Trial I)


Number of pigs
Daily feed intake, 1.b.
Daily gain, lb.
Feed/gain, lb.
Caicass length, in.
Backfat thickness, in.
Loin eye area, sq. i;n.
Decree of marblingL-
Percent 4 lean cuts
Liver copper (ppm D.M. basis)
Hemoglobin (gm./100 ml. blood)


16
6.44
1.90
3.44
30.50
1.44
4.10
14.5
48.55
27.8
13.14


16
6.37
1.86
3.45
30.59
1.42
4.00
13.0
48.55
263.1**
13.06


Number of pigs 16 16
Daily feed intake, lb. 5.98 5.80
Daily gain, lb. 1.88 1.92
Feed/lb. gain, lb.- 3.18 3.02*
Carcass length, in. 30.33 30.28
Backfat thickness, in. 1.42 1.37
Loin eye area, sq.1 n. 3.78 3.94
Degree of marbling-' 14.4 12.0
Percent 4 lean cuts 49.90 51.25
Liver copper (ppmD.M. basis) 27.1 355.0**
Hemoglobin (gm./100 ml. blood) 13.33 13.17
]J Slight plu8 indicated by 9; small minus, 10; small,
modest, 14; modest plus, 15; moderate minus, 16.
P < .05
** P < .01


16
6.52
1.84
3.62
30.57
1.37
4.08
11.5
49.94
47.1
12.94


16
5.93
1.86
3.19
30.25
1.37
3.76
13.1
51.18
28.9
13.34
11; small


24
6.67
1.89
3.59
30.48
1.41
4.01
13.3
48.75
106.2
13.15


(Trial II)

24
5.88
1.89
3.11
30.41
1.35
3.73.
13.8
50.98
65.2
13.79**


plus, 12; modest plus, 13;


Sex
F M


24
6.22*
1.84
3.42
30.63
1.42
4.10
12.7
49.27
119.3
12.93


30
6.30
1.85
3.44
30.46
1.38
4.25**
12.3
49.71*
101.0.
12.83


24
5.66
1.83
3.09
30.25
1.33*
3.97**
12.6
51.53
124.0
13.69*


18
6.80*
1.89
3.66
30.27
1.46
3.73
14.9
47.85
132.0
13.39*



24
6.20
1.95**
3.18
30.32
1.44
3.65
14.5
50.03
150.0
12.88


24
5.94
1.88
3.16
30.05
1.43
3.91
12.6
50.60
209.0**
12.78


,..._ ---_~-L-- --------=--




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