OJVbepartment of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
'-3 Mimeograph Series No. AN69-3 Experiment SatLo ---
July, 1968 G i le, idaY
DISTILLERS' DRIED CORN SOLUBLES
AS A SOURCE OF UNIDENTIFIED JUL i
NUTRITIONAL FACTOR (s) FOR THE
GESTATING-LACTATING SOW!/ i
i .,. Un 1 -'iv -
H. D. Wallace and G. E. CombsV
During the 1940's and early 1950's numerous experiments demonstrated the
value of distillers' dried corn solubles (DDCS) as a protein and B-vitamin
source for swine. -Certain of these experiments also suggested :that DDCS con-
tributed important unknown nutritional factors. Recent interest in the use of
DDCS for swine feeding is centered largely on the unidentified factors that
this feed product appears to contain.
The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of a long term experi-
ment which was designed to determine if a low level of DDCS (5%) fed continu-
ously would improve the reproductive performance of swine.
Feeding and Management of sows
During gestation sows were maintained in pasture lots in groups of 8-10
animals and fed once per day in individual feeding stalls. The level of feeding
varied depending on sow condition, stage of gestation and available forage.
Some forage was available throughout most of the year. During the summer, fall
and early winter forage was usually abundant. In general 3-5 lb. of concentrate
was fed per head per day. During the last 4 weeks of gestation feed level was
usually increased 1-2 lb. pet head daily.
During lactation the sows were fed twice per day, being driven from
farrowing stalls in the barn to individual feeding stalls in an adjoining wing.
Maximum feeding level was approximately 10 lb. per animal per day, but this
varied some according to appetite and condition of sow and litter size.
Feed mixtures fed to the sows during gestation and lactation are presented
in Table 1.
Initially sows were divided into two comparable groups based on breed, age
and previous performance. One group acted as a control and the other was fed
the diet containing DDCS. As necessary, sows were culled according to accepted
management procedures. When replacement animals were added to the study careful
consideration was given to breed and litter.
All breeding was accomplished by handmating and care was taken to equalize
boar use between the control and treated sows.
I/ Supported in part by grants from Distillers' Feed Research Council,
2J Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Department. The
assistance of W. E. Collins, L. S. Taylor, B. R. Cannon and P.E. Loggins, Jr.,
Swine Herdsmen is gratefully acknowledged.
TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF FEED MIXTURES FED DURING GESTATION AND LACTATION
Control & Solubles
Control & Solubles
Ground yellow corn
Ground whole oats
Soybean oilmeal (50.%)
Dried distiller's corn solubles
Trace mineral supple -nt-'
. Vitamin A and D supplement-/
Vitamin B12 supplement/
j/ Calcium Carbonate Co. swine mix. Adds the following
iron (43.8), copper (3.0), cobalt (1.0), iinc (50.4)
2/ Contains 2,000 mg. riboflavin, 4,000 mg. pantothenic
choline chloride per pound of supplement.
U.Uu U.uu .2
0.20 : 0.20
1 00.00' 100.00
to the ration (ppm):: Manganese (35.5),
and potassium (4.7)*.
acid, 9,000 mg. niacin and 10,000 mg.
3/ Contains 14 gm. vitamin A supplement (10,000 I.VI./gm.), 4 gm.:vitamin D supplement
(9,000 I.U./gm.) and 890 gm. yellow corn.
4/ Contains a minimum of 9 mg. B12 per pound of supplement.
Heat lamps were used as needed to provide warmth for the baby pigs. Pens
were cleaned each morning. A special effort was made to provide a dry environ-
ment for the pigs at all times. Wood shavings served as bedding. Automatic
drinking cups provided fresh water for the sows and litters.
Results and discussion
A comparison of the performance of purebred Duroc sows and crossbred sows
(Duroc x Landrace) is shown in Table 2. It must be emphasized again that the
Duroc sows were mated either to Duroc boars or Landrace boars while the crossbred
sows were mated to Hampshire boars. Thus sire differences are involved and the
comparison is not strictly a dam effect proposition. ;The 68 Duroc litters
averaged 10.32 live pigs per litter at birth compared to 11.68 for the 402 cross-
bred litters. This difference of over one pig per litter was highly significant
when tested statistically. The average-birth weight per pig was approximately
the same (3.04 vs. 3.00). The total litter weight produced at birth would of
course favor the crossbred sows since they farrowed an average of 1.36 more live
pigs per litter. The Duroc sows farrowed more dead pigs and also passed more
partially resorbed fetuses than the crossbred sows. However, neither sow group
farrowed an unusual number of dead pigs and resorbed fetuses and differences
were not statistically significant Purebred Duroc sows weaned 8.57 pigs per
litter compared to 10.08 for the crossbred sows. This difference was highly
significant. Pigs from the crossbred sows also showed a higher level of survival.
However, pigs from purebred Duroc sows were heavier at two weeks of age. This
difference in part at least was probably a reflection of the difference in num-
ber of pigs weaned.
TABLE 2. COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE OF PUREBRED DUROC SOWS AND CROSSBRED
SOWS (DUROC X LANDRACE)
Breed of o e
Response Criteria Duroc .Duroc X Landrace Difference
No. Litters 68 402
No. Live Pigs/Litter 10.32 11.68 1.36***
Av. Birth Wt., lb. 3.04 3.00 0.04
No. Pigs Born Dead/Litter 0.60 0.43 0.17
No. Resorbed Fetuses/Litter 0.57 0.45 0.12
No. Pigs Weaned/Litter
(2 weeks of age) 8.57 10.08 1.51***
Percent Survival 83.04 86.30 ---
Av. Weaning Wt./Pig, lb. 7.73 7.38 0.35*
Sow Wt. Change, lb.
(Prefarrow to weaning) -76.3 -77.9 1.6
*** P < .005
P < .10
SA comparison of purebred Duroc litters and FI crossbred litters (Landrace
sire) is presented in Table 3. This comparison includes all of the litters in-
volved in the summary given in Table.3 plus additional litters not involved in
the nutritional evaluation of distiller's corn solubles. The crossbred litters
were superior in every category to the purebred litters. More live pigs were
farrowed per litter, pigs were heavier at birth, slightly fewer pigs were lost
as dead at birth and as resorbed fetuses, more than one pig per litter additional
pigs were weaned and they were heavier at weaning. The data clearly illustrate
a marked advantage for the crossbred litters.
TABLE 3. COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE OF PUREBRED DUROC SOWS AS INFLUENCED BY
SIRE (PUREBRED VS. CROSSBRED LITTERS)
Response Criteria Duroc Sire Landrace Sire Difference
No. Litters 64 ; 77
No. Live Pigs/Litter 9.58 10.29 0.71
Av. Birth Wt., lb. 2.89 2.96 0.07
No. Pigs Born Dead/Litter 0.58 0.51 0.07
No. Resorbed Fetuses/Litter 0.56 0.42 0.14
No. Pigs Weaned/Litter
(2 Weeks of Age) 7.80. 8.87 1.07**
Percent Survival 81.4. 86.2
Av. Weaning Wt./Pig, lb. 7.40,. 7.77 0.37
Sow Wt. Change, lb.
(Prefarrow to Weaning) -62.8 -71.4 8.6
** < P < .01 ...
It is always of interest to speculate on the optimum period of time to retain
productive sows in the herd. To help shed a little light on this question, data
have been summarized in Table 4 which illustrate the influence of age on sow
productivity. Data were compiled for five successive farrowings. Unfortunately
the numbers of sows involved decrease with each successive litter and only 49
have completed five farrowings. Admittedly it would have been desirable to have
compared the successive farrowings of these 49 sows. However, the data as pre-
sented are probably quite representative of the performance trends. Routine
culling was conducted at all litter levels.
It appeared that litter size (no. live pigs per litter) peaked at the
third and fourth litters and then seemingly started to decline. The data suggest
an increase in litter size from one through three litters. The greatest increase
in litter size was observed for the second litters when almost one pig more per
litter was farrowed. Birth weights tended to increase with age of sow. First
litter pigs averaged 2.90 lbs. at birth while fifth litter pigs averaged 3.12 Ibs.
There was a small increase with age in the number of pigs farrowed dead, but the
resorbing fetuses observed did not show this clear trend. The number of pigs
weaned per litter increased through the third litter and then decreased during
each of the fourth and fifth litters. Percent survival showed a gradual decrease
TABLE 4. SOW PERFORMANCE AS INFLUENCED BY THE NUMBER OF SUCCESSIVE LITTERS FARROWED
No. Live Pigs
Av. Birth Wt., lb.
No. Pigs Born Dead
No. Resorbed Fetuses
No. Pigs Weaned Per
Litter (2 wks)
Av. Weaning Wt., lb.
Sow Wt. Change, lb.
(Prefarrow to Weaning)
-76.9 -81.4 -83.8
from 90.88% for the first litters to 80.32% for thd fifth litters. Average
weaning weights of pigs revealed no clear trends as influenced by sow age.
Heaviest pigs at weaning were produced by first litter sows. Sow weight
losses from just prior to farrowing through a two week lactation period in-
creased through the first four litters, but did not change significantly
for the fifth litter.
Data have been summarized to show the influence of breed matings and sow
maturity on the productive performance of the University of Florida sow herd
during the past seven years.
Crossbred sows (Duroc x Landrace) mated to Hampshire boars have performed
markedly better than Duroc sows mated to Duroc or Landrace boars. The number of
live pigs farrowed per litter were 11.68 and 10.32. Of these 10.08 and 8.57 pigs
were weaned per litter respectively for the crossbred and Duroc sows.
Duroc sows produced more pigs which were heavier at weaning when mated to
Landrace boars than when mated to Duroc boars.
Sow productivity tended to improve with each litter through the first
three litters and then appeared to decline gradually through the' fourth.and
fifth litters. Percent survival showed a steady decline from litter I through
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