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 Feeding and management of sows
 Care and management of litters
 Results and discussion
 Summary














Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Sciences ; AN69-1
Title: Reproductive performance as influenced by breed matings and sow maturity
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073004/00001
 Material Information
Title: Reproductive performance as influenced by breed matings and sow maturity
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 6 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1968
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Breeding -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1968."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073004
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 78891005

Table of Contents
    Feeding and management of sows
        Page 1
    Care and management of litters
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Results and discussion
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Summary
        Page 6
Full Text



6- Department of Animal Science Florida agriculture
Mimeograph Series No. AN69-1 Exptrimet Station3"A- tA /
July, 1968 Gairesville, Florida

J ,UL 24 13"3
REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AS INFLUENCED BY BREEI
MATINGS AND SOW MATURITY 1 / of N

H.D. Wallace, G.E. Combs, E.W. Lucas and M. Koger .


Since 1960 the University sow herd has consisted of two breed groups. One
group of 10-15 sows has been purebred Durocs and a second group of 50-60 sows
has been made up of FI crossbreds (Duroc x Landrace). The Duroc sows have been
mated either of two ways; to Duroc boars to provide replacement animals to
perpetuate the purebred Duroc sow herd, or to Landrace boars to provide replace-
ment animals for the crossbred sow herd. The crossbred sows have been mated to
purebred Hampshire boars. During this seven year period it seemed apparent that
the sow breed groups were performing differently and also that purebred and
crossbred litters from the Duroc sows were showing differences. The data sum-
marized and presented in this report show the extent of these differences.


Feeding and management of sows

During gestation sows were maintained in pasture lots in groups of 8-10
animals and fed once per day in individual feeding stalls. The level of feeding
varied depending on sow condition, stage of gestation and available forage. In
general 3-5 lb. concentrate was fed per head per day. During the last 4 weeks of
gestation feed level was usually increased 1-2 lb. per head daily.

During lactation the sows were fed twice per day, being driven from farrowing
stalls in the barn to individual feeding stalls in an adjoining wing. Maximum
feeding level was approximately 10 lb. per animal per day, but this was varied
according to appetite and condition of sow and litter size.

Feed mixtures fed to the sows during gestation and lactation are presented
in Table 1. Approximately equal numbers of sows from each breed group were fed
on the control mixtures and the mixtures containing dried distiller's corn sol-
ubles. Thus the feeding program was essentially the same for the breeding
groups compared in this report, and it is assumed that feeding and management
were not responsible for differences observed.


Care and management of litters

On the day of birth pigs were weighed and ear notched for identification.
Navel cords were tied off if necessary and the navel treated with a tincture of
iodine. Needle teeth were carefully clipped.

Injectable iron was administered to all pigs between 3 and 5 days of age
and male pigs were castrated at one week of age.

1/ Grant-in-aid support from Distiller's Research Council, Cincinnati, Ohio,
Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana and American Cyanamid Co.,
Princeton, New Jersey is gratefully acknowledged.
2/ Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists; Lucas, Graduate Assistant and Koger,
Animal Geneticist, Animal Science Department.







6- Department of Animal Science Florida agriculture
Mimeograph Series No. AN69-1 Exptrimet Station3"A- tA /
July, 1968 Gairesville, Florida

J ,UL 24 13"3
REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AS INFLUENCED BY BREEI
MATINGS AND SOW MATURITY 1 / of N

H.D. Wallace, G.E. Combs, E.W. Lucas and M. Koger .


Since 1960 the University sow herd has consisted of two breed groups. One
group of 10-15 sows has been purebred Durocs and a second group of 50-60 sows
has been made up of FI crossbreds (Duroc x Landrace). The Duroc sows have been
mated either of two ways; to Duroc boars to provide replacement animals to
perpetuate the purebred Duroc sow herd, or to Landrace boars to provide replace-
ment animals for the crossbred sow herd. The crossbred sows have been mated to
purebred Hampshire boars. During this seven year period it seemed apparent that
the sow breed groups were performing differently and also that purebred and
crossbred litters from the Duroc sows were showing differences. The data sum-
marized and presented in this report show the extent of these differences.


Feeding and management of sows

During gestation sows were maintained in pasture lots in groups of 8-10
animals and fed once per day in individual feeding stalls. The level of feeding
varied depending on sow condition, stage of gestation and available forage. In
general 3-5 lb. concentrate was fed per head per day. During the last 4 weeks of
gestation feed level was usually increased 1-2 lb. per head daily.

During lactation the sows were fed twice per day, being driven from farrowing
stalls in the barn to individual feeding stalls in an adjoining wing. Maximum
feeding level was approximately 10 lb. per animal per day, but this was varied
according to appetite and condition of sow and litter size.

Feed mixtures fed to the sows during gestation and lactation are presented
in Table 1. Approximately equal numbers of sows from each breed group were fed
on the control mixtures and the mixtures containing dried distiller's corn sol-
ubles. Thus the feeding program was essentially the same for the breeding
groups compared in this report, and it is assumed that feeding and management
were not responsible for differences observed.


Care and management of litters

On the day of birth pigs were weighed and ear notched for identification.
Navel cords were tied off if necessary and the navel treated with a tincture of
iodine. Needle teeth were carefully clipped.

Injectable iron was administered to all pigs between 3 and 5 days of age
and male pigs were castrated at one week of age.

1/ Grant-in-aid support from Distiller's Research Council, Cincinnati, Ohio,
Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana and American Cyanamid Co.,
Princeton, New Jersey is gratefully acknowledged.
2/ Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists; Lucas, Graduate Assistant and Koger,
Animal Geneticist, Animal Science Department.












TABLE 1. COMPOSITION OF FEED MIXTURES FED DURING GESTATION AND LACTATION


Ingredients


Control


Gestation
Control & Solubles


Control


Lactation
Control & Solubles


Ground yellow corn
S Ground whole oats
S Soybean oilmeal (50%)
S Dried distiller's corn solubles
Ground limestone
S Steamed bonemeal
Iodized salt
Trace mineral supplement 1/
B-vitamin supplement -2
Vitamin A and D supplement i/
Vitamin B12 supplement /


61.19
20.00
14.30

0.75
1.00
0.50
0.06
0.10
2.00
0.10
100.00


58.19
20.00
12.30
5.00
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.06
0.10
2.00
0.10
100.00


65.09:
10.00
20.30

0.75
1.00
0.50'
0.06
0.20
2.00
0.10
100.00


62.09
10.00
18.30
5.00
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.06
0.20
2.00
0.10
100.00


j/ Calcium Carbonate Co. swine mix. Added the following to the ration (P.P.M.): Manganese (35.5),
iron (43.8), copper (3.0), cobalt-(l.0), zinc (50.4) and potassium (4.7).

f/ Contained 2,000 mg. riboflavin, 4,000 mg. pantothenic acid, 9,000 mg. niacin and 10,000 mg.
choline chloride per pound of supplement.

3/ Contained 14 gm. vitamin A supplement (10,000 I.U./gm.), 4 gm. vitamin 0 supplement
(9,000 I.U./gm.) and 890 gm. yellow corn.

4/ Contained a minimum of 9 mg. B12 per pound of supplement.


_ __


_ ~


_ --=-----














Heat lamps were used as needed to provide warmth for the baby pigs. ;,Pens
were cleaned each morning. A special effort was made to provide a dry environ-
ment for the pigs at all times. Wood shavings served as bedding. Automatic
drinking cups provided fresh water for the sows and litters.

Results and discussion

; A comparison of the performance of purebred Duroc sows and crossbred sows
(Duroc x Landrace) is shown in Table 2. It must be emphasized again that the
Duroc sows were mated either to Duroc boars or,Landrace boars while the crossbred
sows were mated to Hampshire boars. Thus sire differences are involved and the
comparison is not strictly a dam effect proposition. The 68 Duroc litters
averaged 10.32 live pigs per litter at birth compared to 11.68 for the 402 cross-
bred litters. This difference of over one pig per litter was highly significant
when.tested statistically. The average birth weight per pig was approximately
the same (3.04 vs. 3.00). The total litter weight produced at birth would of
course favor the crossbred sows since they farrowed an average-of l.36,more live
pigs per litter. The Duroc sows farrowed more dead pigs and also passed more
partially resorbed fetuses than the crossbred sows. However, neither sow group
farrowed an unusual number of dead pigs and resorbed fetuses and differences
were not statistically significant. Purebred Duroc sows weaned 8.57 pigs per
litter compared to 10.08 for the crossbred sows. This difference was highly
significant. Pigs from the crossbred sows also showed a higher level of survival.
However, pigs from purebred Duroc sows were heavier at two weeks of age. This
difference in part at least was probably a reflection of the difference in num-
ber of pigs weaned.

..TABLE 2. COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE OF PUREBRED DUROC SOWS AND CROSSBRED
SOWS (DUROC X LANDRACE)


Breed of So1(
Mean
Response Criteria Duroc Duroc X Landrace Difference


No. Litters 68 402
No. Live Pigs/Litter 10.32 11.68 1.36***
Av. Birth Wt., lb. 3.04 3.00 0.04
No. Pigs Born Dead/Litter 0.60 0.43 0.17
No. Resorbed Fetuses/Litter 0.57 0.45 0.12
No. Pigs Weaned/Litter
(2 weeks of age) 8.57 10.08 1.51***
Percent Survival 83.04 86.30 ----
Av. Weaning Wt./Pig, lb. 7.73 7.38 0.35*
Sow Wt. Change, lb.
(Prefarrow to weaning) -76.3 -77.9 1.6

*** P < .005
P < .10















A comparison o f.iprebred Duroc litters and F, crossbred litters (Landrace
sire) is presented i'h Table 3. This comparison includes all of the litters in-
volved in the summary given in Table 3 plus additional litters not involved in
the nutritional evaluation of distiller's corn solubles. The crossbred litters
were superior in every category to the purebred litters. More live pigs were
farrowed per litter, pigs were heavier at birth, slightly fewer pigs were lost
as dead at birth and as resorbed fetuses, more than one pig per litter additional
pigs were weaned and they were heavier at weaning. The data clearly illustrate
a marked advantage for the crossbred litters.

"TABLE 3. COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE OF PUREBRED DUROC SOWS AS INFLUENCED BY
:SIRE (PUREBRED VS. CROSSBRED LITTERS)
Mean
Response Criteria ; Duroc Sire Landrace Sire Difference

No. Litters 64 77 "
No. Live Pigs/Litter 9.58 10.29 0.71
Av. Birth Wt., lb. 2.89 2.96 0.07
No. Pigs Born Dead/Litter 0.58 0.51 0.07
No. Resorbed Fetuses/Litter 0.56 0.42 0.14
No. Pigs Weaned/Litter
(2 Weeks of Age) 7.80 8.87 1.07**
Percent Survival 81.4 86'.2'
Av. Weaning Wt./Pig, lb. 7.40 7.77 0.37
Sow Wt. Change, lb.
(Prefarrow to Weaning) -62.8 -71.4 8.6
9 4I' .o 4- 'i-
**< P < .01 *,.*

It is always of interest to speculate on the optimum period of time to retain
productive sows in the herd. To help shed a little light on this question, data
have been summarized in Table 4 which illustrate the influence of age on sow
productivity. Data were compiled for five''successive farrowings. Unfortunately
the numbers of sows involved decrease with each successive litter and only 49
have completed five farrowings. Admittedly it would have been desirable to have
compared the successive farrowings of these-49 sows. However, the data as pre-
sented are probably quite representative of the performance trends. Routine
culling was conducted at all litter levels.

It appeared that litter size (no. live pigs per litter) peaked at the
third and fourth litters and then seemingly started to decline. The data suggest
ah increase in litter size from one through three litters. The greatest increase
in litter size was observed for the second litters when almost one pig more per
litter was farrowed. Birth weights tended to increase with age of sow. First
litter pigs averaged 2.90 lbs. at birth while fifth litter pigs averaged 3.12 lbs.
There was a small increase with age in the number of pigs farrowed dead, but the
resorbing fetuses observed did not show this clear trend. The number of pigs
weaned per litter increased through the third litter and then decreased during
each of the fourth and fifth litters. Percent survival showed a gradual decrease












TABLE 4. SOW PERFORMANCE AS INFLUENCED BY THE NUMBER OF SUCCESSIVE LITTERS FARROWED


Response
Criteria

No. Litters

No. Live Pigs

Av. Birth Wt., lb.

No. Pigs Born Dead

No. Resorbed Fetuses

No. Pigs Weaned Per
Litter (2 wks)

Percent Survival

Av. Weaning Wt., lb.

Sow Wt. Change, lb.
(Prefarrow to Weaning)


Litter
1

120

10.53

2.90

0.40

0.49


9.57

90.88

7.54


Litter
2

115

11.43

3.03

0.43

0.43


9.86

86.26

7.40


Litter
3

104

12.08

3.00

0.44

0.53


10.32

85.43

7.43


Litter
4

82

11.99

3.07

0.54

0.45


9.91

82.65

7.28


Litter
5

49

11.84

3.12

0.55

0.28


9.51

80.32

7.45


Level of
Significance



0.005

0.10

N.S.

N.S.


0.10



N.S.


-76.9 -81.4 -83.8


-83.1 0.005


-68.7











-6-


from 90.88% for the first litters to 80.32% for the fifth litters. Average
weaning weights of pigs revealed no clear trends as influenced by sow age.
Heaviest pigs at weaning were produced by first litter sows. Sow weight
losses from just prior to farrowing through a two week lactation period in-
creased through the first four litters, but did not change significantly
for the fifth litter.


SUMMARY

Data have been summarized to show the influence of breed matings and sow
maturity on the productive performance of the University of Florida sow herd
during the past seven years.

Crossbred sows (Duroc x Landrace) mated to Hampshire boars have performed
markedly better than Duroc sows mated to Duroc or Landrace boars. The number of
live pigs farrowed per litter were 11.68 and 10.32. Of these 10.08 and 8.57 pigs
were weaned per litter respectively for the crossbred and Duroc sows.

Duroc sows produced more pigs which were heavier at weaning when mated to
Landrace boars than when mated to Duroc boars.

Sow productivity tended to improve with each litter through the first
three litters and then appeared to decline gradually through the fourth and
fifth litters. Percent survival showed a steady decline from litter 1 through
litter 5.




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